Recent Submissions

  • Analysing the effects of oil price shocks on government expenditure in the Iranian economy

    Pazouki, Azadeh; Pazouki, Mohammad Reza; University of Southampton; Islamic Azad University (World Scientific Pub Co, 2014-06-30)
    The Iranian economy is closely associated with the oil industry as a key player in the global oil market. Accordingly, oil price spikes have a major influence on government spending with oil revenues being a major source for financing different expenditure categories such as social security, education, arts and culture, and health care. Moreover, recently there have been economic sanctions imposed on Iran owing to the nuclear program which has greatly restricted Iranian oil exports and caused significant distress to government revenue which in turn has spill over effects on Iran's allocations for investment in the energy industry, and more importantly in government spending on care, education, culture and arts, and social security. This paper aims to analyse these overall effects and the impact of oil price spikes on Iranian government expenditure. In order to achieve our objective we rely on a VAR econometric model using data from 1965–2011. The results show that Iranian government social spending does not appear to be significantly affected by oil price shocks.
  • A new method for optimal location of FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market

    Qadikolai, Mohammad Majidi; Afsharnia, Saeed; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Pazouki, Azadeh; University of Tehran; Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran; Alzahra University (IEEE, 2009-01-27)
    Under deregulated environment, transmission networks are operated close to their constraints. In this situation, FACTS devices can be useful in secure system operation. Private investorpsilas goal is maximizing their investment surpluses. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for optimal location of FACTS devices that the objective function is maximizing FACTS device ownerpsilas surplus. According to this algorithm, maximum FACTS device capacities in transmission network are found which are acceptable economically and the priority of all acceptable projects are determine by calculating the rate of annual revenue and annual cost. The proposed algorithm has been implemented for optimal placement of TCSC on a nine buses test system and the results have been compared with other optimal location methods based on congestion management and increasing system load ability.
  • Enhancing innovation performance: how do IC-enhancing HR practices work?

    Ghaleh, Hossein Heidarian; Pazouki, Azadeh; Moradi, Mohammad; Mehralian, Gholamhossein (Academy of Management, 2022-06-07)
    Scholars debate over departing away from the standard and human capital-centered HR practices and paying attention to the social and organizational side of an HR system, highlighting the concept of intellectual capital (IC)-enhancing HR practices. To improve our understanding of how IC-enhancing HR practices help firms achieve innovation performance, we develop and empirically test a framework investigating the joint effects of IC- enhancing HR practices, innovative work behavior (IWB), transformational leadership (TL), and innovation performance. We designed rigorous time-lagged research with three waves of data gathering from CEOs, R&D employees, and R&D managers. Analysis of 279 manufacturing companies in the healthcare industry demonstrates that individual-level IWB positively and significantly mediates the relationship between IC-enhancing HR practices and innovation performance. More conspicuously, we found that the effect of IC-enhancing HR practices on IWB is higher when TL exists. We discuss outright novel theoretical and empirical insights that our study offers.
  • Environmental treaties’ impact on the environment in resource-rich and non-resource-rich countries

    Zakari, Abdulrasheed; Adedoyin, Festus Fatai; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Pazouki, Azadeh (Springer Science and Business Media {LLC}, 2023-02-02)
    This paper examines the impact of environmental treaties on the environment across 74 countries: 50 resource-rich and 24 non-resource-rich countries. Using data spanning over 35 years, we find a negative and significant association between environmental treaties and environmental quality in resource-rich countries. On the contrary, we find environmental treaties positively and significantly affect the environment in non-resource-rich countries. Our results suggest that the environmental treaties signed by resource-rich countries may lead them to achieve sustainable development growth by 2030. Therefore, our results extend the environment literature and inform policymakers of the need to pay attention to the effects of signing environmental treaties on environmental protection.
  • The dynamic impact among oil dependence volatility, the quality of political institutions, and government spending

    Pazouki, Azadeh; Zhu, Xiaoxian; University of Bedfordshire; Teesside University (Elsevier, 2022-11-02)
    This paper empirically examines the direct and indirect effect of the role of democracy, and, in turn, the effect of oil dependence volatility on governmental expenditure in oil exporting countries. To achieve this aim, we apply a panel Vector Auto-Regressive (PVAR) model along with panel impulse response functions from the period 1983 to 2016. The findings show that the quality of political institutions, it is observed that in democratic countries an increase in oil volatility leads to an increase in government expenditure. In contrast, in non-democratic countries, governments respond to oil volatility fluctuating between the positive and negative depending on the quality of political institutions; the more some attributes of democracy are seen, the greater the expenditure. This difference in response between them can be attributed to a variation in institutional quality. Therefore, an improvement in strategic risk planning together with greater government transparency could lead to institutional quality improvement.
  • Taking account: a social and economic audit of the third sector in Brighton and Hove

    Bramwell, P.; Hiscock, S.; Mason, P.; Colwell, J.; Church, Andrew; Wolff, D.; Dawson, R.; Golding, D. (University of Brighton, 2008-09-01)
    The 2007/8 social and economic audit of Brighton and Hove’s third sector is the second of its kind, the first being conducted in 2003. Whilst it is widely recognised that the third sector in Brighton and Hove has an important role, the evidence to substantiate social and economic impact is sparse. Taking Account produces evidence of the dynamic and diverse third sector in Brighton and Hove allowing us to: • examine the sector’s social value and impact locally • evidence the sector’s economic value and impact locally • identify the role of the sector in strengthening communities and giving a voice to local people • assess how the sector influences public services • help ensure that the sector is better understood within the context of Brighton and Hove, and evidence its parity with other sectors • help better understand the sector and ensure we are getting the most out of it. Taking Account also tells us about the context in which the sector is operating and the changes since the social and economic audit in 2003, making comparisons where possible to the earlier analysis. This information will assist third sector organisations, policy-makers and commissioning bodies to steer the sector towards a stable and sustainable future.
  • Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?

    Church, Andrew; Hutchinson, Gillian (Routledge, 1989-07-01)
    CHURCH A. and HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Wage determination in Britain: is there a local dimension?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. This study presents an empirical regression analysis of wage determination in the five labour markets of Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay, and the London Borough of Newham. The data source is a newly available questionnaire survey of approximately 1,000 establishments undertaken in 1984–5. The explanatory variables include the plant's size, ownership, industrial type, three proxies for labour quality (the proportion of youths, the proportion of females and the proportion of part-time workers) and a union recognition dummy variable. The results discuss the relative importance of both national and local influences on pay levels. CHURCH A. et HUTCHINSON G. (1989) La détermination des salaires en Grande-Bretagne: est-ce qu'il y a un optique local?, Reg Studies 23, 289–300. Cet article présente une analyse empirique de régression de la détermination des salaires dans cinq bassins d'emplois, à savoir Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay et l'arrondissement de Newham à Londres. Les données proviennent des résultats d'une enquête par questionnaire embrassant un échantillon de 1 000 établissements effectuée en 1984–5 et qui ont paru récemment. Les variables explicatives comprennent la taille, la propriété, la nomenclature par activité principale, trois estimations de la qualité de la main-d'oeuvre (la proportion de jeunes, la proportion de femmes et la proportion de travailleurs à temps partiel) et une variable muette relative au comportement des syndicats. Les résultats permettent une discussion de l'importance relative des influences à la fois nationales et locales sur les niveaux des salaires. CHURCH A. und HUTCHINSON G. (1989) Festsetzung von Löhnen in Grossbritannien: sind diese irgendwie ortsbezogen?, Reg. Studies 23, 289–300. Diese Studie legt eine empirische Regressionsanalyse der Festsetzung von Löhnen in fünf Arbeitsmärkten vor: Motherwell, Preston, Reading, Torquay und Newham, einem Verwaltungsbezirk Gross-londons. Die Datenquelle ist eine vor kurzem zugänglich gemachte Erhebung, die sich im Jahre 1984–5 mittels Fragebogen an ungefähr 1000 Firmen gewandt hatte. Die erläuternden Veränderlichen enthalten: Betriebsgrösse, Besitzer, Industrietyp, drei stellvertretende Gruppen für die Art von Arbeitskräften (Anteil der Jugendlichen, Anteil der weiblichen Arbeitskräfte und Anteil der Kurzarbeiter) und eine blinde Veränderliche, welche Anerkennung einer Gewerkschaft darstellt. Die Ergebnisse behandeln die relative Bedeutung sowohl nationaler als auch örtlicher Einflüsse auf die Höhe der Löhne.
  • Wages, unions, the youth training scheme and the young workers scheme

    Hutchinson, Gillian; Church, Andrew (Wiley, 1989-05-01)
  • Unionization and the urban-rural shift in employment

    Church, Andrew; Stevens, Mark; Birkbeck College; Department of Employment ([Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers), Wiley], 1994-01-01)
  • Urban regeneration in London Docklands: a five-year policy review

    Church, Andrew (SAGE Publications, 1988-06-01)
    An urban development corporation was established in London Docklands in 1981. Recently, central government has announced its intention to set up similar organisations elsewhere in Britain, and, therefore, a review of the impact of the London Docklands' initiative is appropriate. In this paper I outline the impact of the urban development corporation, in terms of economic regeneration and of the effect on local unemployment. It is argued that demand-led economic regeneration, based on the redevelopment of derelict land, has changed the nature of the local economy, although as yet it has not had any significant effect on the numbers of jobs in the local economy, because of continued decline in existing industries and because of pressures on firms to relocate. Local unemployment has gone on increasing, and evidence is presented to show that labour-market adjustment mechanisms and recruitment patterns severely limit the impact of economic regeneration on unemployment in Docklands. Even major developments, such as the proposed office complex on Canary Wharf, will have only a relatively small effect on local unemployment. Local labour-market intervention has been slow to occur, limited in its aims, and uncoordinated. Urban development corporations are useful policy devices for the encouragement of large-scale land redevelopment, but in their present form they do not represent a complete solution to the economic and employment problems of depressed urban areas.
  • Transfrontier cooperation and the borders in the European Union

    Reid, Peter; Church, Andrew (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 1998-08-21)
    In Europe, many local authorities have been strengthening their cross-border links in response to the restructuring of national frontiers. This chapter examines three examples of transfrontier cooperation involving UK and French local authorities with very different administrative, political, economic and geographical characteristics, but each has sea borders with its cooperative authority. The Interreg programme provides European Union (EU) funding, in locations agreed by the European Commission, and for cross-border initiatives. Cross-border cooperative networks were designed mainly for the exchange of knowledge and information, but a growing number were developed either to increase resources mainly via EU programmes, or to synchronise policy implementation. Cooperation and networks have implications for local and urban autonomy. The emergence of cross-border initiatives raises important theoretical issues for the study of intergovernmental relations and central-local relations. Network economies and information exchange are perceived to be the main benefits of the Euroregion.
  • Urban power, international networks and competition: the example of cross-border cooperation

    Church, Andrew; Reid, Peter (SAGE Publications, 1996-10-01)
    The involvement of urban and regional governments in transnational cooperative arrangements and policy networks has led to considerable debate regarding the political and theoretical implications. This paper examines networking and cooperation between urban areas and regions in the UK and France with a shared sea border. Such cross-border cooperation involving local authorities in Europe is a growing phenomenon and has certain implications for the analysis of local and urban politics. Three study areas are examined in detail: the Transmanche region involving Kent County Council and the French region Nord-Pas-de-Calais; the Transmanche Metropole which includes Southampton, Portsmouth, Bournemouth and Poole in Britain and Caen, Rouen and Le Havre in France; the cooperative initiative between the English county of East Sussex and the French departements of Somme and Seine-Maritime. In all three case studies, the development of cooperation has been influenced by the availability of funds from the European Union Interreg programme which supports transfrontier networking. A number of political consequences of cross-border cooperation are identified. The implications of these policy initiatives for theories of urban politics are considered, including a discussion of the political and economic construction of competition and cooperation between cities and regions.
  • Green credit policy and maturity mismatch risk in polluting and non-polluting companies

    Cao, Yaowei; Zhang, Youtang; Yang, Liu; Li, Rita Yi Man; Crabbe, M. James C.; University of Bedfordshire; Wuhan University of Technology; Hong Kong Shue Yan University; Oxford University; Shanxi University (MDPI, 2021-03-24)
    A major issue is whether the implementation of China’s green credit policy will affect the coordinated development of corporate sustainable operations and environmental protection. This paper used a propensity score matching—difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) model to analyse the impact of China’s green credit policy implemented in 2012 on the maturity mismatch risk between investment and financing in polluting and non-polluting companies. We found that: (1) green credit policies can help reduce the risk of maturity mismatch between investment and financing for polluting companies; (2) the reduction of short-term bank credit is the main way to curb the risk of maturity mismatch risk between investment and financing; (3) the green credit policy has no obvious mitigation effect on the risk of maturity mismatch between investment and financing among polluting companies with environmental protection investment; (4) the mitigation effect of the green credit policy on the maturity mismatch risk is more significant in state-owned polluting companies and polluting companies in areas with a lower level of financial development. The empirical results show that China’s green credit policy helps stimulate the environmental protection behaviour of companies, as well as helping alleviate the capital chain risk caused by the maturity mismatch between investment and financing. In addition, despite the effect of heterogeneity, it can solve the contradiction between environmental protection and economic development.
  • Care, play and lifelong learning

    Mathew, David; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2019-02-04)
    In this paper, links between the concepts of long-term care and lifelong learning are suggested, and notions of care and the author’s construction of the Pedagogic Third will be proposed. The psychoanalysis of children stresses the importance of symbolic play, during which the child uses games to master internal conflicts. Analogous results might emerge from play that engages adult learners. However, where play helps children define roles and accept rule-regulated behaviour, we consider to what extent an adult learner is addressing desires which cannot be satisfied because they are too threatening, or desires which cannot be satisfied in reality and which are represented symbolically in play as an alternative. In order to work through these ideas, we consider a comedic representation of a hospital ward and an extract from the diary of a midwife who was also a long-term patient. The author’s contribution to the conference was a workshop and not the presentation of a paper. As such, this paper has been written in retrospect and is consequently reflective in stance. Much of the work described in this paper is connected to a larger piece of work, a monograph in progress, due to be published in 2019.
  • Moving widening participation outreach online: challenge or opportunity?

    Rainford, Jon; ; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-30)
    The COVID-19 pandemic creates an immediate need to deliver existing pre-entry widening participation outreach work remotely. In doing so this means rethinking existing programmes and adapting existing working practices. This paper proposes a three-dimensional framework involving pedagogical, technological and the humanistic elements. It argues that any technological solutions need to consider the inequalities of access to technology and the barriers faced by both practitioners and students. Understanding the changing nature of this work alongside the potential time and investment needed to realise its potential is vital for all staff with strategic and operational responsibility related to access and participation. Whilst some existing pre-entry work may not translate to this new mode, online outreach has the potential to open up new ways to engage and inspire target learners over sustained periods through combined creation and curation of content.
  • Military expenditure economic growth nexus in Jordan: an application of ARDL bound test analysis in the presence of breaks

    Dimitraki, Ourania; Win, Sandar; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-02-23)
    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a nation that has persisted through turbulent times. The country’s leaders have long attempted to balance the allocation of resources between a strong military and a developing economy in their quest for stability, peace and prosperity. This paper examines the relationship between Jordan’s military expenditure and economic growth during the period 1970-2015 to shed further light.  Using cointegration techniques allowing for structural breaks based on Gregory and Hansen (1996), and the ARDL methodology this paper tests the short and long-run equilibrium relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in Jordan. Furthermore, with the error correction model (ECM) and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, we examine the stability of the above relationship. The results show that there is a positive, long-run and short run relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in Jordan during the period under study. This finding has important policy implication to the Jordanian state as it justifies that the transfer of resources to the military has not negatively impacted economic growth.

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