Recent Submissions

  • Acute effects of breaking up prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular disease risk markers in adults with paraplegia

    Bailey, Daniel Paul; Withers, Thomas M.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Dunstan, David W.; Leicht, Christof A.; Champion, Rachael B.; Charlett, Opie P.; Ferrandino, Louise; (John Wiley and Sons, 2020-04-03)
    Elevated levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers are highly prevalent in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time with short, regular bouts of physical activity can reduce postprandial glucose and lipid levels in able-bodied individuals. The effects in people with paraplegia are unknown. The study aims were to examine the acute postprandial glucose (primary aim), lipid, blood pressure, and psychological responses (secondary aims) to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in individuals with paraplegia. This was a randomized crossover design trial. Fourteen participants with paraplegia (age 51 +- 9 years, trunk fat mass 44.3 +- 7.7%) took part in the following two, 5.5-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sedentary time (SED), and (2) sedentary time interrupted with 2 minutes of moderate-intensity arm crank ergometer physical activity every 20 minutes (SEDACT). Standardized breakfast and lunch test meals were consumed during each condition. The outcomes were compared between conditions using linear mixed models. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower during the lunch postprandial period in SED-ACT vs SED (incremental AUC 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 2.7) and 3.0 [2.1, 3.9] mmol/L∙2.5 hour, respectively, P = .015, f = 0.34). There were no differences between conditions for the breakfast or total 5.5 hours postprandial periods (P > .05). Positive affect was higher in SED-ACT than SED (P = .001). Breaking up prolonged sedentary time acutely attenuates lunch postprandial glucose and improves positive affect in people with paraplegia. This may have clinical relevance for reducing CVD risk and improving psychological well-being in this population.
  • “I had to pop a wheelie and pay extra attention in order not to fall:” embodied experiences of two wheelchair tennis athletes transgressing ableist and gendered norms in disability sport and university spaces

    Lynch, Shrehan; Hill, Joanne; ; University of East London; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-02-20)
    When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. When bodies move in certain contexts, it can mean very different things for different people. In our society, some bodies are more valued than others, and detrimentally, this can mean that certain types of bodies are ostracized and segregated to the outskirts of production economies and society. Dis/ability sport spaces, able-bodied sports spaces and able-bodied university spaces have been an under-researched area when considering how the body moves throughout these spaces for elite wheelchair athletes taking part in university courses. To learn more, this paper drew on feminist poststructuralism and new materialist perspectives and shared an insight into how two athletes with dis/abilities transgressed abled and gendered norms in different spaces and how they positioned themselves as athletic bodies and disabled bodies in these spaces. Employing a post-critical ethnographic design, we found that dependent on the space a dis/abled body is in constant flux as to when it feels marginalised and different (typically able-bodied spaces) and when it feels included, valued, and strong (typically dis/abled spaces). Significantly, the materiality of the institutional structures of universities, founded upon historic aesthetics of beauty dictated the physical spaces the athletes entered and created spaces of exclusion based on capitalist and ableist ideologies. 
  • The effect of varying intensities of lower limb eccentric muscle contractions on left ventricular function

    Howlett, Luke A.; O'Sullivan, Kyle; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna C.; University of Bedfordshire; University of the West of Scotland; University of Leeds (Springer, 2020-01-16)
    The effect of eccentric (ECC) resistance exercise (RE) on myocardial mechanics is currently unknown. This study investigated ECC RE at varying intensities on left ventricular (LV) function using LV strain (ε), wall stress and haemodynamic parameters. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers completed ECC leg extensions at 20%, 50% and 80% of their ECC maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), whilst receiving echocardiograms. Global longitudinal ɛ, strain rate (SR), longitudinal tissue velocity, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), LV wall stress and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed at baseline and during exercise. Left ventricular global ɛ, systolic SR and wall stress remained unchanged throughout. Systolic blood pressure (sBP), MAP and RPP increased at 80% and 50% intensities compared to rest (P < 0.01). Eccentric RE increased HR and peak late diastolic SR at all intensities compared to rest (P < 0.02). The findings suggest acute ECC RE may not alter main parameters of LV function, supporting future potential for wider clinical use. However, future studies must investigate the impact of multiple repetitions and training on LV function. PURPOSE METHOD RESULTS CONCLUSION
  • Benefits of physical activity for young people who have been parentally bereaved: a report to the Forces Children’s Trust

    Williams, Jane; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; Chater, Angel M.; Forces Children’s Trust; University of Bedfordshire (Forces Children’s Trust, 2020-01-18)
  • Evidence-based policy making for health promotion to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Moldova

    Sécula, Florence; Erismann, Séverine; Cerniciuc, Carolina; Chater, Angel M.; Shabab, Lion; Glen, Fiona; Curteanu, Ala; Serbulenco, Aliona; Silitrari, Natalia; Demiscan, Daniela; et al. (BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-03-06)
    The Republic of Moldova faces several concurrent health challenges most notably an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases, spiralling health care costs and widening health inequalities. To accelerate progress in their resolution there is a need for new and innovative health promotion and behaviour change communication interventions. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection in collaboration with the newly created National Agency for Public Health held a conference on the occasion of the Moldovan National Day of Health Promotion on 14th March 2018 in which national and invited international experts exchanged their views on (1) best practice examples of behaviour change interventions, health promotion activities and lessons learned from the UK and elsewhere; and (2) possible ways forward for Moldova to implement cost-effective and evidence-based intersectoral health promotion programmes. The experts provided recommendations on implementing behaviour change interventions to reduce and prevent obesity; on the creation of a favourable tobacco control environment to reduce smoking prevalence; and on how physical activity programme design can benefit from health psychology research. All these strategies could foster health promotion activities and ultimately contribute to improving the health outcomes of the Moldovan population.
  • Psychological perspectives on obesity: addressing policy, practice and research priorities

    Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; Chadwick, Paul; Chater, Angel M.; Chisolm, A.; Doyle, J.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Greaves, C.; Liardet, Joseph; Llewellyn, Clare; McKenna, I.; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2019-09-16)
    Obesity has received much attention from politicians, policymakers, healthcare professionals, the media and the public over the past few decades. Since the formal recognition from the UK government in 1991 that obesity was a sufficient threat to the health of the nation, a targeted response to address the issue has been a policy priority for almost 30 years. A wide range of policies are now in place, including the establishment of nutritional standards in schools, programmes aimed to boost physical activity, and weight management services. However, while some interventions and services have been successful at the individual and community level, there has been little impact at population level. This report looks at what psychological evidence and perspectives can add to help improve our combined response to obesity. It seeks to guide professionals and policy-makers who are working with individuals, groups and populations that are impacted by obesity to take an approach that is guided by psychology. We have sought to produce guidance that recognises and builds on existing services, while identifying areas where further resources, standards, training and staff are required
  • NIHR Themed Review: interventions to increase physical activity

    Fortescue-Webb, Duncan; Evans, Tansy; Hanss, Katharine; Lamont, Tara; Behrendt, Hannah; Brannan, Michael; Chater, Angel M.; Coles, Allison; Cope, Andy; Dooley, Michael; et al. (NIHR Dissemination Centre., 2019-07-29)
    Being active matters because it is an important way of staying healthy. We know that people can reduce their risk of many serious diseases by staying physically active. Activity is also important for mental wellbeing and keeping socially connected. Finding enjoyable ways to be active can benefit people in so many ways. But it is often hard for people to start and keep the habit of regular activity. Around a quarter of people are inactive and less than two thirds meet recommended activity levels. We need to know more about what works in getting people active and sustaining this, particularly for those who are least active now. This review focuses on National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded research evaluating interventions to increase physical activity for individuals and populations. This features over 50 published and ongoing studies. Evaluations range from programmes in schools and communities to changes in transport and the environment, which are designed to promote greater activity.
  • Behavioural science and disease prevention: psychological guidance.

    Chater, Angel M.; Arden, Maddy; Armitage, Chris; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Hart, Jo; Lewis, Lesley; McBride, Emily; Perriard-Abdoh, Saskia; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2020-04-14)
    Psychology is crucial to reducing the spread of Covid-19 as it enables us to understand and change behaviour and anticipate people’s responses to changes in policy and guidelines. Behaviours are key to preventing infection and improving outcomes.
  • Development of a sedentary behaviour workplace intervention for police staff using the behaviour change wheel

    Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (2019-11-01)
  • Can physical activity support young people after the death of a parent? the BABYSTEPs project

    Chater, Angel M.; Williams, Jane; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Shorter, Gillian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-09-10)
    Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly.  Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (5 search engines) was performed.  Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had to explore physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss).  Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with 5 reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement.  Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity.  Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity support (i.e. residential retreats, football) for bereaved young people.  Conclusion: There is evidence that physical activity can support the wellbeing of young people who have been parentally bereaved.  However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity.  There is a clear need for more research and services to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
  • Supporting young people who have been parentally bereaved: can physical activity help and what services are available?

    Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Howlett, Neil; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire; Ulster University (2019-07-17)
    Background: Annually, 41,000 UK children and young people are parentally bereaved. Grief is an individual process and must be supported properly. Many mental health aspects that cross over with grief outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression) can be improved through physical activity. Yet there is limited research investigating whether physical activity can support bereaved individuals with their grief and what services are currently available. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (10 databases) and service provision (five search engines) was performed. Empirical studies (qualitative and quantitative) had used physical activity (of any type) to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a bereavement (of any human, other than national loss). Organisations which provide bereavement support to young people were contacted (via questionnaire and telephone) to record details about their service and if they offer physical activity support. Results: From 564 studies screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria, with five reporting using physical activity to support parental bereavement. Running and martial arts were noted as types of beneficial activity. Of the 373 organisations identified, 26 provided physical activity (i.e. residential retreats, football) support for bereaved young people. Conclusion: From this review, there is evidence that physical activity can support young people who have been parentally bereaved. However, this evidence is limited, with just a small number of organisations offering physical activity. There is a clear need for more work in this area, to understand and increase the use of physical activity to support young people following the death of their parent.
  • The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour reduction workplace interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers: a systematic review and assessment of behaviour change techniques.

    Brierley, Marsha L.; Chater, Angel M.; Smith, Lindsey Rachel; Bailey, Daniel Paul; University of Bedfordshire (2019-07-17)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effects of sedentary workplace interventions on cardiometabolic health and identify the active behaviour change techniques (BCTs) by which these interventions work. Background: Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Office work responsibilities are becoming increasingly deskbound and dependent on technology, which can result in high exposure to prolonged sitting. Reducing this risk through theory-based interventions is a public health priority. Methods: A systematic search of 11 databases in June 2017 yielded 3618 unique titles with 21 articles being identified for inclusion. Interventions were rated as very promising, quite promising or non-promising based on their effects on cardiometabolic risk markers compared with baseline and/or a control group. Interventions were coded for BCTs used. To assess the relative effectiveness of behaviour change techniques, a promise ratio was calculated as the frequency of BCT appearing in all promising interventions divided by its frequency of appearance in all non-promising interventions. Conclusions: A narrative synthesis included 21 published studies of varying study design and comprised 22 interventions. Risk of bias was high for blinding, allocation concealment and baseline differences, but low for outcome assessment. Six interventions were very promising, eleven were quite promising, five were non-promising. The BCTs of social comparison, adding objects to the environment, and habit formation demonstrated the highest promise ratios. Workplace interventions showed promise for improving cardiometabolic health. Promising BCTs concerning social, environmental, and habitual influences should be considered for future interventions.
  • Daily-running exercise may induce incomplete energy intake compensation: a 7-day crossover trial

    Hough, John; Esh, Christopher John; Mackie, Paul Ian; Stensel, David J.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; University of Bedfordshire (Canadian Science Publishing, 2019-12-13)
    Understanding daily-exercise effects on energy balance is important. This study examined the effects of seven days of imposed exercise (EX) and no exercise (N-EX) on free-living energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in nine men. Free-living EI was higher in EX compared with N-EX. Total and vigorous PAEE were higher, with PAEE in sedentary activities lower, during EX compared with N-EX. Daily-running (for 7 days) induced EI compensation of ~60% exercise-induced EE.
  • Seven steps to help patients overcome a ‘Fear of Finding Out - FOFO’

    Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (RCN Publishing (RCNi), 2018-04-01)
    Health psychologist Angel Chater explains the techniques that can help nurses to connect with patients who seem ambivalent about accessing healthcare, even when they may have potentially serious conditions
  • Active Inspiration Playmakers final report

    O'Donovan, Toni M.; Ives, Helen Maria; Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; Goodyear, Victoria A.; University of Bedfordshire (Playmakers/University of Bedfordshire, 2016-11-01)
    Final Report the the 'Playmakers' project; a programme within the Virgin Active 'Active Inspiration' initiative. 
  • The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Soccer Injury Movement sscreen (SIMS)

    McCunn, Robert; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Govus, Andrew; Julian, Ross; Schimpchen, Jan; Meyer, Tim; Saarland University; University of Bedfordshire (2017-02-28)
    Background/purpose The growing volume of movement screening research reveals a belief among practitioners and researchers alike that movement quality may have an association with injury risk. However, existing movement screening tools have not considered the sport-specific movement and injury patterns relevant to soccer. The present study introduces the Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS), which has been designed specifically for use within soccer. Furthermore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the SIMS and determine its suitability for use in further research. Methods The study utilized a test-retest design to discern reliablility. Twenty-five (11 males, 14 females) healthy, recreationally active university students (age 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height 171 ± 9 cm, weight 64.7 ± 12.6 kg) agreed to participate. The SIMS contains five sub-tests: the anterior reach, single-leg deadlift, in-line lunge, single-leg hop for distance and tuck jump. Each movement was scored out of 10 points and summed to produce a composite score out of 50. The anterior reach and single-leg hop for distance were scored in real-time while the remaining tests were filmed and scored retrospectively. Three raters conducted the SIMS with each participant on three occasions separated by an average of three and a half days (minimum one day, maximum seven days). Rater 1 re-scored the filmed movements for all participants on all occasions six months later to establish the ‘pure’ intra-rater (intra-occasion) reliability for those movements. Results Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater composite score reliability ranged from 0.66-0.72 and 0.79-0.86 respectively. Weighted kappa values representing the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the individual sub-tests ranged from 0.35-0.91 indicating fair to almost perfect agreement. Conclusions Establishing the reliability of the SIMS is a prerequisite for further research seeking to investigate the relationship between test score and subsequent injury. The present results indicate acceptable reliability for this purpose; however, room for further development of the intra-rater reliability exists for some of the individual sub-tests.
  • Live high, train low - influence on resting and post-exercise hepcidin levels

    Govus, Andrew; Peeling, P.; Abbiss, C.R.; Lawler, N.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Thompson, K.G.; Peiffer, J.J.; Gore, C.J.; Garvican-Lewis, L.A. (2016-03-31)
    ) was measured via CO rebreathing 1 week before and after 14 days of hypoxia. Hepcidin was suppressed after 2 (Cohen's d = -2.3, 95% confidence interval: [-2.9, -1.6]) and 14 days of normobaric hypoxia (d = -1.6 [-2.6, -0.6]). Hepcidin increased from baseline, 3 h post-exercise in normoxia (d = 0.8 [0.2, 1.3]) and hypoxia (d = 0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), both before and after exposure (normoxia: d = 0.7 [0.3, 1.2]; hypoxia: d = 1.3 [0.4, 2.3]). In conclusion, 2 weeks of normobaric hypoxia suppressed resting hepcidin levels, but did not alter the post-exercise response in either normoxia or hypoxia, compared with the pre-exposure response.
  • The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: can it predict outcomes in field tests of anaerobic performance?

    Scott, Brendan R.; Hodson, Jacob A.; Govus, Andrew; Dascombe, Ben; Murdoch University; University of Newcastle, New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire; La Trobe University (Wolters Kluwer, 2017-10-29)
    This study determined whether a composite assessment of intermittent fitness could be used to quantify performance in several anaerobic tasks. Fifty-two male recreational athletes (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 years; body mass: 85.1 ± 12.2 kg; height: 180.5 ± 7.0 cm) were recruited from various team sports. Participants completed a battery of field tests to assess sprinting speed (40-m sprint), acceleration ability (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), anaerobic capacity (300-m shuttle), lower-body power (vertical jump), and repeated-sprint ability and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to determine the velocity of intermittent fitness (VIFT). Relationships between anaerobic tests and VIFT were quantified via Pearson product-moment correlations, and a 2-predictor model multiple linear regression estimated the predictive relationships between the exercise tests and the VIFT. Multiple linear regression showed that VIFT significantly predicted 56, 51, 44, 36, 12, and 1% of the variance in the 300-m shuttle, repeated sprint, 505- and 40-m sprint, vertical jump, and 10-m sprint tests, respectively. The 2-predictor model determined the 300-m shuttle, and repeated-sprint performance accounted for 67% of the variance in VIFT. These findings highlight that various anaerobic characteristics contribute to the intermittent fitness qualities that are quantified through VIFT. More specifically, these data indicate that VIFT is useful for tracking performance in tasks largely determined by anaerobic capacity, but may not be a good predictor of brief all-out sprinting and jumping efforts.
  • Mediating peer teaching for learning games: an action research intervention across three consecutive sport education seasons

    Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O’Donovan, Toni; University of Porto; University of Bedfordshire; Auburn University (Routledge, 2017-12-08)
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher’s peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches’ instruction, and the students’ gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders’ crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Results: Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students’ tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players’ gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. Conclusions: While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners’ instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
  • Acute and chronic effects of foam rolling vs eccentric exercise on ROM and force output of the plantar flexors

    Aune, Anne A.G.; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Papadopoulos, Kostas; Budd, Sarah; Richardson, Mark; Maloney, Sean J. (Routledge, 2018-06-12)
    Foam rolling and eccentric exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve range of motion (ROM). However, these two modalities have not been directly compared. Twenty-three academy soccer players (age: 18 ± 1; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 69.3 ± 7.5 kg) were randomly allocated to either a foam rolling (FR) or eccentric exercise intervention designed to improve dorsiflexion ROM. Participants performed the intervention daily for a duration of four weeks. Measurements of dorsiflexion ROM, isometric plantar flexion torque and drop jump reactive strength index were taken at baseline (pre-intervention) and at three subsequent time-points (30-min post, 24-hours post and 4-weeks post). A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for dorsiflexion (P = 0.036), but not for torque or reactive strength index. For dorsiflexion, there was a significant increase in both acute (30-min; P < 0.001) and chronic (4-week; P < 0.001) ROM for the eccentric group, whilst FR exhibited only an acute improvement (P < 0.001). Eccentric training would appear a more efficacious modality than foam rolling for improving dorsiflexion ROM in elite academy soccer players.

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