• Associations between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children: the HAPPY study

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Charman, Sarah J.; Ploetz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-11-28)
      This study examines the association between prolonged sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk in 10–14-year-old children. This cross-sectional design study analysed accelerometry-determined sedentary behaviour and physical activity collected over 7 days from 111 (66 girls) UK schoolchildren. Objective outcome measures included waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression was used for the main data analysis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of having hypertriglyceridaemia (P = 0.03) and an increased clustered cardiometabolic risk score (P = 0.05) were significantly higher in children who engaged in more prolonged sedentary bouts per day. The number of breaks in sedentary time per day was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor, but longer mean duration of daily breaks in sedentary time were associated with a lower odds of having abdominal adiposity (P = 0.04) and elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). These associations may be mediated by engagement in light activity. This study provides evidence that avoiding periods of prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time may be important for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in children.
    • Investigating the relationships between elements of a revised theory of planned behaviour and objectively measured physical activity behaviours [HAPPY Study]

      Denton, Sarah J.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Savory, Louise A.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-08-01)
      Objectives: This study examined the relationships between constructs of a revised Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in 10–14 year-old schoolchildren. Methods: Ninety-one schoolchildren (boys n = 34; girls n = 57) completed a health perceptions questionnaire measuring the constructs of a revised TPB which included attitude, subjective norms, behaviour-specific self-efficacy (BSSE) and intentions to be active. Physical activity behaviours were recorded objectively over seven consecutive days using RT3® triaxial accelerometers. Multiple regressions were employed for each gender to explore the relationships of each of the revised TPB constructs with: 1. intentions to be active and 2. weekday and weekend MVPA. Results: For boys, subjective norms were correlated with intention (r = 0.653, p < 0.001). For girls, attitude (r = −0.570), subjective norms (r = 0.433) and BSSE (r = 0.517) correlated with intention (p < 0.001). No significant relationships were found for either gender between the revised TPB constructs and weekday or weekend MVPA. Conclusions: In this study 10–14 year old schoolchildren have developed cognitions which support intentions to be active but these intentions are not necessarily transferred into actual physical activity.
    • Physical activity levels and motivational responses of boys and girls: a comparison of direct instruction and tactical games models of games teaching in physical education

      Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise A.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Kozub, Stephen A.; Kerr, Catherine J. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014-10-21)
      The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6–12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was hypothesized that given the differences in domain interaction and lesson structure, both boys and girls would gain higher levels of physical activity (PA) and possess higher quality motivation during TGM-based lessons when compared to direct instruction lessons. Seventy-two children aged 11–12 years (42 boys, 30 girls) were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group (TGM). Children wore RT3® triaxial accelerometers over a 12 week period to objectively measure time spent in MVPA. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) tool was completed during each lesson to additionally assess lesson context information and teacher behaviour. SDT questionnaires were also completed, pre and post-intervention. Boys in the TGM condition displayed significantly higher levels of MVPA in both rugby and football activities in comparison to the control group although no significant differences in motivation were noted post-intervention. While girls in the TGM condition recorded comparable PA levels in the football sessions, they recorded significantly lower PA activity levels in the netball lessons. There were no significant differences in girls’ motivation post-intervention. It is recommended that future studies build on this research by continuing to examine PA and the quality of student motivation while using GCAs over prolonged unit lengths (i.e. greater than 12 lessons) using structural equation modelling techniques to assess the relationships between, and mediating influences of, SDT constructs on PA levels.
    • Physical education contributes to total physical activity levels and predominantly in higher intensity physical activity categories

      Kerr, Catherine J.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Charman, Sarah J.; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise A.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Govus, Andrew (Sage, 2016-10-04)
      Children’s engagement in physical activity of a vigorous intensity or higher is more effective at promoting cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate physical activity. It remains unclear how higher intensity physical activity varies between days when schoolchildren participate in physical education (PE) than on non-PE days. The purpose of this study was to assess how PE contributes to sedentary behaviour and the intensity profile of physical activity accumulated on PE-days than on non-PE days. 53 schoolchildren (36 girls, 11.7 ± 0.3 years) completed 5-day minute-by-minute habitual physical activity monitoring using triaxial accelerometers to determine time spent sedentary (<1.5 METs) and in light (1.5-2.9 METs), moderate (3-5.9 METs), vigorous (6-8.9 METs), hard (9-11.9 METs) and very hard intensity (≥12 METs) physical activity on PE-days and non-PE days. Sedentary time was higher on non-PE days than on PE-days (mean difference: 62 minutes, p < 0.001). Hard and very hard intensity physical activity was significantly higher on PE days compared with non-PE days (mean total difference: 33 minutes, all significant at p < 0.001). During the PE lesson, boys spent more time in hard (p < 0.01) and very hard (p < 0.01) physical activity compared to girls. Schoolchildren spent significantly more time in higher intensity physical activity and significantly less time sedentary on PE-days than on non-PE days. As well as reducing sedentary behaviour, the opportunity to promote such health-promoting higher intensity physical activity in the school setting warrants further investigation.