• Impact of intensified training and carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and markers of overreaching in highly trained cyclists

      Svendsen, Ida S.; Killer, Sophie C.; Carter, James M.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Gleeson, Michael; ; Loughborough University; PepsiCo Global Nutrition R&D (Springer Verlag, 2016-02-23)
      Purpose: To determine effects of intensified training (IT) and carbohydrate supplementation on overreaching and immunity. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 male cyclists (age 25 ± 6 years, (Formula presented.) 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) completed two 8-day periods of IT. On one occasion, participants ingested 2 % carbohydrate (L-CHO) beverages before, during and after training sessions. On the second occasion, 6 % carbohydrate (H-CHO) solutions were ingested before, during and after training, with the addition of 20 g of protein in the post-exercise beverage. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after incremental exercise to fatigue on days 1 and 9. Results: In both trials, IT resulted in decreased peak power (375 ± 37 vs. 391 ± 37 W, P < 0.001), maximal heart rate (179 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 10 bpm, P < 0.001) and haematocrit (39 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 2 %, P < 0.001), and increased plasma volume (P < 0.001). Resting plasma cortisol increased while plasma ACTH decreased following IT (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Following IT, antigen-stimulated whole blood culture production of IL-1α was higher in L-CHO than H-CHO (0.70 (95 % CI 0.52–0.95) pg/ml versus 0.33 (0.24–0.45) pg/ml, P < 0.01), as was production of IL-1β (9.3 (95 % CI 7–10.4) pg/ml versus 6.0 (5.0–7.8) pg/ml, P < 0.05). Circulating total leukocytes (P < 0.05) and neutrophils (P < 0.01) at rest increased following IT, as did neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage CD4+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Conclusion: IT resulted in symptoms consistent with overreaching, although immunological changes were modest. Higher carbohydrate intake was not able to alleviate physiological/immunological disturbances.
    • Left ventricular twist mechanics during incremental cycling and knee extension exercise in healthy men

      Beaumont, Alexander; Hough, John; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna C. (Springer Verlag, 2016-12-05)
      Purpose: The objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (W) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results: Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% W (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% W (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s to −138.42 (73.29)° s, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Cycling increased LV twist to 30% W which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.