• Effect of breakfast omission and consumption on energy intake and physical activity in adolescent girls: a randomised controlled trial

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Plekhanova, Tatiana; Mandila, D.; Lekatis, Y.; Tolfrey, Keith; University of Bedfordshire; Loughborough University (Cambridge University Press, 2017-09-13)
      It is not known if breakfast consumption is an effective intervention for altering daily energy balance in adolescents when compared with breakfast omission. This study examined the acute effect of breakfast consumption and omission on free-living energy intake (EI) and physical activity (PA) in adolescent girls. Using an acute randomised crossover design, forty girls (age 13.3 ± 0.8 y, body mass index 21.5 ± 5.0 kg∙m-2) completed two, 3-day conditions in a randomised, counter-balanced order: no breakfast (NB) and standardised (~1962 kJ) breakfast (SB). Dietary intakes were assessed using food diaries combined with digital photographic records and PA was measured via accelerometry throughout each condition. Statistical analyses were completed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Post-breakfast EI was 483 ± 1309 kJ/d higher in NB vs. SB (P=0.025), but total daily EI was 1479 ± 1311 kJ/d higher in SB vs. NB (P<0.0005). Daily carbohydrate, fibre and protein intakes were higher in SB vs. NB (P<0.0005), whereas daily fat intake was not different (P=0.405). Effect sizes met the minimum important difference of ≥0.20 for all significant effects. Breakfast manipulation did not affect post-breakfast macronutrient intakes (P≥0.451) or time spent sedentary or in PA (P≥0.657). In this sample of adolescent girls, breakfast omission increased post-breakfast free-living EI, but total daily EI was greater when a standardised breakfast was consumed. We found no evidence that breakfast consumption induces compensatory changes in PA. Further experimental research is required to determine the effects of extended periods of breakfast manipulation in young people.