• Mediating peer teaching for learning games: an action research intervention across three consecutive sport education seasons

      Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O’Donovan, Toni; University of Porto; University of Bedfordshire; Auburn University (Routledge, 2017-12-08)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher’s peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches’ instruction, and the students’ gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders’ crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Results: Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students’ tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players’ gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. Conclusions: While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners’ instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
    • Scaffolding student–coaches’ instructional leadership toward student-centred peer interactions: a yearlong action-research intervention in sport education

      Farias, Cláudio; Hastie, Peter A.; Mesquita, Isabel; University of Bedfordshire; University of Auburn; University of Porto (SAGE, 2017-01-13)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a year-long examination of the scaffolding processes used by a teacher in order to support student coaches in their instructional leadership responsibilities during seasons of Sport Education. The intervention sought to enable coaches to conduct problem-solving activities and instructional interactions that would actively involve teammates in the discovery of knowledge and construction of their own learning experiences. Method: Twenty-six seventh grade students participated in four consecutive seasons of Sport Education (Basketball, Handball, Soccer, and Volleyball). The research involved four action-research iterative cycles of planning, acting, monitoring, and fact-finding. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with teams as well as exclusively with the coaches, lesson observations, and a field diary kept by the first author who assumed the role of practitioner-researcher. Results: The findings showed it was necessary to explicitly teach the coaches specific instructional strategies for constructivist peer interactions to emerge. However as coaches became increasingly self-assisted, they were able to promote activities more relevant to the learning needs of teammates. Further, the involvement of the students in taking responsibility for peer-teaching emerged late in the school year. The scaffolding process was found to be a non-linear process contingently adjusted in reference to aspects such as coaches’ mastery of processes, the complexity of the domain-specific content, and nature of the sport. Conclusions: This study gives credence to the advocacy that specific training is necessary if students are to develop the ability to engage teammates actively in learning interactions.