• An 8-year analysis of magnesium status in elite international track & field athletes

      Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R.; Taylor, I.; Killer, Sophie C.; ; British Athletics; British Athletics Medical Team; The Football Association; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2019-12-12)
      Magnesium plays a critical role in athlete health and performance. It is involved in numerous physiological mechanisms that support energy production, immune function, pain modulation, muscle function and bone health. Athletes may be susceptible to magnesium deficiency due to an increased utilization during exercise.Objective: This study reports on the magnesium status of 192 Olympic and Paralympic athletes over the course of eight years.Methods: Athletes on the British Athletics world class performance plan undertook blood testing for Red Cell Magnesium status. Their history of tendon pain, muscle and bone injury, ethnicity, sporting event and gender were also recorded. 510 samples from 192 athletes were included in the study.Results: On at least one blood test during the study time, 22% of athletes were identified as clinically deficient (<1.19 mmol/L). The average red cell magnesium concentration was 1.34 nmol/L. Magnesium was significantly lower in female athletes and those with Black or Mixed-Race ethnicity and was higher in Throws athletes and Paralympians with Cerebral Palsy. Athletes with a history of achilles or patella tendon pain had significantly lower magnesium levels than average.Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of investigating magnesium within this population to identify deficiency and support athlete health. Several areas for future work are identified to explore the relationship between magnesium and gender, ethnicity and tendon pain and muscle injury in athletes. Furthermore, new guidelines for magnesium status within athletics populations are proposed.
    • Acute and chronic effects of foam rolling vs eccentric exercise on ROM and force output of the plantar flexors

      Aune, Anne A.G.; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Papadopoulos, Kostas; Budd, Sarah; Richardson, Mark; Maloney, Sean J. (Routledge, 2018-06-12)
      Foam rolling and eccentric exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve range of motion (ROM). However, these two modalities have not been directly compared. Twenty-three academy soccer players (age: 18 ± 1; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 69.3 ± 7.5 kg) were randomly allocated to either a foam rolling (FR) or eccentric exercise intervention designed to improve dorsiflexion ROM. Participants performed the intervention daily for a duration of four weeks. Measurements of dorsiflexion ROM, isometric plantar flexion torque and drop jump reactive strength index were taken at baseline (pre-intervention) and at three subsequent time-points (30-min post, 24-hours post and 4-weeks post). A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for dorsiflexion (P = 0.036), but not for torque or reactive strength index. For dorsiflexion, there was a significant increase in both acute (30-min; P < 0.001) and chronic (4-week; P < 0.001) ROM for the eccentric group, whilst FR exhibited only an acute improvement (P < 0.001). Eccentric training would appear a more efficacious modality than foam rolling for improving dorsiflexion ROM in elite academy soccer players.
    • Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children: the HAPPY study

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Charman, Sarah J.; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-11-28)
      This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.
    • Beyond transgression: mountain biking, young people and managing green spaces

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2019-01-24)
      The importance of regular participation in physical activity in youth has seen attention turn to the role of lifestyle sports. Existing research on lifestyle sports lacks consideration of young people’s use of green spaces and the approaches of managers to conflicts in these spaces. Young people’s experiences of leisure are closely tied to those who oversee their use of leisure spaces and this paper is a rare example of research that draws upon qualitative methods from 40 mountain biking participants and 9 managers to explore both perspectives. Findings reveal young people seek opportunities for autonomy in green spaces through mountain biking but contest normative management practices. Managers recognized the benefits of engaging young people in mountain biking and discussed experimenting with various strategies to accommodate their practices. The paper therefore discusses the importance of moving beyond constructions of young people’s participation in lifestyle sports as transgressive and troublesome.
    • Examination physical education: adhering to pedagogies of the classroom when coming in from the cold

      Casey, Ashley; O'Donovan, Toni (Routledge, 2013-09-16)
      Background: Green and Thorburn claim that examination physical education now holds a dominant place in both the UK's national discourse and in the lives and careers of many teachers. Despite the move towards the academicisation of physical education and the proliferation of accredited qualifications in a number of countries, both of which have been celebrated by many physical educators, there is little research that investigates the actual process of teaching such courses. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how pedagogical change in examination physical education using collaborative learning was experienced by, and impacted on, pupils and teachers in one school during a year long, assessed unit of Advanced Subsidiary Level physiology and anatomy that formed part of a wider examination course in physical education. Methodology: The study took place in a comprehensive secondary school in the South East of England. With support from his head of department, a teacher attempted to modify his pedagogical approach away from the didactic approach that dominated his classroom-based teaching of AS Level physical education. Interviews were undertaken with the teacher and the head of department (HoD) both before the start of the course and after the exam results were published. Additionally, each student (n = 5) was interviewed and a wiki (which had been set up as a platform for collaborative learning within the group) was analysed for content and usage. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and each was independently analysed by the researchers. Data were subject to inductive analysis and constant comparison and key themes were drawn from this process. Findings: The paper examines the concerns about performance and engagement of pupils with AS physical education and interrogates the teachers' beliefs about the underpinning pedagogical issues in the teaching of this course. The teachers' expressed concern about the pedagogical knowledge and subject matter content knowledge for anatomy and physiology units. The process of changing the traditional teaching styles adopted for this unit is explored from both teacher and pupil perspectives. Finally, we consider the impact of the pedagogical changes on teachers, pupils and examination results.
    • Mediating peer teaching for learning games: an action research intervention across three consecutive sport education seasons

      Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O’Donovan, Toni; University of Porto; University of Bedfordshire; Auburn University (Routledge, 2017-12-08)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher’s peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches’ instruction, and the students’ gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders’ crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Results: Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students’ tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players’ gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. Conclusions: While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners’ instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
    • Power, space and the new stadium: the example of Arsenal Football Club

      Church, Andrew; Penny, Simon (Routledge, 2013-01-03)
      In many sports, but especially professional soccer in the UK, clubs have recently relocated to new stadiums so as to meet new health and safety requirements and also develop new opportunities for income generation. The process of stadium relocation involves the emergence of new spaces that have implications for the power relations between stadium owners, managers and sport supporters. Existing studies provide a limited understanding of the changing nature of power relations in new stadiums. This paper reveals the power modalities and resources involved in the constantly changing new stadium spaces. A case study of Arsenal Football Club in London and the process of ‘Arsenalisation’ in the club's new stadium reveals how material and virtual spaces are used by supporters to resist, confirm and negotiate the resources and practices of stadium managers seeking to control their activities.
    • Questioning policy, youth participation and lifestyle sports

      King, Katherine; Church, Andrew (Routledge, 2014-05-05)
      Young people have been identified as a key target group for whom participation in sport and physical activity could have important benefits to health and well-being and consequently have been the focus of several government policies to increase participation in the UK. Lifestyle sports represent one such strategy for encouraging and sustaining new engagements in sport and physical activity in youth groups, however, there is at present a lack of understanding of the use of these activities within policy contexts. This paper presents findings from a government initiative which sought to increase participation in sport for young people through provision of facilities for mountain biking in a forest in south-east England. Findings from qualitative research with 40 young people who participated in mountain biking at the case study location highlight the importance of non-traditional sports as a means to experience the natural environments through forms of consumption which are healthy, active and appeal to their identities. In addition, however, the paper raises questions over the accessibility of schemes for some individuals and social groups, and the ability to incorporate sports which are inherently participant-led into state-managed schemes. Lifestyle sports such as mountain biking involve distinct forms of participation which present a challenge for policy-makers who seek to create and maintain sustainable communities of youth participants.
    • Relationships between highly skilled golfers’ clubhead velocity and kinetic variables during a countermovement jump

      Wells, Jack E.T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Charalambous, Laura H.; Fletcher, Iain M.; ; Professional Golfers’ Association; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2022-02-28)
      Previous research has sought to establish the relationship countermovement jump (CMJ) performance has with clubhead velocity (CHV). However, these investigations either assessed lower skilled golfers, or utilised field-based protocols which are unable to assess a number of biomechanical variables. Fifty highly skilled golfers performed CMJs on Kistler force platforms in laboratory conditions. The CMJ variables included positive impulse, net impulse, average power, peak power, peak force, force at zero velocity and jump height. Clubhead velocity was measured using a TrackMan 3e launch monitor at a driving range. A Pearsons correlation was employed to measure the strength and direction of the relationships between CHV and CMJ derived performance variables. Results indicated strong positive relationships (all p’s &lt;0.001) between CHV and positive impulse (r = 0.695), net impulse (r = 0.689), average power (r = 0.645), peak power (r = 0.656), peak force (r = 0.517) and force at zero velocity (r = 0.528) with no significant relationship with jump height. However, if investigators only have access to field-based protocols, it is recommended that they measure jump height and utilise inverse dynamics to calculate take-off velocity. By multiplying take-off velocity by mass, this allows the attainment of net impulse. Key words: Golf, Physical Profiling, Impulse, Power, Peak Force, Vertical Jump
    • Rethinking the ‘aspirations’ of Chinese girls within and beyond Health and Physical Education and physical activity in Greater Western Sydney

      Pang, Bonnie; Hill, Joanne (Routledge, 2016-08-09)
      This paper aims to explore young Chinese girls’ aspirations and ideal environments for engagement in Health and Physical Education (HPE) and physical activity (PA) in Greater Western Sydney. Interviews are used to elicit these girls’ perceptions of their future and ideal environments in relation to HPEPA. Their data offer insights into key influences regarding what is thinkable, desirable and achievable in their HPEPA environments. Results showed dimensions of environments, such as social and pedagogical aspects, that are conducive to these girls’ aspirations in HPEPA (e.g. social support from parents, and functional built environment for HPE). This paper aligns with a strengths-based approach to understanding and recognising young Chinese girls’ perceived aspirations within their socio-cultural environment. In doing so, we discuss how feminism and femininity are positioned from a Chinese perspective that may provide alternative views to a post-feminist panorama in promoting advancement of all young girls in HPEPA. Results invite us to take into account some of the girls’ ambivalence towards being an ‘autonomous’ and ‘dependent’ modern Chinese young girl. This paper calls for a rethinking of how aspirations that shape young people’s future in HPEPA in much of the contemporary Western world are conceptualised in academic research.
    • Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period

      Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2013-05-28)
      This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ~30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with posttraining the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L−1 (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L−1 (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete’s current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.
    • Sports injuries: basic classifications, aetiology and pathophysiology

      Ward, Keith; Mitchell, Andrew C.S. (Routledge, 2018-09-21)
    • Why is our PE teacher education curriculum white? a collaborative self-study of teaching about ‘race’ in PETE programmes

      Hill, Joanne; Walton-Fisette, Jennifer L. (Routledge, 2019-06-04)
      Why is my curriculum white? is a student-led movement that has questioned the centrality of white perspectives in higher education. Originating in the United Kingdom (UK) with an event and film produced by students at University College London (UCLTV, 2014, https://youtu.be/Dscx4h2l-Pk,), the movement suggests that white theorists and viewpoints have been privileged over Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) or postcolonial scholars. They raise concerns that a white focused curriculum has a universalising effect, making white-specific theories appear to speak about all human experience. According to this movement, if universities are to be as inclusive as they claim, they are challenged to develop curricula that reflect this, as opposed to focusing on diversity, which has tended to be framed in relation to the numbers of BME staff and students and celebrated as a proxy for equality (Archer, 2007; Husain, 2015; Pilkington, 2016). Higher education institutions (HEIs) are not neutral, but reproduce implicit perspectives on reading lists, the sequencing of issues, and consistent messages (Cochran-Smith, 2000). We could also add, how students’ needs are addressed, and how these needs are dealt with, as well as HEIs’ expectations of (BME and disadvantaged) students’ engagement and success. We propose that explicit and hidden curricular material and delivery may contribute to maintaining the status quo, thus racial inequalities; and despite equal opportunity attempts (such as the Widening Participation agenda in the UK), BME students are less likely to be awarded 2:1/1st degrees compared to their white peers; they have higher rates of underachievement, drop out, exclusion, unemployment, and incarceration (Lander, 2016; Pilkington, 2016).