• Book review: Queer bodies: sexualities, genders and fatness in physical education

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2012-10-31)
      Book review of Sykes, H., (2011) Queer bodies: sexualities, genders and fatness in physical education, New York: Peter Lang 9781433111617.
    • Book review: The lady footballers: struggling to play in Victorian Britain

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2012-09-11)
      Book review: Lee, JF (2008) 'The lady footballers: struggling to play in Victorian Britain' Abingdon: Routledge 978015603133
    • Changing the stability conditions in a back squat: the effect on maximum load lifted and erector spinae muscle activity

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Bagley, Ashley; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2014-12-01)
      The aim of this study was to identify how changes in the stability conditions of a back squat affect maximal loads lifted and erector spinae muscle activity.  Fourteen male participants performed a Smith Machine squat (SM), the most stable condition, a Barbell back squat (BB) and Tendo-Destabilising Bar squat (TBB), the least stable condition.  A one repetition max (1-RM) was established in each squat condition, before electromyography (EMG) activity of the erector spinae was measured at 85% of 1-RM. Results indicated that the SM squat 1-RM load was significantly (p = 0.006) greater (10.9%) than BB squat, but no greater than TBB squat.  EMG results indicated significantly greater (p < 0.05) muscle activation in the TBB condition compared to other conditions.  The BB squat produced significantly greater (p = 0.036) EMG activity compared to the SM squat.  A greater stability challenge applied to the torso seems to increase muscle activation.  The maximum loads lifted in the most stable and unstable squats were similar.  However, the lift with greater stability challenge required greatest muscle activation.   The implications of this study may be important for training programmes; coaches wishing to challenge trunk stability, while their athletes lift maximal loads designed to increase strength.
    • Cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation levels at multiple genomic loci but the effect is partially reversible upon cessation

      Tsaprouni, Loukia G.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Bell, Jordana; Dick, Katherine J.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nisbet, James; Viñuela, Ana; Grundberg, Elin; Nelson, Christopher P.; Meduri, Eshwar; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-31)
      Smoking is a major risk factor in many diseases. Genome wide association studies have linked genes for nicotine dependence and smoking behavior to increased risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and malignant diseases. We conducted an epigenome wide association study in peripheral-blood DNA in 464 individuals (22 current smokers and 263 ex-smokers), using the Human Methylation 450 K array. Upon replication in an independent sample of 356 twins (41 current and 104 ex-smokers), we identified 30 probes in 15 distinct loci, all of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis P < 5 × 10(-8). All but one probe (cg17024919) remained significant after adjusting for blood cell counts. We replicated all 9 known loci and found an independent signal at CPOX near GPR15. In addition, we found 6 new loci at PRSS23, AVPR1B, PSEN2, LINC00299, RPS6KA2, and KIAA0087. Most of the lead probes (13 out of 15) associated with cigarette smoking, overlapped regions of open chromatin (FAIRE and DNaseI hypersensitive sites) or/and H3K27Ac peaks (ENCODE data set), which mark regulatory elements. The effect of smoking on DNA methylation was partially reversible upon smoking cessation for longer than 3 months. We report the first statistically significant interaction between a SNP (rs2697768) and cigarette smoking on DNA methylation (cg03329539). We provide evidence that the metSNP for cg03329539 regulates expression of the CHRND gene located circa 95 Kb downstream of the methylation site. Our findings suggest the existence of dynamic, reversible site-specific methylation changes in response to cigarette smoking , which may contribute to the extended health risks associated with cigarette smoking.
    • A comparison of methods to determine bilateral asymmetries in vertical leg stiffness

      Maloney, Sean J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2015-07-31)
      Whilst the measurement and quantification of vertical leg stiffness (Kvert) asymmetry is of important practical relevance to athletic performance, literature investigating bilateral asymmetry in Kvert is limited. Moreover, how the type of task used to assess Kvert may affect the expression of asymmetry has not been properly determined. Twelve healthy males performed three types of performance task on a dual force plate system to determine Kvert asymmetries; the tasks were: a) bilateral hopping, b) bilateral drop jumping, and c) unilateral drop jumping. Across all three methods, Kvert was significantly different between compliant and stiff limbs (P < 0.001) with a significant interaction effect between limb and method (P = 0.005). Differences in Kvert between compliant and stiff limbs were -5.3% (P < 0.001), -21.8% (P = 0.007) and -15.1% (P < 0.001) for the bilateral hopping, bilateral drop jumping and unilateral drop jumping methods respectively. All three methods were able to detect significant differences between compliant and stiff limbs, and could be used as a diagnostic tool to assess Kvert asymmetry. Drop jumping tasks detected larger Kvert asymmetries than hopping, suggesting that asymmetries may be expressed to a greater extent in acyclic, maximal performance tasks.
    • Contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving opioid replacement therapy: qualitative study

      Werthern, Helena; Alhusein, Nour; Chater, Angel M.; Scott, Jenny; Family, Hannah; Neale, Joanne; King’s College London; University of New South Wales; University of Bristol; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-26)
      ABSTRACT Background: Women receiving treatment for opioid use disorder have low levels of contraception use and high rates of unintended pregnancies, abortion and children being adopted or fostered. This paper aims to understand the relationship between contraceptive choice and power amongst women receiving Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT). Methods: During 2016/17, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 40 women (aged 22–49 years) receiving ORT in the South of England. Data relating to the latent concept of power were inductively coded and analysed via Iterative Categorisation. Findings: The power manifested itself through six interconnected ‘fields’: i. ‘information about fertility and contraception’; ii. ‘access to contraception’; iii. ‘relationships with professionals and services’; iv. ‘relationships with male partners’; v. ‘relationships with sex work clients’; and vi. ‘life priorities and preferences’. Each field comprised examples of women’s powerlessness and empowerment. Even whenwomen appeared to have limited power or control, they sometimes managed to assert themselves. Conclusions: Power in relation to contraceptive choice is multi-faceted and multi-directional, operating at both individual and structural levels. Informed decision-making depends on the provision of clear, non-judgemental information and advice alongside easy access to contraceptive options. Additional strategies to empower women to make contraceptive choices and prevent unplanned pregnancies are recommended.
    • Determinants of weekly sitting time: construct validation of an initial COM-B model and comparison of its predictive validity with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

      Howlett, Neil; Schulz, Joerg; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-14)
      Objective: In relation to sitting behaviour, to investigate which theoretical domains best formed the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation constructs of the COM-B, and compare the predictive validity to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), taking habit strength into consideration. Design: Using a prospective design, 186 adults completed measures capturing domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework for the three COM-B constructs, and habit strength, which were examined using a formative measurement model. Predictive validity was then compared to the TPB. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported sitting behaviour. Results: Self-monitoring (behavioural regulation domain) formed Capability; subjective norm (social influences domain) formed Opportunity; intention (intentions domain), positive affect (emotion domain), and perceived behavioural control (beliefs about capabilities domain), formed Motivation. The COM-B strongly predicted sitting behaviour (27% variance explained), with Capability, Opportunity, and habit strength as key drivers. The TPB explained a large amount of variance (23%) in sitting behaviour, with intention and habit strength as key drivers. Conclusions: The behavioural regulation domain of Capability, the social influences domain of Opportunity, and habit strength were important drivers of sitting behaviour, with comparable variance predicted in the COM-B and TPB. Future research should consider this approach to conceptualise the COM-B for specific populations and behaviours.
    • Girls’ active identities: navigating othering discourses of femininity, bodies and physical education

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09-01)
      Within physical education and sport, girls must navigate discourses of valued athletic and gendered bodies that marginalise or ‘other’ non-normative performances through systems of surveillance and punishment. The purpose of this paper is to share girls’ perspectives on how these discourses affected their gender performances and activity engagement. Students aged 13-14 in one ethnically diverse UK secondary school were invited to create a photo diary of the physical activities they engaged in. Photo elicitation interviews in small groups followed. The girls positioned themselves as physically active but had to carefully manage their activity choices and gender performances in a single-sex physical education environment that regulated deviation from the fit, slender, girly girl. Although the girls demonstrate the difficulty of resisting, they indicate moments of positioning themselves against norms that suggest the possibilities of shifting gendering processes. The paper points out the importance of listening to ‘other’ girls’ narratives in building positive physical education engagements.
    • How PETE comes to matter in the performance of social justice education

      Ovens, Alan; Flory, Sara B.; Sutherland, Sue; Philpot, Rod; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L.; Hill, Joanne; Phillips, Sharon; Flemons, Michelle; University of Auckland; University of South Florida; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-06)
      Background: For over four decades there have been calls for physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) to address social inequality and foster social justice. Yet, as numerous studies demonstrate, attempts to educate for social justice in PETE are infrequent and rarely comprehensive. This raises the question why it appears to be possible in some situations but not others, and for some students and not others.    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiple socio-political networks or assemblages in which PETE is embedded and explore how these shape the possibilities for students to engage with the concept of social justice and sociocultural issues when learning to teach PE. Two research questions guided this study: How does an orientation for social justice education within education policy affect the standards for enacting PETE programs? How is social justice education encouraged within PETE programs? Methodology: Methodology: Drawing from a broader study of over 70 key personnel in more than 40 PETE programs, we examined how faculty in PETE understand their professional world, identify their subjective meanings of their experiences, and address sociocultural issues (SCI) and social justice education (SJE) within PETE. Data sources included an initial survey, a semi-structured interview, and program artifacts. We analyze the ways that SJE/SCI was represented in three national settings (England, the United States, and New Zealand) and identified common themes. Results:  Examination of each national setting reveals ways that SJE and SCI were enabled and constrained across the national, programmatic, and individual level in each of the countries. The coherence of explicit National policy and curricula, PETE program philosophies, and the presence of multiple individual interests in social justice served to reify a sociocultural agenda. Conversely possibilities were nullified by narrow or general National Standards, programs that failed to acknowledge sociocultural interests, and the absence of a critical mass of actors with a socio-critical orientation. These differences in assemblage culminated in variations in curriculum time that served to restrict or enable the breadth, frequency, and consistency of the messages surrounding SCI in PETE Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of acknowledging socio-political networks where PETE operates. The agency of PETEs to enact pedagogies that foreground sociocultural interests is contingent on congruity of the networks. The authors caution that although the ‘perfect storm’ of conditions have a profound influence of the possibility of transformational learning of SCI in PETE, this arrangement is always temporary, fluid, and subject to changes in any of the three network levels. Additionally, the success of PETE in enabling graduating PE teachers to recognize the inequities that may be reinforced through the ‘hidden curriculum’ and to problematize the subject area is contingent on the expectations of the schools in which they teach.     
    • ‘If you miss the ball, you look like a total muppet!’ Boys investing in their bodies in physical education and sport

      Hill, Joanne (Taylor & Francis, 2013-08-15)
      Connections have been drawn between masculinity, muscularity and physical or social status in sport. Not only are sporting bodies often related to masculinity but also to whiteness, leading to the devaluing of Asian boys’ bodies and sporting experiences. This paper draws on three British Asian teenage boys’ visual and verbal narratives to enquire how they negotiate these connections in their physical education and recreational sport experiences. Bourdieu’s notion of capital is used to make sense of boys’ ways of investing in their bodies to manage their status in school. Drawing from focus-group interviews which used participant-driven photography and photo elicitation techni- ques, the research indicates how three boys invested in their bodies by doing particular types of physical activity that would enable them to develop muscularity, fitness and/or motor competence, to attain or retain physical and social capital in school. Along the way, they add pertinent comments on the intersections of masculinity and ethnicity in constructing and performing a sporting body. Keywords:
    • ‘It has really amazed me what my body can now do’: boundary work and the construction of a body-positive dance community

      Hill, Joanne; Sandford, Rachel; Enright, Eimear (Taylor & Francis, 2015-08-18)
      Boundaries around normative embodiments in physical cultures can be exclusionary if one’s embodied identity does not ‘fit’. Normative boundaries are particularly marked in codified forms of dance such as ballet. Moves towards body positivity aim to challenge these normative boundaries by redefining what dancers’ bodies can look like and how they should move. This paper stems from an appreciative inquiry undertaken with one such project, a gender-neutral, LGBTQ-friendly adult ballet school in the UK; a subcultural context that marks itself as distinct from broader cultures of dance. Interviews with learners are analysed through a Bourdieuian lens to explore the construction and maintenance of a body-positive subculture. Findings suggest that boundaries of ability were crossed, with celebration of all bodies’ capabilities, and boundaries of normative gender expression were transformed through a commitment to gender-neutrality and LGBTQ-friendly behaviours. However, boundaries around technical and aesthetic norms, while shifted or challenged, ultimately remained in place.
    • Lifestyle sports delivery and sustainability: clubs, communities and user-managers

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Taylor & Francis, 2017-02-22)
      Lifestyle and informal sports have been recognised by policy makers as offering opportunities to increase participation in physical activity, particularly amongst hard to reach groups. Lifestyle sports are, however, double edged in their potential to achieve these goals. Their playful and non-traditional features may attract new participants less interested in traditional sports but the very liquidity of these activities may mean that the engagement of participants is fragmented and not sustained beyond a particular period in their lives. This article presents the perspective of mountain biking user-managers; those involved in the delivery, clubs and communities of mountain bikers across the United Kingdom. Findings suggest that whilst lifestyle sport communities are dependent on the work of formalised clubs to gain access to the funding and resources they need to sustain their activities, core participants will not always want to have to liaise or become involved formally within a club structure. In addition, clubs will not succeed in delivering sustained activities in line with sport policy to increase and maintain participation by relying on individual grants and without the support of an active informal user community. Accounts highlight the importance of engaging informal user communities with a sense of ownership such as locals to ensure new participants are integrated and the community is able to replenish.
    • Looking beyond what's broken: towards an appreciative research agenda for physical education and sport pedagogy

      Enright, Eimear; Hill, Joanne; Sandford, Rachel; Gard, Michael (Taylor & Francis, 2014-04-22)
      Despite the volume of research devoted to the many ills that beset the pedagogical field of physical education and sport, we begin by arguing that there has been insufficient attention given to the way scholars conceptualise change and imagine bringing it about. In particular, we point to a tendency within the field to prioritise problems—what’s broken—and suggest that this tendency harbours a self-fulfilling logic. Although somewhat oversold by some of its advocates, we then draw on Appreciative Inquiry (AI) as a potential intellectual resource for new agenda setting in physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) research. AI invites researchers to prioritise the positive in the research contexts they study with a view to discovering and generating stories about success that research participants and scholars alike might build on.We argue that an appreciative agenda calls for more flexible and open communication about the start and imagined end points of our research, and a greater emphasis on collaboration that takes seriously the capacity of research participants to be the authors of change and the source of new directions in PESP inquiry.
    • Lower limb stiffness testing in athletic performance: a critical review

      Maloney, Sean J.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-16)
      Stiffness describes the resistance of a body to deformation. In regards to athletic performance, a stiffer leg-spring would be expected to augment performance by increasing utilisation of elastic energy. Two-dimensional spring-mass and torsional spring models can be applied to model whole-body (vertical and/or leg stiffness) and joint stiffness. Various tasks have been used to characterise stiffness, including hopping, gait, jumping, sledge ergometry and change of direction tasks. Appropriate levels of reliability have been reported in most tasks, although vary between investigations. Vertical stiffness has demonstrated the strongest reliability across tasks and may be more sensitive to changes in high-velocity running performance than leg stiffness. Joint stiffness demonstrates the weakest reliability, with ankle stiffness more reliable than knee stiffness. Determination of stiffness has typically necessitated force plate analyses, however, validated field-based equations permit determination of whole-body stiffness without force plates. Vertical, leg and joint stiffness measures have all demonstrated relationships with performance measures. Greater stiffness is typically demonstrated with increasing intensity (i.e. running velocity or hopping frequency). Greater stiffness is observed in athletes regularly subjecting the limb to high ground reaction forces (i.e. sprinters). Careful consideration should be given to the most appropriate assessment of stiffness on a team/individual basis.
    • Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat : cooling during simulated soccer

      Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Stringer, Charlotte Anne; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee; University of Bedfordshire; Qatar University; Newman University; University of Hull; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-24)
      This investigation examined the effects of three pre-match and half-time cooling manoeuvres on physical performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses in eight University soccer players during a non-motorised treadmill based individualised soccer-specific simulation [intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT)] at 30oC. Four randomised experimental trials were completed; following 30-min (pre-match) and 15-min (half-time) cooling manoeuvres via: (1) ice slurry ingestion (SLURRY); (2) ice-packs placed on the quadriceps and hamstrings (PACKS); (3) mixed-methods (MM; PACKS and SLURRY concurrently); or no-cooling (CON). In iSPT first half, a moderate increase in total (Mean ± Standard Deviation: 108 ± 57m, qualitative inference: most likely, Cohen’s d: 0.87, 90%CL: ±0.31), high-speed (56 ± 46m, very likely, 0.68 ±0.38) and variable run (15 ± 5m, very likely, 0.81 ±0.47) distance covered was reported in MM compared with CON. Additionally, pre-match reductions in thermal sensation (-1.0 ± 0.5, most likely, -0.91 ±0.36), rectal (-0.6 ± 0.1oC, very likely, -0.86 ±0.35) and skin temperature (-1.1 ± 0.3oC, very likely, -0.88 ±0.42) continued throughout iSPT first half. Physical performance during iSPT first half was unaltered in SLURRY and PACKS compared to CON. Rectal temperature was moderately increased in SLURRY at 45-min (0.2 ± 0.1oC, very likely, 0.67 ±0.36). Condition did not influence any measure in iSPT second half compared to CON. Only MM pre-match cooling augmented physical performance during iSPT first half, likely due to peripheral and central thermoregulatory factors favourably influencing first half iSPT performance. Further practical half-time cooling manoeuvres which enhance second half performance are still required.
    • Reducing prolonged sedentary time using a treadmill desk acutely improves cardiometabolic risk markers in male and female adults

      Champion, Rachael B.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Smith, Jennifer; Hirlav, Bogdana; Maylor, Benjamin D.; White, Stephanie L.; Bailey, Daniel Paul (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-18)
      The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acute effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with an accumulated 2 h of light-intensity walking on postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers. In this randomised crossover trial, 24 participants (twelve males) aged 18-55 years took part in two, 6.5 h conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT) and 2) sitting interrupted hourly with 20 min light-intensity treadmill desk walking at between 1.2-3.5 km/h-1 (INT-SIT). Standardized meals were provided at 0 h and 3 h. Blood samples and blood pressure measures were taken hourly. Statistical analyses were completed using linear mixed models. Postprandial incremental area under the curve responses (mmol/L∙6.5 h) for glucose (4.52 [3.47, 5.56] and 6.66 [5.62, 7.71] for INT-SIT and SIT, respectively) and triglycerides (1.96 [0.96, 2.96] and 2.71 [1.70, 3.71] mmol/L∙6.5 h, for INT-SIT and SIT, respectively) were significantly lower in INT-SIT than SIT. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses were lower by 3% and 4%, respectively, in INT-SIT than SIT (P<0.05). There was no significant condition x sex interaction effect for any outcomes (P>0.05). These findings suggest that interrupting sitting with an accumulated 2 h of light-intensity walking acutely improves cardiometabolic risk levels in males and females compared with prolonged sitting.
    • Relationships between Challenge Tour golfers’ clubhead velocity and force producing capabilities during a countermovement jump and isometric mid-thigh pull

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Coughlan, Daniel; Brearley, Simon L.; Hawkes, Roger A.; Murray, Andrew D.; Hillman, Robert G.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-12-21)
      A number of field-based investigations have evidenced significant relationships between clubhead velocity (CHV), vertical jump performance and maximum strength. Unfortunately, whilst these investigations provide a great deal of external validity, they are unable to ascertain vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may relate to golfers’ CHV. The aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between Challenge Tour golfers’ CHV and countermovement jump (CMJ) positive impulse, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) from 0-50 ms, 0-100 ms, 0-150 ms and 0-200 ms. Thirty-One elite level (Challenge Tour) golfers performed a CMJ and IMTP on dual force platforms at a tournament venue, with CHV measured on a driving range. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed a significant relationship between CHV and both CMJ positive impulse (r = 0.616, p < 0.0001) and IMTP PF (r = 0.319, p < 0.05), with each of the RFD time integrals being non-significant. The results of this investigation indicate that it is the magnitude and not the rate in which force is developed that has the greatest relationship with Challenge Tour golfers’ CHV.
    • Relationships between highly skilled golfers' clubhead velocity and force producing capabilities during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-04)
      Whilst previous research has highlighted significant relationships between golfers' clubhead velocity (CHV) and their vertical jump height and maximum strength, these field-based protocols were unable to measure the actual vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) variables that may correlate to performance. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ) and drop jump (DJ) vGRF variables and CHV in highly skilled golfers. Twenty-seven male category 1 golfers performed IMTP, CMJ, SJ and DJ on a dual force platform. The vertical jumps were used to measure positive impulse during different stretch-shortening cycle velocities, with the IMTP assessing peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD). Clubhead velocity was measured using a TrackMan launch monitor at a golf driving range. Pearsons correlation coefficient analyses revealed significant relationships between peak CHV and CMJ positive impulse (r = 0.788, p < 0.001), SJ positive impulse (r = 0.692; p < 0.001), DJ positive impulse (r = 0.561, p < 0.01), PF (r = 0.482, p < 0.01), RFD from 0-150 ms (r = 0.343, p < 0.05) and RFD from 0-200 ms (r = 0.398, p < 0.05). The findings from this investigation indicate strong relationships between vertical ground reaction force variables and clubhead velocity.
    • Reliability of salivary cortisol and testosterone to a high-intensity cycling protocol to highlight overtraining

      Hough, John; Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Scott, Gemma; Taylor, Lee; Townsend, Dominic; Gleeson, Michael; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire; University Institute of Maia; Loughborough University; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-04-27)
      Athletes physically overload to improve performance. Unbalanced stress/recovery may induce overtraining, which is difficult to diagnosis as no diagnostic marker exists. Hormonal responses to a 55/80 cycle (30-min of alternating blocks of 1-min at 55% and 4-min at 80% maximum work rate) may highlight early-stage overtraining (overreaching), as blunted cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80 follows intensified training. However, the reliability of hormonal responses to 55/80 when not overreached is unknown. Therefore, reported blunted hormonal responses could be due to inconsistent cortisol and testosterone responses to 55/80. Participants (n = 23) completed three 55/80 bouts, >7 days apart, with no exercise 24 h pre-trials. Pre-exercise urine osmolality and stress questionnaire responses were measured. Pre, post, and 30-min post-exercise saliva samples were collected for cortisol and testosterone assessment. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses, osmolality and well-being were not different between trials. Salivary cortisol and testosterone elevated from pre- to post-exercise [by 4.2 nmol.L-1 (cortisol) and 307 pmol.L-1 (testosterone)], and 30 min post-exercise [by 160 pmol.L-1 (testosterone) only]. Intraclass correlation coefficients for pre to peak post-exercise cortisol (0.89; good) and testosterone (0.53; moderate) were calculated. This demonstrates that 55/80 induces reliable elevations of salivary cortisol and testosterone when in a healthy state.