• Intention to purchase counterfeit luxury products: a comparative study between Pakistani and UK consumers

      Hussain, Ammar; Kofinas, Alexander K.; Win, Sandar (Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles, 2017-12-08)
      This study aims to provide a comparison between Pakistani and the UK consumers’ purchase intentions towards counterfeit luxury products by focusing on the relationships between the following factors: perceived quality, status consumption, low price and ethics. A sample of 251 university students from Pakistan (137) and the UK (114) was used. Data was analyzed using AMOS and SPSS. Results show that Pakistani consumers are satisfied with perceived quality of counterfeit products while the UK consumers are not. Status associated with the counterfeit products and prices of these products were found to be important factors for both samples. Pakistani consumers show less ethical behaviour compared to the UK consumers. Considering a single product category, i.e. luxury products, is a limitation of the study and selecting a single product category may possibly restrict the potential generalizability.
    • Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction: retail network operations and marketing

      Ramanathan, Usha; Subramanian, Nachiappan; Parrott, Guy; Nottingham Trent University; University of Sussex; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2017-12-06)
      Purpose – The technology evolution compels retail networks to introduce unique business models to retain customers and to gain a competitive advantage. Customer reviews available through social media need to be taken into account by retail networks to design a model with unique service operations and marketing approaches that will improve loyalty by adding value to customers. Furthermore, the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer spending behaviour is very weak and needs further investigation. Hence the purpose of this paper is to understand how retail network leverage the potential of social media reviews along with unique service operations to satisfy customers. The study analyses the nexus of: a brand, promotional offers, service operations; and their interaction through social media reviews on customer satisfaction levels. Design/methodology/approach – The authors develop a conceptual model for the social media era. The authors combine the idea of loyalty- and value-based models of Chatterjee (2013). The authors employed a survey questionnaire method to elicit opinions of retail customer satisfaction based on social media reviews, service operations and marketing efforts. The authors derive measures of the model from existing literature and expert opinion. Findings – Social media reviews dramatically impact upon customer satisfaction. Similarly the empirical analysis identifies the significant and positive role played by service operations in customer satisfaction levels. Interestingly the authors did not find unequivocal support for brand satisfaction impacting on customer satisfaction. However, when promotions interact well with service operations, the level of customer satisfaction is significantly affected. Similarly the authors did not observe a positive outcome when there is an interaction between promotion and social media reviews. After reading the reviews, some potential buyers make a visit to store before making final decisions and surprisingly, promotional effects do not change their mind set. Practical implications – Research findings confirm the importance of social media reviews, marketing and interaction between promotion and service operations enabling retail networks to build loyalty and value-based models. Based on customer behaviour, the study suggests a need to consider operational efficiencies when promoting sales; through careful planning, customer satisfaction and profitability levels can be increased. This sends a strong message to the retail network to defend their position within a very competitive business market. Originality/value – The empirical evidence based on customer experience would be helpful for companies in integrating their operations andmarketing efforts enabling themto convert different segment of customers such as “free riders (higher satisfaction and low profitability)” and “vulnerable customers (low satisfaction and higher profitability)” into “star customers (higher satisfaction and high profitability)”. Through a considered approach: combining social media reviews, marketing and operations, businesses will be better-placed to survive in the ultra-competitive social media-influenced era.
    • How we are tempted into debt: emotional appeals in loan advertising in UK newspapers

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Czarnecka, Barbara; Danbury, Annie Hagen; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; University of Bedfordshire (2017-10-06)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the use of emotional appeals in loan advertisements and compare it to the use of emotional appeals in savings advertisements. A content analysis of 304 advertisements from nine UK newspapers revealed that the most frequently used emotional appeals in loan advertisements are the following positive emotional appeals: relief, security, and excitement. The use of negative emotional appeals such as guilt, fear, and sorrow was sporadic. Loan advertisements featured more appeals than savings advertisements. Further research will focus on analysing tag lines and images featured in the sample advertisements, and exploring consumers’ responses to, and their understanding of emotional appeals in those advertisements.
    • The meanings of ‘organic’ branding in the Russian skincare industry

      Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Danbury, Annie Hagen (2017-10-06)
      This paper will discuss the evolution in marketing communications characterised by the emergence of social media and the spread of online communities, as a result of which, consumers have become active co-constructors of brand identity in the market. The present research aims to bring companies’ attention to the process of brand co-construction with their customers, by considering different organic brand perceptions. It will specifically discuss how organic skincare online communities in Russia perceive and understand ‘organic’ branding and it will identify four major groups of members, who authorize, construct, analogize or abandon organic labels. The research will use the netnographic approach and thematic data analysis to examine online forums discourses. It will categorise different label interpretations into groups according to the meanings that online members assign to them.
    • Advertising and brand trust: perspectives from the UK and Italy

      Danbury, Annie Hagen; Palazzo, Maria; Mortimer, Kathleen; Siano, Alfonso; University of Bedfordshire; University of Salerno; University of Northampton (2017-09-25)
      The creation of a trusting brand identity through advertising has received relatively little attention in European marketing research. We explore this relationship by undertaking focus group research in the UK and Italy to identify the characteristics of print advertisements perceived as portraying a trusting image. The results show that advertisements that are simple, straightforward and clear are perceived as being more trusting. However, findings also show some differences between our national samples in relation to factors such as colour perception and consumer ethnocentrism. Young consumers are also quite critical of current advertising efforts in building a trusting brand image. 
    • Making the brand appealing: advertising strategies and consumers' attitude towards UK retail bank brands

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Danbury, Annie Hagen; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2017-09-22)
      Purpose The present state of the financial services industry suggests the need for banks to appeal to consumers’ emotions with the aim of improving their reputation; this study aims to explore how UK banks are using emotional appeals in their advertisements and how this shapes consumers’ attitudes towards their brands. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis in a two-stage study – Study 1 analysed the content of 1,274 UK bank advertisements to understand how the banks convey emotional appeals, whereas Study 2 elicited consumers’ perceptions of these advertising appeals and how they influenced their attitudes through semi-structured interview with 33 UK retail bank customers in London and Luton. Findings UK banks are using emotional appeals in their marketing communication strategies. The qualitative findings highlight the bi-dimensional nature of feelings towards the advertisements and how this relates to the brand. There is a lacklustre attitude towards the brands; there was no sense of pride in associating with any bank, even with though there are possibilities of switching; and consumers feel there is no better offer elsewhere as all banks are the same. Practical implications Bank brands should present distinct values about their services to the target audience, endeavour to build relationships with existing customers and reward loyalty. Importantly, financial brands need to engage in and highlight charitable activities and any corporate social responsibility as this can help to improve consumers’ attitudes as they often consider bank brands greedy and selfish. Originality/value Qualitative research methodology was adopted to better understand consumers’ attitudes towards UK retail bank brands.
    • Emotional appeals in UK Business-to-Business financial services advertisements

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Czarnecka, Barbara; Danbury, Annie Hagen (Emerald Insight, 2017-09-20)
      Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyse the use of emotional appeals in B2B bank advertisements; and to understand business owners’ perceptions of such appeals. Design/methodology/approach: In Study 1, 834 print advertisements collected from British newspapers were content analysed. In Study 2, semi-structured interviews with 17 business owners operating a business current account with a British bank were carried out. Findings: Emotional appeals are embedded in B2B financial services advertisements, business owners acknowledge the presence of emotional appeals however the perceived congruency between emotional appeal and financial services could not be established as participants reported a largely utilitarian, need- and benefit-driven decision-making process. Research limitations/implications: Accurately measuring emotions aroused through advertisements is considered a limitation. In addition, the sample of participants considered for this research project was small and medium-sized business owners. Practical implications: Emotional appeals should be used in conjunction with detailed rational information about financial products, as emotional appeals only arouse interest. Relationship is considered crucial in capitalising on the emotionally-appealing advertisements. Customers must feel appreciated and loyalty should be rewarded. Originality/value: The paper responds to numerous calls for more research into the role of emotional influences on the relationships in B2B context and on the behaviour of business customers.
    • Cultural meaning, advertising and national culture: a four-country study

      Czarnecka, Barbara; Brennan, Ross; Keles, Serap (Taylor & Francis, 2017-09-20)
      Cultural meaning transfer theory and GLOBE cultural dimensions were employed in this comparative study to examine the extent to which cultural meaning presented in advertisements reflected national cultures of the target countries. Content analysis was applied to 847 magazine advertisements from England, Hungary, Ireland, and Poland to investigate whether the use of advertising appeals presented in these advertisements mirrored variations in cultures as described by GLOBE Society Values. Results revealed that, in line with the hypotheses, there were similarities and differences in the use of advertising appeals, and only some of them mirrored the cultural variations. GLOBE Society Values were more likely to predict the use of appeals than GLOBE Society Practices, but not for all appeals. The results suggest that advertisers can draw on national cultures for cultural meanings to be used in advertisements only to a limited extent. It may be that advertisements mold rather than mirror societal values, or that only certain cultural traits are important for advertisers. GLOBE dimensions may therefore be of limited use when analyzing and explaining the content of advertisements.
    • Ethnic identity, consumer ethnocentrism, and purchase intentions among bi-cultural ethnic consumers: "divided loyalties" or “dual allegiance”?

      El Banna, Alia; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Murphy, Steven A.; Rod, Michel; Rojas-Mendez, Jose I.; University of Bedfordshire; Carleton Univeristy; Ryerson University (Elsevier, 2017-09-18)
      Consumer ethnocentrism has been studied extensively in international marketing in the context of one's country of residence. This paper investigates for the first time the notion of "dual ethnocentrism", which may be encountered among ethnic consumers who have an allegiance toward, or divided loyalties between, two countries: One with which they are ethnically linked, or "home", and one where they presently live and work, or "host". The study examines the relationship between ethnic identity, dual ethnocentrism, and purchase intentions among ethnic consumers, a market segment of growing importance in research and practice. The analysis focuses on differences in the respondents' home- and host-related ethnocentrism and finds that indeed ethnocentric feelings and their effects differ depending on the country of reference. In this light, the study suggests that ethnocentrism is a considerably more complex construct than previously thought, advances our understanding of ethnicity and ethnocentrism, and discusses the theoretical and managerial implications arising from dual ethnocentrism.
    • The effects of acculturation to global consumer culture on impulsive buying and attitudes towards advertising

      Czarnecka, Barbara (ICORIA, 2017-06-22)
      This paper advances the understanding of acculturation to global consumer culture (AGCC) and its relations with consumer behaviour. A conceptual model was developed to investigate the effects of AGCC on impulsive buying and on attitudes towards advertising in general. The relationship of AGCC and impulsive buying was later moderated by the consumer’s attitudes towards advertising in general. Theoretically, the authors add to the list of antecedents of impulsive buying, and to the outcomes of AGCC. From a managerial viewpoint, the authors suggest that encouraging impulsive buying may be easier with consumers acculturated to global consumer culture, and advertising may help encourage such buying behaviour.
    • Old country passions: an international examination of country image, animosity, and affinity among ethnic consumers

      Papadopoulos, Nicolas; El Banna, Alia; Murphy, Steven A. (American Marketing Association, 2017-06-12)
      Ethnic consumers are an important market segment in both traditionally multicultural countries as well as newer recipients of growing immigration movements. Such consumers may carry with them views toward "old friends and foes" which may influence their attitudes toward the products of countries perceived as friendly or hostile in relation to their original home countries. This study examines together for the first time four place-related constructs, namely, country and people images, product images, affinity, and animosity, and their potential effects on purchase intentions, juxtaposing these measures against views toward countries that may be perceived as friendly or hostile from the perspective of the ethnic consumers' homeland, alongside a neutral "benchmark" country for comparison. The results show that country/people and product images, affinity, and animosity work differently depending on the target country, product and people evaluations are influenced by both affective and cognitive factors, and attitudes vary in their predictive ability on purchase intentions, sometimes in line with earlier findings and sometimes not. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
    • A comparative cross-national examination of online investment promotion

      El Banna, Alia; Hamzaoui-Essoussi, Leila; Papadopoulos, N. (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-04-10)
      The internationalization of operations has led to more countries trying to attract foreign direct investment by promoting themselves through nation branding and other activities including online promotion by national or regional Investment Promotion Agencies (IPAs). This paper utilizes a nation branding framework to identify and analyze online IPA promotion cross-nationally. Results show that IPA websites have certain common elements but also vary greatly in their use of promotional approaches that contribute to branding the places they represent. This implies a need for a better practice of nation branding oriented strategies to influence investors’ perceptions and decisions.
    • Nation branding for foreign direct investment: a review and directions for research and strategy

      Papadopoulos, Nicolas; Hamzaoui-Essoussi, Leila; El Banna, Alia; Carleton University, Ottawa; University of Ottawa; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2016-12-01)
      Purpose This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and contrasts the well-established literature on decision-making and location choice in FDI with studies in the nascent field of nation branding, with a view to developing directions for future research that result from the identification of research gaps at the intersection point between the two areas. - Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a systematic and integrative review of several streams within the relevant literatures, from the theory of decision-making in FDI to the similarities and differences between advertising, promotion, branding and marketing for investment on the part of nations and sub- or supra-national places. - Findings Each of the two areas is characterized by lack of consensus as to the principal factors that affect investor and nation decisions and actions, resulting in several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by new research along the lines suggested in the study. - Research limitations/implications A large number of avenues for potential future research are identified, from assessing the importance of target country image in location choice to the adverse effects arising from the emphasis on “promotion” rather than “marketing” on the part of places engaged in nation branding efforts. - Practical implications The study examines several problems that affect the practice of nation branding for FDI and points to alternative approaches that may enhance place marketers’ effectiveness in their efforts to attract foreign capital. - Originality/value Notwithstanding the global growth of FDI in volume and importance, and the omnipresence of nation branding campaigns to promote exports or attract tourism and investment, there has been virtually no research to date on the core issue, nation branding for FDI. The study uses a strategic perspective that highlights key nation branding issues related to FDI, and FDI issues related to nation branding, and suggests a comprehensive agenda for research in the future.
    • Factors shaping attitudes towards UK bank brands: an exploratory analysis of social media data

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Farinloye, Temitope; Aririguzoh, Stella (Cogent OA, 2016-08-29)
      Social media provides a huge amount of data and rich market insight, and has changed the way customers interact with brands. This interaction is of great concern for any organisation as it transfers the power to shape brand image from advertisers to consumers. In light of the global financial crisis and the ensuing negative attitudes towards bank brands, this study has extracted 1176 comments on bank advertisements from the verified Facebook pages of 10 UK banks. These comments have been thematically analysed to identify seven key factors that shape customer attitudes to bank brands. The study presents the power of social media as a platform for brands and customers to engage and build relationships, especially bank–customer relationships in the UK, providing managers with important insights that can guide the development and execution of their brand-relationship campaigns. The fact that this study is based on real-life advertisements and real-life responses from social media network users can be considered as one of its strengths, as it does not suffer from various issues relating to experimental studies. Nonetheless, the study’s limitations and suggestions for future research directions are provided.
    • Newspaper coverage of a Sierra Leone war crimes trial: a ‘continuation of conflict by other means’

      Silverman, Jon; Binneh-Kamara, Abou (Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles - no Open Select, 2016-07-06)
      The most controversial trial conducted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone convicted leaders of the Civil Defence Force of serious violations of international humanitarian law during the country’s 11-year civil war. Many in Sierra Leone thought the trial should never have been held, on the grounds that the CDF leadership were ‘heroes’ for coming to the aid of the government in the mid- 1990s. Critics argued that pressure for a prosecution came principally from outside the country, particularly the United States. Opinion in Sierra Leone tended to be shaped along ethnic and regional lines, and a research study, funded by the British Academy, has sought to establish whether domestic newspaper coverage of the trial mirrored this ethno-regional division. Borrowing a paradigm from a study of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the authors conclude that in many respects, the reportage of the trial was ‘a continuation of conflict by other means’.
    • Marketing strategies of United Kingdom universities during clearing and adjustment

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2016-01-01)
      Purpose – The clearing system in the UK enables students without a university place after exam results have been announced to find suitable vacancies, as it is important for universities to fill their vacancies as any shortfall loses them a lot of money. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies adopted by UK universities on their websites during clearing. - Design/methodology/approach – In total, the content of 134 university websites were analysed a few weeks before clearing and the day before clearing starts. The categories for the analysis included membership of the three main university groups as well as clearing advertisement strategies and advertising theme presented. - Findings – In total, 110 universities indicated interest in admitting students through clearing on their websites including 18 of the 24 Russell University Group although more emphasis was laid on adjustment to attract students with better grades. The majority of websites were redesigned to reflect clearing with slides highlighting student satisfaction, guaranteed accommodation and graduate employability. Research limitations/implications – This exploratory study examines advertising strategies adopted during clearing, it would be interesting to also seek a broader view on advertisement strategies adopted by the universities throughout the year and extended to a comparative study of higher education marketing across different countries. - Originality/value – As websites have become an integral part of the marketing tools of universities, they should present information relevant to different stakeholders creatively, along with images reflecting their diverse student body and extra-curricular environment. This study will be relevant to university staff dealing with marketing, recruitment and information technology, advertising practitioners and academic researchers.
    • Online behaviour of luxury fashion brand advocates

      Parrott, Guy; Danbury, Annie Hagen; Kanthavanich, Poramate; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2015-09-16)
      Purpose – Over the past few years online fashion communities have proliferated becoming an increasingly powerful forum for user-generated content, and consequently, the fashion industry has shown great interest in such communities. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyse brand advocacy behaviour within luxury brand accessory forums: to analyse the role these communities play in influencing purchase intention; assessing their contribution to fashion brand love. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopted a netnographic approach to the phenomenon of online luxury accessory communities. The research reports observational data including blog texts and audience comments for four popular forums: The Purse Forum, The Fashion Spot, The Bag Forum (TBF) and Shoe Forum (SF). Although the forums are open to all and are designed to be internationally relevant; the observations were conducted from a base in the UK. Findings – Findings indicate that informants display some unifying characteristics clustered around engagement, involvement, self-concept and self-connection, brand love and hedonic values. Informants however, display some discernible differences as they “rally” to two distinctive totems: first, active luxury brand advocates and second, passive brand advocates. Although subtle, these differences suggest significant possibilities for fashion brand owners. Research limitations/implications – Further research could include the measurement of brand advocacy to distinguish more clearly between high and low levels of advocacy and the resulting consumer behaviour intentions. One sub-group that would be interesting to explore is that of brand evangelists and their relationship with fashion brands: what are the reasons for treating brands as religious artefacts and can this extreme level of advocacy be developed by marketing? The study focused on observing online posts by self-selected brand advocates. A worthwhile comparison could be made with fashion communities where brand marketers are active participants and how this influences the discourse and actions of brand advocates. Practical implications – The findings indicate that all forum members are incredibly attached to their brands, but will still consider purchasing several brands as their “evoked set”. Additionally, even when demonstrating involvement, they can operate as passive observers in the online community. Originality/value – Social media, especially online forums, play an important role in contemporary luxury fashion branding. This study addresses the role these forums play in supporting brand love and the contribution they make to luxury brand advocacy. Membership and influence dynamics are reported; which have resonance to both practitioners and researchers.
    • Reflecting a diversified country: a content analysis of newspaper advertisements in Great Britain

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2015-01-01)
      Purpose – Identifying the protected characteristics under the Equality Act of the UK, the purpose of this paper is to discover the extent to which the protected characteristics are featured in British newspaper advertisements, as evidence of diversity and equality in the country. Design/methodology/approach – Content analysis of advertisements obtained from nine national newspapers of the UK collected over 12 months. The criteria used to select the newspapers were category, popularity (circulation figures) and the readership demographics (range and variety of the audience). Findings – Disabled individuals are under-represented in print advertisements, and so are close relationships between individuals of the same sex signifying a civil partnership (or sexual orientation). There seems to be an equal level of portrayal of males and females, though men still feature more in a business setting while women are seen more in home settings. Practical implications – The findings suggest opportunities for advertisers to integrate disabled individuals into their marketing campaigns, not just as a business strategy for targeted markets but as individuals in a diversified community. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people could also be featured in advertisements for products and services that couples usually buy together, for example, holidays and mortgages. Originality/value – This study expands on the existing study on the portrayal in advertisements of stereotypes of genders, different age-groups and ethnic minorities. The portrayal of disability, sexuality and religious beliefs were considered within newspapers in UK, bridging some crucial gaps and providing outcomes relevant to numerous types of stakeholders, including the brands, advertising industry and academic researchers.
    • Marketing communications

      Eagle, Lynne; Dahl, Stephan; Czarnecka, Barbara; Lloyd, Jenny (Taylor and Francis, 2014-01-01)
      With the proliferation of digital and social media, there has never been a more dynamic time to engage with marketing communications - and never has the integration of marketing communications (marcoms) principles into a strategic marketing plan been more challenging. Even the best product in the world won’t sell without the right reach to your potential customers and the right message to engage them. This textbook applies a uniquely practical approach to the topic so that, whilst a structured overview of planning, development, implementation and evaluation of marketing communications is in place, the detailed cases made available by the Institute for Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) show how actual challenges faced by professionals in the field were addressed. This book will help you to develop the skills you need to turn theory into the right integrated communication plan, in order to succeed in an increasingly competitive environment. Aided by a veritable wealth of pedagogical features, Marketing Communications will be essential reading for both students and professionals in marketing, communications and public relations. This textbook also benefits from a companion website which includes a comprehensive instructor’s guide with PowerPoint slides, testbank questions and answer checklists.