• A prospective study exploring the construct and predictive validity of the COM-B model for physical activity

      Howlett, Neil; Schulz, Joerg; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M. (SAGE, 2017-11-27)
      This study examined the constructs of capability, opportunity and motivation from the COM-B model and their influence on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Using a prospective survey design, 186 healthy adults completed measures representing the theoretical domains framework mapped to the COM-B, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity 1 week later. The main indicators for the COM constructs were ‘habits’ (Capability), ‘subjective norms’ (Opportunity) and ‘exercise self-identity’ (Motivation). Motivation (77%) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (50%) were strongly predicted, with Capability and Motivation as key drivers of behaviour. Motivation was a strong mediator for Capability on behaviour. Future research should consider this approach for other populations and behaviours.
    • Scaffolding student–coaches’ instructional leadership toward student-centred peer interactions: a yearlong action-research intervention in sport education

      Farias, Cláudio; Hastie, Peter A.; Mesquita, Isabel; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auburn; University of Porto (SAGE, 2017-01-13)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a year-long examination of the scaffolding processes used by a teacher in order to support student coaches in their instructional leadership responsibilities during seasons of Sport Education. The intervention sought to enable coaches to conduct problem-solving activities and instructional interactions that would actively involve teammates in the discovery of knowledge and construction of their own learning experiences. Method: Twenty-six seventh grade students participated in four consecutive seasons of Sport Education (Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball). The research involved four action-research iterative cycles of planning, acting, monitoring, and fact-finding. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with teams as well as exclusively with the coaches, lesson observations, and a field diary kept by the first author who assumed the role of practitioner-researcher. Results: The findings showed it was necessary to explicitly teach the coaches specific instructional strategies for constructivist peer interactions to emerge. However as coaches became increasingly self-assisted, they were able to promote activities more relevant to the learning needs of teammates. Further, the involvement of the students in taking responsibility for peer-teaching emerged late in the school year. The scaffolding process was found to be a non-linear process contingently adjusted in reference to aspects such as coaches’ mastery of processes, the complexity of the domain-specific content, and nature of the sport. Conclusions: This study gives credence to the advocacy that specific training is necessary if students are to develop the ability to engage teammates actively in learning interactions.