• Gender, age and physical activity representation in children's colouring books (Representación del género, la edad y la actividad física en libros para colorear infantiles)

      Martínez Bello, Vladimir; Hill, Joanne; ; Universidad de Valencia; University of Bedfordshire (Revistas Universidad de León, 2020-06-24)
      Despite publishing houses recognizing the importance of ensuring equal representation of all people in curricular materials and scholars also noting their importance in teaching children gendered behaviours, it is still common to find stereotypically gendered non-coeducational curriculum materials in the international market. The aim of this study is to determine the representation of female and male characters in the illustrations of six colouring books published in the United Kingdom entitled “Books for Girls” and “Books for Boys”. A quantitative content analysis, and a supporting qualitative discourse analysis were carried out. This paper examines the effect of constructing gender difference in children’s colouring books. Gender bias in early childhood education poses the risk of perpetuating a manifestation of inequality.
    • Randomised controlled feasibility study of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting time in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Mugridge, Lucie; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Xu; Chater, Angel M.; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of Strathclyde (MDPI, 2020-06-19)
      This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a self-regulation smartphone app for reducing prolonged sitting in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a two-arm, randomised, controlled feasibility trial. The intervention group used the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes smartphone app for 8 weeks. The app uses a number of behaviour change techniques aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting time. Eligibility, recruitment, retention, and completion rates for the outcomes (sitting, standing, stepping, and health-related measures) assessed trial feasibility. Interviews with participants explored intervention acceptability. Participants with T2DM were randomised to the control (n = 10) and intervention groups (n = 10). Recruitment and retention rates were 71% and 90%, respectively. The remaining participants provided 100% of data for the study measures. The MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app was viewed as acceptable for reducing and breaking up sitting time. There were preliminary improvements in the number of breaks in sitting per day, body fat %, glucose tolerance, attitude, intention, planning, wellbeing, and positive and negative affect in favour of the intervention group. In conclusion, the findings indicate that it would be feasible to deliver and evaluate the efficacy of the MyHealthAvatar-Diabetes app for breaking up sitting time and improving health outcomes in a full trial.
    • Physical activity for the benefit of mental health outcomes in young people: a focus on parental bereavement

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; University of Bedfordshire; University of Ulster; University of Hertfordshire (BASES, 2020-06-13)
      First published in The Sport and Exercise Scientist, Issue 64, Summer 2020. Published by the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences - www.bases.org.uk”
    • Effects of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Cooke, Samuel; Pennington, Kyla; Jones, Arwel; Bridle, Christopher; Smith, Mark F.; Curtis, Ffion; (Public Library of Science, 2020-05-14)
      Introduction Previous evidence has shown significant effects of exercise, cognitive and dual-task training for improving cognition in healthy cohorts. The effects of these types of interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. The aim of this research was to systematically review evidence, and estimate the effect, of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE were searched for ongoing and completed interventional trials investigating the effect of either an exercise, cognitive or dual-task intervention on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results Nine trials met the inclusion criteria–one dual-task, two cognitive, and six exercise. Meta-analyses of exercise trials showed no significant effects of exercise on measures of executive function (Stroop task, SMD = -0.31, 95% CI -0.71–0.09, P = 0.13, trail making test part A SMD = 0.28, 95% CI -0.20–0.77 P = 0.25, trail making test part B SMD = -0.15, 95% CI -0.64–0.34 P = 0.54, digit symbol SMD = 0.09, 95% CI -0.39–0.57 P = 0.72), and memory (immediate memory SMD = 0.20, 95% CI -0.28–0.69, P = 0.41 and delayed memory SMD = -0.06, 95% CI -0.55–0.42, P = 0.80). A meta-analysis could not be conducted using cognitive or dual-task data, but individual trials did report a favourable effect of interventions on cognition. Risk of bias was considered moderate to high for the majority of included trials. Conclusions Meta-analyses of exercise trials identified a small effect size (0.31), which whilst not significant warrants further investigation. Larger and more robust trials are needed that report evidence using appropriate reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT) to increase confidence in the validity of results.
    • Determinants of weekly sitting time: construct validation of an initial COM-B model and comparison of its predictive validity with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

      Howlett, Neil; Schulz, Joerg; Trivedi, Daksha; Troop, Nicholas A.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Hertfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-14)
      Objective: In relation to sitting behaviour, to investigate which theoretical domains best formed the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation constructs of the COM-B, and compare the predictive validity to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), taking habit strength into consideration. Design: Using a prospective design, 186 adults completed measures capturing domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework for the three COM-B constructs, and habit strength, which were examined using a formative measurement model. Predictive validity was then compared to the TPB. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported sitting behaviour. Results: Self-monitoring (behavioural regulation domain) formed Capability; subjective norm (social influences domain) formed Opportunity; intention (intentions domain), positive affect (emotion domain), and perceived behavioural control (beliefs about capabilities domain), formed Motivation. The COM-B strongly predicted sitting behaviour (27% variance explained), with Capability, Opportunity, and habit strength as key drivers. The TPB explained a large amount of variance (23%) in sitting behaviour, with intention and habit strength as key drivers. Conclusions: The behavioural regulation domain of Capability, the social influences domain of Opportunity, and habit strength were important drivers of sitting behaviour, with comparable variance predicted in the COM-B and TPB. Future research should consider this approach to conceptualise the COM-B for specific populations and behaviours.
    • Behavioural science and disease prevention: psychological guidance.

      Chater, Angel M.; Arden, Maddy; Armitage, Chris; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Hart, Jo; Lewis, Lesley; McBride, Emily; Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2020-04-14)
      Psychology is crucial to reducing the spread of Covid-19 as it enables us to understand and change behaviour and anticipate people’s responses to changes in policy and guidelines. Behaviours are key to preventing infection and improving outcomes.
    • Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular disease risk markers in adults with paraplegia

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Withers, Thomas M.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Champion, Rachael B.; Charlett, Opie P.; Ferrandino, Louise; (John Wiley and Sons, 2020-04-03)
      Elevated levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers are highly prevalent in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time with short, regular bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial glucose and lipid levels in able-bodied individuals. The effects in people with paraplegia are unknown. The study aims were to examine the acute postprandial glucose (primary aim), lipid, blood pressure, and psychological responses (secondary aims) to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia. This was a randomized crossover design trial. Fourteen participants with paraplegia (age 51 +- 9 years, trunk fat mass 44.3 +- 7.7%) took part in the following two, 5.5-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sedentary time (SED), and (2) sedentary time interrupted with 2 minutes of moderate-intensity arm crank ergometer physical activity every 20 minutes (SEDACT). Standardized breakfast and lunch test meals were consumed during each condition. The outcomes were compared between conditions using linear mixed models. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower during the lunch postprandial period in SED-ACT vs SED (incremental AUC 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 2.7) and 3.0 [2.1, 3.9] mmol/L∙2.5 hour, respectively, P = .015, f = 0.34). There were no differences between conditions for the breakfast or total 5.5 hours postprandial periods (P > .05). Positive affect was higher in SED-ACT than SED (P = .001). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time acutely attenuates lunch postprandial glucose and improves positive affect in people with paraplegia. This may have clinical relevance for reducing CVD risk and improving psychological well-being in this population.
    • Evidence-based policy making for health promotion to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Moldova

      Sécula, Florence; Erismann, Séverine; Cerniciuc, Carolina; Chater, Angel M.; Shabab, Lion; Glen, Fiona; Curteanu, Ala; Serbulenco, Aliona; Silitrari, Natalia; Demiscan, Daniela; et al. (BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-03-06)
      The Republic of Moldova faces several concurrent health challenges most notably an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, spiralling health care costs and widening health inequalities. To accelerate progress in their resolution there is a need for new and innovative health promotion and behaviour change communication interventions. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection in collaboration with the newly created National Agency for Public Health held a conference on the occasion of the Moldovan National Day of Health Promotion on 14th March 2018 in which national and invited international experts exchanged their views on (1) best practice examples of behaviour change interventions, health promotion activities and lessons learned from the UK and elsewhere; and (2) possible ways forward for Moldova to implement cost-effective and evidence-based intersectoral health promotion programmes. The experts provided recommendations on implementing behaviour change interventions to reduce and prevent obesity; on the creation of a favourable tobacco control environment to reduce smoking prevalence; and on how physical activity programme design can benefit from health psychology research. All these strategies could foster health promotion activities and ultimately contribute to improving the health outcomes of the Moldovan population.
    • “I had to pop a wheelie and pay extra attention in order not to fall:” embodied experiences of two wheelchair tennis athletes transgressing ableist and gendered norms in disability sport and university spaces

      Lynch, Shrehan; Hill, Joanne; ; University of East London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-20)
      When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. 
    • Benefits of physical activity for young people who have been parentally bereaved: a report to the Forces Children’s Trust

      Williams, Jane; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; Chater, Angel M.; Forces Children’s Trust; University of Bedfordshire (Forces Children’s Trust, 2020-01-18)
    • The effect of varying intensities of lower limb eccentric muscle contractions on left ventricular function

      Howlett, Luke A.; O'Sullivan, Kyle; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of the West of Scotland; University of Leeds (Springer, 2020-01-16)
      The effect of eccentric (ECC) resistance exercise (RE) on myocardial mechanics is currently unknown. This study investigated ECC RE at varying intensities on left ventricular (LV) function using LV strain (ε), wall stress and haemodynamic parameters. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers completed ECC leg extensions at 20%, 50% and 80% of their ECC maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), whilst receiving echocardiograms. Global longitudinal ɛ, strain rate (SR), longitudinal tissue velocity, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), LV wall stress and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed at baseline and during exercise. Left ventricular global ɛ, systolic SR and wall stress remained unchanged throughout. Systolic blood pressure (sBP), MAP and RPP increased at 80% and 50% intensities compared to rest (P < 0.01). Eccentric RE increased HR and peak late diastolic SR at all intensities compared to rest (P < 0.02). The findings suggest acute ECC RE may not alter main parameters of LV function, supporting future potential for wider clinical use. However, future studies must investigate the impact of multiple repetitions and training on LV function. PURPOSE METHOD RESULTS CONCLUSION
    • Daily-running exercise may induce incomplete energy intake compensation: a 7-day crossover trial

      Hough, John; Esh, Christopher John; Mackie, Paul Ian; Stensel, David J.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; University of Bedfordshire (Canadian Science Publishing, 2019-12-13)
      Understanding daily-exercise effects on energy balance is important. This study examined the effects of seven days of imposed exercise (EX) and no exercise (N-EX) on free-living energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in nine men. Free-living EI was higher in EX compared with N-EX. Total and vigorous PAEE were higher, with PAEE in sedentary activities lower, during EX compared with N-EX. Daily-running (for 7 days) induced EI compensation of ~60% exercise-induced EE.
    • Reproducibility of acute steroid hormone responses in men to short-duration running

      Leal, Diogo Luis Campos Vaz; Taylor, Lee; Hough, John; University of Bedfordshire; University Institute of Maia; Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital; Loughborough University; Nottingham Trent University (Human Kinetics, 2019-11-30)
      Purpose: Progressively overloading the body to improve physical performance may lead to detrimental states of overreaching/overtraining syndrome. Blunted cycling-induced cortisol and testosterone concentrations have been suggested to indicate overreaching after intensified training periods. However, a running-based protocol is yet to be developed or demonstrated as reproducible. This study developed two 30-min running protocols, (1) 50/70 (based on individualized physical capacity) and (2) RPETP (self-paced), and measured the reproducibility of plasma cortisol and testosterone responses. Methods:Thirteen recreationally active, healthy men completed each protocol (50/70 and RPETP) on 3 occasions. Venous blood was drawn preexercise, postexercise, and 30 min postexercise. Results: Cortisol was unaffected (both P > .05; 50/70, η2p = .090; RPETP, η2p = .252), while testosterone was elevated (both P < .05; 50/70, 35%, η2p = .714; RPETP, 42%, η2p = .892) with low intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVi) as mean (SD) (50/70, 7% [5%]; RPETP, 12% [9%]). Heart rate (50/70, effect size [ES] = 0.39; RPETP, ES = −0.03), speed (RPETP, ES = −0.09), and rating of perceived exertion (50/70 ES = −0.06) were unchanged across trials (all CVi < 5%, P < .05). RPETP showed greater physiological strain (P < .01). Conclusions: Both tests elicited reproducible physiological and testosterone responses, but RPETP induced greater testosterone changes (likely due to increased physiological strain) and could therefore be considered a more sensitive tool to potentially detect overtraining syndrome. Advantageously for the practitioner, RPETP does not require a priori exercise-intensity determination, unlike the 50/70, enhancing its integration into practice.
    • Development of a sedentary behaviour workplace intervention for police staff using the behaviour change wheel

      Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (2019-11-01)
    • Effects of interrupting sitting with use of a treadmill desk versus prolonged sitting on postural stability

      Charalambous, Laura H.; Champion, Rachael B.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Thieme, 2019-10-07)
      High amounts of sitting increase the risk of non-communicable disease and mortality. Treadmill desks make it possible to reduce sitting during the desk-based worker's day. This study investigated the acute effect on postural stability of interrupting prolonged sitting with an accumulated 2-h of light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Twenty-one sedentary adults participated in this randomized acute crossover trial, with two 6.5 h conditions: 1) uninterrupted sitting and 2) interrupted sitting with accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Pre- and post-condition, participants performed four postural stability tests on a pressure plate (bipedal and unipedal standing stance, eyes open and eyes closed). Anteroposterior center of pressure amplitude showed a significant condition x time interaction in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=4.62, p=0.046) and unipedal eyes open (F(1,20)=9.42, p=0.006) tests, and mediolateral center of pressure amplitude in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=6.12, p=0.023) and bipedal eyes open (F(1,12)=5.55, p=0.029) tests. In the significant interactions, amplitude increased pre to post condition in the uninterrupted sitting condition. The accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking ameliorated the negative effect of 6.5 h prolonged sitting on postural sway, supporting workplace treadmill desk use.
    • Preparing pharmacy students to communicate effectively with adolescents

      Annis, Izabela E.; Smith, Felicity; Gilmartin-Thomas, Julia F.M.; Sleath, Betsy; Cooper Bailey, Stacy; Carpenter, Delesha M.; Chater, Angel M.; MacAllister, Catherine; Pyzik, Oksana; Wayman, Brandi; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019-10-01)
      Objectives: To develop an elective workshop designed to equip pharmacy students with skills to effectively communicate with adolescents. To conduct preliminary evaluation of the workshop to assess its impact on pharmacy student perceived confidence and knowledge relating to the importance of adolescent counselling and counselling techniques. Methods: Academics from three universities in three countries collaborated on the workshop development and evaluation. The workshop structure was designed upon the foundations of communication best practices and established techniques, and it consisted of two online modules and an in-person tutorial. Pharmacy students undertaking a 4-year Bachelor, Master or Doctor of Pharmacy degree from all three participating universities evaluated the workshop via pre- and post-questionnaires. Key findings: A total of 81 pharmacy students volunteered to attend and evaluate the workshop. Of these 81 students, 31 completed paired pre- and post-questionnaires, 44 students completed unpaired questionnaires and six students were lost to follow-up. Of the paired pre- and post-questionnaires, students were mostly female (67.7%) with an average age of 24.9 years (standard deviation, SD = 5.6) and were in the first (32.3%), second (16.1%) or third (51.6%) year of their pharmacy programme. Over 80% of students somewhat or strongly agreed that the workshop made them feel more comfortable speaking with young people in pharmacy settings. Mean (SD) perceived confidence (pre = 21.7 (4.0) and post = 24.9 (4.5)) and knowledge scores (pre = 5.2 (1.5) and post = 6.6 (1.6)) significantly improved after undertaking the workshop. Conclusions: The workshop increased pharmacy student perceived confidence and knowledge relating to the importance of adolescent counselling and counselling techniques.
    • Psychological perspectives on obesity: addressing policy, practice and research priorities

      Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; Chadwick, Paul; Chater, Angel M.; Chisolm, A.; Doyle, J.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Greaves, C.; Liardet, Joseph; Llewellyn, Clare; McKenna, I.; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2019-09-16)
      Obesity has received much attention from politicians, policymakers, healthcare professionals, the media and the public over the past few decades. Since the formal recognition from the UK government in 1991 that obesity was a sufficient threat to the health of the nation, a targeted response to address the issue has been a policy priority for almost 30 years. A wide range of policies are now in place, including the establishment of nutritional standards in schools, programmes aimed to boost physical activity, and weight management services. However, while some interventions and services have been successful at the individual and community level, there has been little impact at population level. This report looks at what psychological evidence and perspectives can add to help improve our combined response to obesity. It seeks to guide professionals and policy-makers who are working with individuals, groups and populations that are impacted by obesity to take an approach that is guided by psychology. We have sought to produce guidance that recognises and builds on existing services, while identifying areas where further resources, standards, training and staff are required
    • Can physical activity support young people after the death of a parent? the BABYSTEPs project

      Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-09-10)
      Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly.  Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (5 search engines) was performed.  Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had to explore physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss).  Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with 5 reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement.  Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity.  Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity support (i.e. residential retreats, football) for bereaved young people.  Conclusion: There is evidence that physical activity can support the wellbeing of young people who have been parentally bereaved.  However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity.  There is a clear need for more research and services to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
    • Effects of frequency and duration of interrupting sitting on cardiometabolic markers

      Maylor, Benjamin D.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Stensel, David J.; Orton, Charlie J.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Thieme, 2019-09-09)
    • The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: a critical review

      Maloney, Sean J.; University of Bedfordshire (NLM (Medline), 2019-09-01)
      Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2579-2593, 2019-Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetries describe bilateral differences in anthropometric attributes, such as nostril width and ear size, and are thought to represent the developmental stability of an organism. There is evidence to suggest that fluctuating asymmetries may be related to impaired athletic performance, although contradictory findings have been reported. Sporting asymmetries is a term that may better describe bilateral differences in parameters, such as force output or jump height. These asymmetries are likely to be a function of limb dominance and magnified by long-standing participation within sport. Sporting asymmetries do not seem to carry a clear influence on athletic performance measures. Given the vast discrepancy in the methodologies used by different investigations, further research is warranted. Recent investigations have demonstrated that training interventions can reduce sporting asymmetries and improve performance. However, studies have not sought to determine whether the influence of sporting asymmetry is independent of improvements in neuromuscular parameters. It may be hypothesized that the deficient (weaker) limb has a greater potential for adaptation in comparison to the strong limb and may demonstrate greater responsiveness to training.