Care, play and lifelong learningIn this paper, links between the concepts of long-term care and lifelong learning are suggested, and notions of care and the author’s construction of the Pedagogic Third will be proposed. The psychoanalysis of children stresses the importance of symbolic play, during which the child uses games to master internal conflicts. Analogous results might emerge from play that engages adult learners. However, where play helps children define roles and accept rule-regulated behaviour, we consider to what extent an adult learner is addressing desires which cannot be satisfied because they are too threatening, or desires which cannot be satisfied in reality and which are represented symbolically in play as an alternative. In order to work through these ideas, we consider a comedic representation of a hospital ward and an extract from the diary of a midwife who was also a long-term patient. The author’s contribution to the conference was a workshop and not the presentation of a paper. As such, this paper has been written in retrospect and is consequently reflective in stance. Much of the work described in this paper is connected to a larger piece of work, a monograph in progress, due to be published in 2019.
Moving widening participation outreach online: challenge or opportunity?The COVID-19 pandemic creates an immediate need to deliver existing pre-entry widening participation outreach work remotely. In doing so this means rethinking existing programmes and adapting existing working practices. This paper proposes a three-dimensional framework involving pedagogical, technological and the humanistic elements. It argues that any technological solutions need to consider the inequalities of access to technology and the barriers faced by both practitioners and students. Understanding the changing nature of this work alongside the potential time and investment needed to realise its potential is vital for all staff with strategic and operational responsibility related to access and participation. Whilst some existing pre-entry work may not translate to this new mode, online outreach has the potential to open up new ways to engage and inspire target learners over sustained periods through combined creation and curation of content.
Military expenditure economic growth nexus in Jordan: an application of ARDL bound test analysis in the presence of breaksThe Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a nation that has persisted through turbulent times. The country’s leaders have long attempted to balance the allocation of resources between a strong military and a developing economy in their quest for stability, peace and prosperity. This paper examines the relationship between Jordan’s military expenditure and economic growth during the period 1970-2015 to shed further light. Using cointegration techniques allowing for structural breaks based on Gregory and Hansen (1996), and the ARDL methodology this paper tests the short and long-run equilibrium relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in Jordan. Furthermore, with the error correction model (ECM) and CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, we examine the stability of the above relationship. The results show that there is a positive, long-run and short run relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in Jordan during the period under study. This finding has important policy implication to the Jordanian state as it justifies that the transfer of resources to the military has not negatively impacted economic growth.
Sovereign debt, deficits and defence spending: the case of GreeceThe outbreak of the sovereign debt crisis at the end of 2009 in Greece led to a severe recession, and constant economic problems. This paper investigates military expenditure among others as a potential factor to the growth of sovereign debt in Greece over the period 1960 until currently. Our empirical findings suggest that high deficits, inflation and military spending have been the primary causes of debt growth in Greece. The structural break models reveal a much higher effect of deficits and inflation in the post-1990 period while the threshold switching regression, based on the level of sovereign debt, indicate that for levels of debt-to-GDP ratio above 90% deficits, inflation and military expenditures had significantly more pronounced effects on government debt changes.