Recent Submissions

  • Energy matching of a high‑intensity exercise protocol with a low‑intensity exercise protocol in young people

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Howlett, Neil; Chater, Angel; Jones, Andy; Jones, Julia; Wyatt, Solange; Mengoni, Silvana E.; Sharma, Shivani; Irvine, Karen; Trivedi, Daksha; et al. (Springer, 2021-05-12)
  • The relationship between vertical stiffness during bilateral and unilateral hopping tests performed with different strategies and vertical jump performances

    Mohammadian, Mohammadamin; Sadeghi, Heydar; Khaleghi Tazji, Mehdi; Maloney, Sean J.; Kharazmi University; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-20)
    Vertical stiffness has been highlighted as a potential determinant of performance and may be estimated across a range of different performance tasks. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between vertical stiffness determined during 9 different hopping tests and performance of vertical jumps. Twenty healthy, active males performed vertical hopping tests with three different strategies (self-selected, maximal, and controlled) and three different limb configurations (bilateral, unilateral preferred, and unilateral non-preferred), resulting in nine different variations, during which vertical stiffness was determined. In addition, participants performed squat jump (SQJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) during which jump height, CMJ stiffness, and eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) were determined. Vertical stiffness in bilateral and unilateral preferred tasks performed with a self-selected and maximal, but not controlled, strategy was associated with stiffness in the CMJ (r = 0.61-0.64; p < 0.05). However, stiffness obtained during unilateral preferred and non-preferred hopping with self-selected strategy was negatively associated with performance in SQJ and CMJ tasks (r = -0.50 to -0.57; p < 0.05). These findings suggest that high levels of vertical stiffness may be disadvantageous to static vertical jumping performance. In addition, unilateral hopping with a self-selected strategy may be the most appropriate task variation if seeking to determine relationships with vertical jumping performance. HighlightsStiffness obtained during unilateral hopping with a preferred strategy was negatively associated with vertical jumping performancesStiffness obtained during hopping with preferred and maximal strategies was associated with stiffness obtained during a countermovement jumpIn this population, hopping stiffness may therefore be reflective of an individual's countermovement jump strategyHigh levels of stiffness may be disadvantageous to static-start vertical jumping.
  • The impact of neurological disability and sensory loss on mindfulness practice

    Finlay, K. A.; Chater, Angel M.; Hearn, J.; University of Reading; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-23)
    Objectives Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly recommended in the management of medical conditions associated with sensory loss and absence, such as Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Functional Neurological Disorder (FND). Yet the implications of undertaking practices such as body scanning when living with sensory loss have not been considered. This study aimed to explore the impact of sensory loss on the practice and experience of mindfulness in qualified mindfulness teachers with SCI/FND/MS. Methods Eight mindfulness teachers (5 females, 3 males) with SCI/FND/MS, sensory loss and wheelchair use were recruited from mindfulness teacher databases. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken, lasting between 50 and 93 min. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Idiographic analyses for descriptive, linguistic and conceptual themes were completed before cross-case analyses. Results Analyses resulted in two superordinate themes: (1) Adopting your Body; and (2) Sensation without Loss. These themes reflected the challenge of overcoming initial resistance to areas of the body with sensory disruption, building a relationship with the whole body, such that sensory awareness could be visualised and experienced without proprioception. Conclusions Mindfulness offers a unique approach to accepting and working with the body after paralysis or sensory loss. Fundamental to the use of mindfulness with such populations, is the prioritisation of inclusive sensory language and exploring sensory absence as well as sensory presence. The cognitive and emotional outcomes of body scanning may be uniquely elevated in populations with neurophysiological disorders, highlighting the benefits of mindfulness for adaptive and protective self-management.
  • Psychology as a thing of the past

    Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2020-08-31)
    Prof-bots or a psychologically informed future? You decide, says Angel Chater.
  • Can physical activity support grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved? a systematic review

    Williams, Jane; Shorter, Gillian; Howlett, Neil; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire; Queen’s University Belfast; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2021-03-06)
    Background: In 2018, there were 616,014 registered deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). Grief is a natural consequence. Many mental health concerns, which can be identified as grief outcomes (e.g. anxiety and depression) in those who have experienced a bereavement, can be improved through physical activity. The objective of this review was to identify from the existing literature if physical activity can benefit grief outcomes in individuals who have been bereaved. Methods: A systematic review of nine databases was performed. Included studies (qualitative and quantitative) explored physical activity to help individuals (of any age) who had experienced a human bereavement (excluding national loss). Results: From 1299 studies screened, 25 met the inclusion criteria, detailing eight types of bereavement (parental (n=5), spousal (n=6), patient (n=4), pre-natal (n=3), later life (n=1), caregiver (n=1), multiple (n=4) and non-defined (n=1). Activities including yoga, running, walking, and martial arts were noted as beneficial. Physical activity allowed a sense of freedom, to express emotions, provided a distraction, and an escape from grief, while enhancing social support. Conclusion: There is some evidence that physical activity may provide benefit for the physical health and psychological wellbeing of those who have been bereaved, including when the loss has happened at a young age. This review is timely, given the wide-scale national loss of life due to COVID-19 and extends knowledge in this area. More research is needed to explore the benefits of physical activity for those who have been bereaved. In particular there is a need for well-designed interventions which are tailored to specific activities, populations and grief outcomes.
  • Factors influencing the prescribing behaviour of independent prescriber optometrists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Spillane, Daniel; Courtenay, Molly; Chater, Angel M.; Family, Hannah; Whitaker, Angela; Acton, Jennifer H. (Wiley, 2021-02-20)
    Purpose: Whilst the number of independent prescriber optometrists in the United Kingdom is increasing, there is limited evidence describing the experiences of these individuals. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) provides an evidence-based approach to understand determinants of behaviour. This conceptual framework can enable mapping to the COM-B behaviour change model and the wider Behaviour Change Wheel to develop interventions to optimise behaviourchange and healthcare processes more systematically. The study aimed to use the TDF to identify the factors that influence independent prescribing behaviour, and to map these findings to the COM-B system to elucidate the relevant intervention functions, in order to identify the support required by optometrist prescribers. Methods: Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were undertaken with independent prescriber optometrists. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes inductively, which were then deductively mapped to the TDF and then linked to the COM-B. Results: Sixteen participants (9 male; median age 45 years, range 28–65 years), based in community (n = 10) and hospital (n = 6) settings, were interviewed. Eleven of the TDF domains were found to influence prescribing behaviour. Findings highlighted the need for good communication with patients (TDF domain: Skills, COM-B: Capability); confidence (TDF domain: Beliefs about capabilities, COM-B: Motivation); good networks and relationships with other healthcare professionals, e.g., general practitioners (TDF domain: Social influences, COM-B: Opportunity; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation); the need for appropriate structure for remuneration (TDF domain: Reinforcement, COM-B: Motivation; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation); and the provision of professional guidelines (TDF domain: Knowledge, COM-B: Capability; TDF domain: Environmental context and resources, COM-B Opportunity). Conclusions: Having identified theory-derived influencers on prescribing decisions by optometrists, the findings can be used to develop a structured intervention, such as a support package to help optimise prescribing by optometrists, with the ultimate goal of eye care quality improvement.
  • Antimicrobial stewardship: a competency framework to support the role of nurses

    Courtenay, Molly; Chater, Angel M.; Cardiff University; University of Bedfordshire (RCN Publishing, 2021-03-24)
    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat that has prompted a global response. One strategy used to tackle antimicrobial resistance is known as antimicrobial stewardship, its main goal being to optimise antibiotic use and avoid unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. There is an increase in the number of nurse prescribers as well as in the percentage of antibiotics dispensed in primary care precribed by non-medical prescribers such as nurses. Nurses, both prescribers and non-prescribers, play an important role in antimicrobial stewardship, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. To be able to fulfil that role, nurses need the right knowledge, skills, resources and behaviours. This article explores the role of nurses in antimicrobial stewardship and describes a competency framework designed to underpin it.
  • Reflecting on the Stage 2 Health Psychology independent training route: a survey of trainee and graduate experiences of employability

    Bull, Eleanor; Newman, Kristina; Cassidy, Tony; Anderson, Niall; Chater, Angel M. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
    ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Bull E, Newman K, Cassidy T, Anderson N, Chater A (2020) 'Reflecting on the Stage 2 Health Psychology independent training route: a survey of trainee and graduate experiences of employability', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ A couple of the most common questions we may encounter from psychology students thinking about their career choices are: “What roles are there in health psychology?” and “How do I become a health psychologist?” Our discipline has made many advances into diverse spheres of employment, which then often leads to a response: “How long have you got?!” Health psychologists offer their knowledge and skills in psychological intervention, research, training and consultancy to improve health and wellbeing in a wealth of different settings, working at all levels from one-to-one with patients/clients/healthcare professionals, to groups, whole communities and populations. An increasingly wide range of stakeholders are recognising that they may benefit from collaborating with and employing a Health Psychologist, with Health Psychologists working in health and social care, education, culture, justice, and military, as well as working within global health partnerships through volunteering collaboratives (e.g. Byrne-Davis et al. 2017). The development of the Health Psychology and Public Health Network (HPPHN: Chater, 2014; McManus, 2014; Chater & McManus, 2016; renamed the Behavioural Science and Public Health Network, BSPHN in 2018) is also importantly strengthening our links with public health colleagues and creating new opportunities. Recent initiatives have also had success in raising the profile of Health Psychologists working in diverse areas, nationally and internationally. Some of these include Health Psychology Update’s new ‘Teaching, training and consultancy’ section (Cross, 2020), accounts of trainees’ experiences (e.g. Smith, 2018), the British Psychological Society (BPS) Division of Health Psychology’s (DHP) social media hashtag #DayInLifeOfHealthPsychology, the Oral History of UK Health Psychology project (Quinn, Morrison & Chater, 2020) and the BPS DHP Scotland’s case studies of Health Psychologists. Reflecting this diversity, in the UK there are currently several different options for training in health psychology.
  • Let’s talk about death openly: when the world is grieving, please don’t walk on eggshells.

    Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (British Psychological Society, 2020-05-13)
    A blog on bereavement and physical activity Health Psychologist Angel Chater has spoken openly about bereavement over the last two decades. Here, she urges society to recognise and be open about loss.
  • A rapid systematic review of public responses to health messages encouraging vaccination against infectious diseases in a pandemic or epidemic

    Lawes-Wickwar, Sadie; Ghio, Daniela; Tang, Mei Yee; Keyworth, Chris; Stanescu, Sabina; Westbrook, Juliette; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Kassianos, Angelos P.; Scanlan, Daniel; Garnett, Natalie; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-20)
    Public health teams need to understand how the public responds to vaccination messages in a pandemic or epidemic to inform successful campaigns encouraging the uptake of new vaccines as they become available. A rapid systematic review was performed by searching PsycINFO, MEDLINE, healthevidence.org, OSF Preprints and PsyArXiv Preprints in May 2020 for studies including at least one health message promoting vaccine uptake of airborne-, droplet- and fomite-spread viruses. Included studies were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) or the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and for patient and public involvement (PPI) in the research. Thirty-five articles were included. Most reported messages for seasonal influenza (n = 11; 31%) or H1N1 (n = 11; 31%). Evidence from moderate to high quality studies for improving vaccine uptake included providing information about virus risks and vaccination safety, as well as addressing vaccine misunderstandings, offering vaccination reminders, including vaccination clinic details, and delivering mixed media campaigns across hospitals or communities. Behavioural influences (beliefs and intentions) were improved when: shorter, risk-reducing or relative risk framing messages were used; the benefits of vaccination to society were emphasised; and beliefs about capability and concerns among target populations (e.g., vaccine safety) were addressed. Clear, credible, messages in a language target groups can understand were associated with higher acceptability. Two studies (6%) described PPI in the research process. Future campaigns should consider the beliefs and information needs of target populations in their design, including ensuring that vaccine eligibility and availability is clear, and messages are accessible. More high quality research is needed to demonstrate the effects of messaging interventions on actual vaccine uptake.
  • Replacing sugary snacks with fruit, nuts and seeds at nurses’ stations within a UK oncology unit: a pilot intervention study

    Thomas, Robert; Williams, Madeleine; Smit, Graham; Chater, Angel M.; Bedford Hospital NHS Trust; University of Bedfordshire (2021-02-02)
    Aim - This real-world service intervention study evaluated NHS staff weight and subjective happiness over a three-month period, by replacing processed, sugary foodstuffs with fruit, nuts and seeds. Method - Forty four staff at the Primrose Oncology Unit, Bedford Hospital, volunteered to abstain from cakes, biscuits, sweets, sugary drinks and chocolates whilst at work between June 2019 and September 2019. Participants’ weight and subjective happiness scores were recorded at baseline, three months (completion) and five months (post-completion). Fresh and dried fruit, and bags of raw nuts and seeds were made available to all staff (including those not participating). Participants resumed their usual diet outside of working hours. One hundred consecutive patients attending the department during the intervention were asked whether removing sugary food from public view was a positive move and whether it would have a likely influence on their future eating habits. Results - At five months, twenty (46%) participants lost weight >1kg (average 3.01 kg), seven participants gained >1kg (average 2.23 kg), and 17 remained the same weight (T-test p< 0.03). Average happiness score increased from 21.65 to 23.44 (+6.6%), T-test p< 0.04). Amongst those who lost >1kg weight, average happiness score increased from 21.54 to 23.75 (+9.3%), p<0.03. In those who gained >1 kg weight, average happiness score decreased from 22.28 to 21.43 (-3.8%), p< 0.08. There was a 13.1% difference in the happiness score in those loosing >1kg compared to those gaining >1kg in weight p< 0.001). 94 (94%) patients indicated that this initiative gave a good impression and ninety seven (97%) indicated that the initiative would encourage them to reduce sugar in their own diet. Conclusion - The results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in weight loss and increase in mood in just under half of the participants. Whilst this level of weight loss was similar to the best designed weight loss programmes, a larger study is required to validate these results.
  • Parents’ expectations and experiences of the 6-week baby check: a qualitative study in primary care

    Gilworth, Gill; Milton, Sarah; Chater, Angel M.; Nazareth, Irwin; Roposch, Andreas; Green, Judith; King's College London; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2020-11-18)
    Background The Newborn and Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) programme requires all babies to have a comprehensive health check at 6–8 weeks of age. These are typically completed by GPs. Although person-centred care has achieved prominence in maternity care policy in recent years, there is limited empirical evidence on what parents and/or carers expect from the check, and how far experiences meet their needs. Aim  To explore the expectations and experiences of parents attending their GP for a baby check. Design & setting A qualitative study was undertaken in primary care in London. Method Content analysis was undertaken of transcripts of semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with a total of 16 participants (14 mothers and two fathers) who had recently attended for a 6-week check for their baby. Results Despite the availability of plentiful sources of general advice on infants’ health and development, a thorough check by a trusted GP was an important milestone for most parents. They had few specific expectations of the check in terms of what examinations were undertaken, but even experienced parents anticipated reassurance about their baby’s normal development. Many also hoped for reassurance about their own parenting. Parents appreciated GPs who explained what they were doing during the examination; space to raise any concerns; and combined mother and baby checks. Referrals to secondary care were generally experienced as reassuring rather than a source of anxiety. Conclusion The baby check meets needs beyond those of the NIPE screening programme. Protecting the time for a thorough consultation is important for parents at what can be a vulnerable time.
  • Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention

    Chater, Angel M.; Whittaker, Ellie; Lewis, Lesley; Arden, Madelynne A.; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Chadwick, Paul; Drury, John; Epton, Tracy; Hart, Jo; Kamal, Atiya; et al. (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-02)
    ‘This is a pre-publication version of the following article: [Chater A, Whittaker E, Lewis L, Arden MA, Byrne-Davis L, Chadwick P, Drury J, Epton T, Hart J, Kamal A, McBride E, O'Connor D, Shorter G, Swanson V, Armitage C (2021) 'Health psychology, behavioural science, and Covid-19 disease prevention', Health Psychology Update, (in press).]’ In March 2020 the president of the British Psychological Society (BPS) reached out to member networks to join forces on a BPS COVID-19 co-ordinating group. Members of this group were tasked to lead different work-streams highlighting psychology’s role during the pandemic. One work-stream focused on ‘Behavioural Science and Disease Prevention’. It was clear that understanding behaviour and anticipating public responses to changes in policies, public messaging and guidelines would be key to improving health outcomes. This work-stream focused on developing clear guidance to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and identifying psychological evidence to promote best practice in the design of sustainable behavioural interventions. This includes both immediate infection control behaviours aimed at reducing virus transmission, such as hand washing, physical-distancing and self-isolation, and behaviours that may have been influenced during the pandemic, such as physical activity, eating behaviour, substance use and healthcare use, which will have far reaching impacts on future health. This article provides an overview of the core guidance and practical examples of its application in a public health setting.
  • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 1: Introducing a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education

    Bowler, Mark; Sammon, Paul; (Assocation for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
    HBPE is one framework that can support physical educators to promote young people’s positive physical activity attitudes and behaviours. In part 1, we present a rationale for new ‘PE-for-health pedagogies’ (Armour & Harris, 2013) – new ways of teaching about physical activity. We subsequently justify the foundations of HBPE, including the model’s major theme and goals, and the underlying theories and important assumptions for practitioners. In part 2, we provide a range of practical examples and identify key considerations to illustrate how HBPE can be effectively applied to help promote positive physical activity behaviour.
  • Health-Based Physical Education – a framework for promoting active lifestyles in children and young people. Part 2: Health-Based Physical Education in practice

    Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2020-11-19)
    Building on part 1, where we introduced a new pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education (HBPE), the primary aim of this article is to illustrate how the model may be implemented in the PE curriculum to help support all children and young people to develop positive physical activity behaviours. Specifically, we consider the model’s critical features for teaching and learning, followed by some key planning considerations, including learning intentions, assessment strategies and how the model can potentially be modified to reflect specific contexts during implementation.
  • No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; ; University of Birmingham (Public Library of Science, 2014-01-09)
    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4X200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. © 2014 Killer et al.
  • Impact of intensified training and carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and markers of overreaching in highly trained cyclists

    Svendsen, Ida S.; Killer, Sophie C.; Carter, James M.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Gleeson, Michael; ; Loughborough University; PepsiCo Global Nutrition R&D (Springer Verlag, 2016-02-23)
    Purpose: To determine effects of intensified training (IT) and carbohydrate supplementation on overreaching and immunity. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 male cyclists (age 25 ± 6 years, (Formula presented.) 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) completed two 8-day periods of IT. On one occasion, participants ingested 2 % carbohydrate (L-CHO) beverages before, during and after training sessions. On the second occasion, 6 % carbohydrate (H-CHO) solutions were ingested before, during and after training, with the addition of 20 g of protein in the post-exercise beverage. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after incremental exercise to fatigue on days 1 and 9. Results: In both trials, IT resulted in decreased peak power (375 ± 37 vs. 391 ± 37 W, P < 0.001), maximal heart rate (179 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 10 bpm, P < 0.001) and haematocrit (39 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 2 %, P < 0.001), and increased plasma volume (P < 0.001). Resting plasma cortisol increased while plasma ACTH decreased following IT (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Following IT, antigen-stimulated whole blood culture production of IL-1α was higher in L-CHO than H-CHO (0.70 (95 % CI 0.52–0.95) pg/ml versus 0.33 (0.24–0.45) pg/ml, P < 0.01), as was production of IL-1β (9.3 (95 % CI 7–10.4) pg/ml versus 6.0 (5.0–7.8) pg/ml, P < 0.05). Circulating total leukocytes (P < 0.05) and neutrophils (P < 0.01) at rest increased following IT, as did neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage CD4+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Conclusion: IT resulted in symptoms consistent with overreaching, although immunological changes were modest. Higher carbohydrate intake was not able to alleviate physiological/immunological disturbances.
  • Fueling for the field: nutrition for jumps, throws, and combined events

    Sygo, Jennifer; Killer, Sophie C.; Glass, Alicia Kendig; Stellingwerff, Trent; (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2019-03-31)
    Athletes participating in the athletics (track and field) events of jumps, throws, and combined events (CEs; seven-event heptathlon and 10-event decathlon) engage in training and competition that emphasize speed and explosive movements, requiring optimal power-weight ratios. While these athletes represent a wide range of somatotypes, they share an emphasis on Type IIa and IIx muscle fiber typing. In general, athletes competing in jumps tend to have a lower body mass and may benefit from a higher protein (1.5-1.8 g PRO·kg−1·day−1) and lower carbohydrate (3-6 g CHO·kg−1·day−1) diet. Throwers tend to have a higher body mass, but with considerable differences between events. Their intense, whole-body training program suggests higher PRO requirements (1.5-2.2 g PRO·kg−1·day−1), while CHO needs (per kg) are similar to jumpers. The CE athletes must strike a balance between strength and muscle mass for throws and sprints, while maintaining a low enough body mass to maximize performance in jumps and middle-distance events. CE athletes may benefit from a higher PRO (1.5-2 g PRO·kg−1·day−1) and moderate CHO (5-8 g CHO·kg−1·day−1) diet with good energy availability to support multiple daily training sessions. Since they compete over 2 days, well-rehearsed competition-day fueling and recovery strategies are imperative for CE athletes. Depending on their events' bioenergetic demands, athletes in throws, jumps, and CE may benefit from the periodized use of ergogenic aids, including creatine, caffeine, and/or beta-alanine. The diverse training demands, physiques, and competitive environments of jumpers, throwers, and CE athletes necessitate nutrition interventions that are periodized throughout the season and tailored to the individual needs of the athlete.
  • Prolonged cycling exercise alters neural control strategy, irrespective of carbohydrate dose ingested

    Newell, Michael; Macgregor, Lewis J.; Galloway, Stuart D.R.; Hunter, Angus M. (Wiley, 2020-08-26)
    The interactions between CHO dosage and neuromuscular regulation following fatiguing endurance exercise are not well understood. Fifteen well‐trained male cyclists completed 4 experimental trials of 120‐min submaximal cycling (95% lactate threshold) during which water (0 g CHO·h−1) or CHO beverages (20, 39, or 64 g CHO·h−1) were consumed every 15 minutes, at a rate of 1 L·h−1, followed by a work‐matched time trial ~30 minutes. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), M‐wave twitch potentiation and torque, motor unit recruitment and firing rate were recorded pre‐ and post‐cycling. Time trial performance improved following 39 and 64 versus 0 and 20 g CHO·h−1, with no effect of CHO dose on any pre‐ to post‐neuromuscular function measures. Pre‐ to post‐cycling exercise: (1) MVC, and M‐wave amplitude and duration declined by −21.5 Nm, and −4.9 mV and −7.1 ms, respectively; (2) peak evoked torque remained unchanged; (3) Firing rate of early‐ and mid‐recruited motor units increased by 0.93 pps and 0.74 pps, respectively, with no change in later‐recruited motor units. Thus, central drive to early‐ and mid‐recruited motor units increases as a result of endurance cycling, due to a likely fatigue compensatory mechanism. However, CHO availability does not appear to influence increased neuromuscular drive.
  • Metabolic responses to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: associations between carbohydrate dose and endurance performance

    Newell, Michael; Wallis, Gareth A.; Hunter, Angus M.; Tipton, Kevin D.; Galloway, Stuart D.R.; ; University of Birmingham; University of Stirling; University of Westminster (MDPI, 2018-01-03)
    Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during exercise lasting less than three hours improves endurance exercise performance but there is still debate about the optimal dose. We utilised stable isotopes and blood metabolite profiles to further examine metabolic responses to CHO (glucose only) ingestion in the 20–64 g·h−1 range, and to determine the association with performance outcome. In a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, male cyclists (n = 20, mean ± SD, age 34 ± 10 years, mass 75.8 ± 9 kg, peak power output 394 ± 36 W, VO2max 62 ± 9 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed four main experimental trials. Each trial involved a two-hour constant load ride (185 ± 25 W) followed by a time trial, where one of three CHO beverages, or a control (water), were administered every 15 min, providing 0, 20, 39 or 64 g CHO·h−1. Dual glucose tracer techniques, indirect calorimetry and blood analyses were used to determine glucose kinetics, exogenous CHO oxidation (EXO), endogenous CHO and fat oxidation; and metabolite responses. Regression analysis revealed that total exogenous CHO oxidised in the second hour of exercise, and suppression of serum NEFA concentration provided the best prediction model of performance outcome. However, the model could only explain ~19% of the variance in performance outcome. The present data demonstrate that consuming ~40 g·h−1 of CHO appears to be the minimum ingestion rate required to induce metabolic effects that are sufficient to impact upon performance outcome. These data highlight a lack of performance benefit and few changes in metabolic outcomes beyond an ingestion rate of 39 g·h−1. Further work is required to explore dose-response effects of CHO feeding and associations between multiple metabolic parameters and subsequent performance outcome.

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