• Antireflection silicon structures with hydrophobic property fabricated by three-beam laser interference

      Zhao, Le; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, J.; Cao, L.; Li, L.; Yue, Y.; Li, Dayou; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire; Jiaotong-Liverpool University (Elsevier, 2015-08-15)
      This paper demonstrates antireflective structures on silicon wafer surfaces with hydrophobic property fabricated by three-beam laser interference. In this work, a three-beam laser interference system was set up to generate periodic micro-nano hole structures with hexagonal distributions. Compared with the existing technologies, the array of hexagonally-distributed hole structures fabricated by three-beam laser interference reveals a design guideline to achieve considerably low solar-weighted reflectance (SWR) in the wavelength range of 300-780 nm. The resulting periodic hexagonally-distributed hole structures have shown extremely low SWR (1.86%) and relatively large contact angle (140°) providing with a self-cleaning capability on the solar cell surface.
    • Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

      Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-07-10)
      As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.
    • Experimental investigation into the effect of magnetic fuel reforming on diesel combustion and emissions running on wheat germ and pine oil

      Thiyagarajan, S.; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Geo, V. Edwin; Peng, Zhijun; SRM University, India; University of Hertfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-01-11)
      The present study aims to explore the effect of fuel ionisation on engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a twin cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine running on biofuel. Wheat germ oil (WGO) and pine oil (PO) have been identified as diesel fuel surrogates with high and low viscosities, respectively. High viscosity biofuels result in incomplete combustion due to poor atomisation and vaporisation which ultimately leads to insufficient fuel and air mixing to form a combustible mixture. Consequently, engines running on this type of fuel suffer from lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher soot emissions. In contrast, low viscosity biofuels exhibit superior combustion characteristics however they have a low cetane number which causes longer ignition delay and therefore higher NO emission. To overcome the limitations of both fuels, a fuel ionisation filter (FIF) with a permanent magnet is installed before the fuel pump which electrochemically ionises the fuel molecules and aids in quick dispersion of the ions. The engine used in this investigation is a twin cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was initially run on diesel to warm-up before switching to WGO and PO, this was mainly due to poor cold start performance characteristics of both fuels. At 100% load, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for WGO is reduced by 4% compared to diesel and improved by 7% with FIF. In contrast, BTE for PO is 4% higher compared to diesel, however, FIF has minimal effect on BTE when running on PO. Although, smoke, HC and CO emissions were higher for WGO compared to diesel, they were lower with FIF due to improved combustion. These emissions were consistently lower for PO due to superior combustion performance, mainly attributed to low viscosity of the fuel. However, NO emission for PO (1610 ppm) is higher compared to diesel (1580 ppm) at 100% load and reduced with FIF (1415 ppm). NO emission is reduced by approximately 12% for PO+FIF compared to PO. The results suggest that FIF has the potential to improve the combustion performance and reduce NO emission of high viscosity and low viscosity biofuels, respectively.
    • Exploring the potential benefits of Ethanol Direct Injection (EDI) timing and pressure on particulate emission characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine

      Li, Xiang; Li, Dayou; Liu, Jingyin; Ajmal, Tahmina; Aitouche, Abdel; Mobasheri, Raouf; Rybdylova, Oyuna; Pei, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhijun; ; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-26)
      Nowadays, particulate matter emitted by vehicles severely impacts environmental quality and human health. In this paper, the potential benefits of Ethanol Direct Injection (EDI) timing and pressure on particulate emission characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine were initially and systematically explored. The experimental results illustrate that by delaying EDI timing from -340 ºCA to -300 ºCA, there is a significant benefit in both particulate number and mass concentration. Furthermore, the size distribution curve of particulate number changes from bimodal to unimodal, meantime size distribution curves of particulate mass consistently concentrate on the accumulation mode. By increasing EDI pressure from 5.5 MPa to 18 MPa, the droplet size of ethanol spray can be effectively reduced. The benefit of increasing EDI pressure is more apparent in reducing particulate number is than particulate mass. The concentration of number and mass for total particulates have a reduction of 51.15% and 22.64%, respectively. In summary, it was demonstrated that an appropriate EDI timing or high EDI pressure could be a practical and efficient way to reduce particulate emissions in a DFSI engine.
    • Highly birefringent nonlinear PCF for optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions

      Ademgil, Huseyin; Haxha, Shyqyri; European University of Lefke, Turkey; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2016-05-01)
      This paper presents a design of a nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) based sensor exhibiting simultaneously high sensitivity, high birefringence and low confinement losses for liquid analyte sensing applications. We investigate the PCF sensor performance for the following analytes; Water, Ethanol and Benzyne. The impact of various design parameters of the highly nonlinear PCF on the relative sensitivity, the confinement losses and the birefringence features of the proposed PCF structure is numerically investigated by employing the full vectorial Finite Element Method (FEM). According to our FEM numerical results, a three ring nonlinear PCF based sensor is designed that simultaneously offers high birefringence of order 10-3 and high relative sensitivity at wide wavelength range.
    • Numerical investigation on implementing Oxy-Fuel Combustion (OFC) in an ethanol-gasoline Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine

      Li, Xiang; Pei, Yiqiang; Ajmal, Tahmina; Rana, Khaqan-Jim; Aitouche, Abdel; Mobasheri, Raouf; Peng, Zhijun; University of Bedfordshire; Tianjin University; CRIStAL - Centre de Recherche en Informatique Signal et Automatique de Lille; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-06-08)
      To decrease even eliminate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions for mitigating global warming, various technologies are being developed on combustion engines. In the research presented in this paper, a numerical investigation of Oxy-Fuel Combustion (OFC) technology on an ethanol-gasoline Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) engine under economical oxygen consumption at low and mid-high loads was performed by one-dimensional computer simulation. It is demonstrated that under OFC mode without other optimisation, Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) can meet the requirement at mid-high load, but it has a considerable decline at low load compared to Conventional Air Combustion (CAC) mode. Moreover, there is a considerable deterioration in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) compared to that of CAC mode. A practical method is proposed to optimise the DFSI engine performance under OFC mode by changing intake charge components and utilising appropriate Water Injection (WI) strategies. BMEP increases approximately 0.05 bar at low load. BSFC has a reduction of 3.35% and 1.82% at low load and mid-high load, respectively.
    • Optimisation of dispersion compensating in a long-haul fibre for RF transmission of up to 100Gbit/s by using RZ and NRZ formats

      Paloi, Fadil; Mirza, Taimur; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2016-12-02)
      With the recent data rate increase it is very challenging to build a fibre optic network that would enable a high data rate transmission over a long haul distance. The signal suffers large degradation over a certain distance due to distortion by the nonlinear effects of the optical fibres. In particular, transmission of high data rates over existing fibre optic systems, while keeping the cost low, avoiding an increase of the system’s complexity and the usage of expensive devices, would be a very challenging task. In this paper, we address this problem by increasing the transmission distance in the fibre optic links for up to 2500km. We have used Standard Single Mode Fibre (SSMF) and Dispersion Compensation Fibre (DCF), where DCF is used as a loss compensator in Radio-Over-Fibre (RoF) systems. A mixture combination of the pre, post and symmetrical fibre compensation schemes were developed to overcome the dispersion in the fibre. We have found that in order to achieve high RF over fibre optic system performance for high data rates and long transmission, there is a requirement to upgrade the optical configuration scheme in a proportional way, by raising the length of the fibre span, compensation span and amplification. We have reported optimised RF over fibre configuration schemes that would have a great impact on reducing the cost, reducing the system’s complexity and avoiding usage of expensive devices, in order to achieve high data rate transmission over existing fibre optic systems.
    • Separate and combined effects of hydrogen and nitrogen additions on diesel engine combustion

      Mobasheri, Raouf; Seddiq, Mahdi; Peng, Zhijun; University of Ayatollah Ozma Boroujerdi; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-12-01)
      Shortage of non-renewable energies, increase in fossil fuel prices and stricter emissions regulations due to high NOx and soot emissions emitted from combustion of heavy diesel fuels by compression ignition engines, has led consumers to use renewable, cleaner and cheap fuels. An investigation has been computationally carried out to explore the influences of hydrogen and nitrogen addition on engine performance such as indicated power and indicated specific energy consumption and amounts of pollutant emissions like NOx, soot, and CO in an HSDI (High-Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine. Optimized sub-models, such as turbulence model, spray model, combustion model and emissions models have selected for the main CFD code. Meanwhile, HF (Homogeneity Factor) has been employed for analysing in-cylinder air-fuel mixing quality under various addition conditions. After validations with experimental data of diesel combustion with a single addition of 4% hydrogen and combined addition of 6% hydrogen + 6% nitrogen, investigations have conducted for modelling mixing and combustion processes with additions of hydrogen and nitrogen by ranges of 2% to 8% (v/v). Results showed that a single addition of H2 increased NOx and decreased CO and soot and improved ISEC and IP. In the case of nitrogen addition, NOx decreased, both CO and soot emission increased and ISEC and IP considerably ruined compared with NDC operation. Based on the results obtained for simultaneous addition of N2 (8% of v/v) and H2 (8% of v/v), NOx and soot emissions decreased by 11.5% and 42.5% respectively, and ISEC and IP improved 25.7% and 13%, respectively. But amount of CO emissions had an increase of 52% should be paid ncecessary attention as a main disadvantage.
    • Sustainable μECM machining process: indicators and assessment

      Mortazavi, Mina; Ivanov, Atanas; Brunel University London (Elsevier, 2019-07-06)
      Sustainability assessment of a manufacturing process is not an easy task and requires knowledge from inside of the process physics or chemistry as well as the overall process performance considering the effectiveness of the process and specific applications. Sustainability assessment is with increasing demand among the manufacturing companies. At present sustainability is considered only among the traditional manufacturing techniques and non-traditional processes do not receive enough attention in spite of the increasing demand for their use. Additionally micro and nano non-traditional manufacturing processes are nearly not considered in the studies for sustainability; and micro electrochemical machining (μECM) was not an exemption either. μECM is one of the promising non-conventional machining processes but its expensive structure, complex nature of the electrochemical reaction and process dependency on operator experiences has kept it back at research level. Securing a place for a new manufacturing process has to be done by proving its sustainability in comparison to the other existing processes. In this work, the aim is to establish a framework for assessment of the μECM sustainability based on five dimensions of the sustainability in order to justify its use and the initial investment cost. Indicators and measures for the effectiveness of the process are suggested as well as machining performance parameters are discussed. Routes for optimizing machining parameters is also explored. Finally the full picture sustainability assessment is generated.
    • Visual SLAM algorithms and their application for AR, mapping, localization and wayfinding

      Theodorou, Charalambos; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Dyo, Vladimir; Nonyelu, Fredi; ; University of Bedfordshire; Briteyellow (Elsevier, 2022-08-03)
      Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) algorithms use device camera to estimate agent’s position and reconstruct structures in an unknown environment. As an essential part of augmented reality (AR) experience, vSLAM enhances the real-world environment through the addition of virtual objects, based on localization (location) and environment structure (mapping). From both technical and historical perspectives, this paper categorizes and summarizes some of the most recent visual SLAM algorithms proposed in research communities, while also discussing their applications in augmented reality, mapping, navigation, and localization.