• Investigation of oxyfuel combustion on engine performance and emissions in a DI diesel HCCI engine

      Mobasheri, Raouf; Izza, Nadia; Aitouche, Abdel; Peng, Jun; Bakir, Boualem (IEEE, 2020-01-09)
      Due to stronger environmental standard aims, the European Union (EU) has recently adopted more stringent limits for emissions from inland waterway vessels. The objective of “RIVER” project is to apply an oxyfuel combustion technology for diesel engines that eliminates NOx emissions, and captures and stores all carbon dioxide emissions in order to achieve zero-carbon and zero other pollutant emissions. As part of this project, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics has been used to evaluate the influence of oxyfuel combustion on engine operating conditions and combustion characteristic in a high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. In this work, a reduced chemical n-heptane-n-butanol-PAH mechanism which consists 76 species and 349 reactions has been applied to simulate the combustion process. The mechanism has been initially validated by experiments under HCCI combustion mode and then, it has been used to examine the oxyfuel combustion using different diluent strategies over a range of air-fuel equivalence ratio (lambda). The simulation results indicate that increasing the inlet carbon dioxide concentration, as a diluent gas, under constant fueling rate does not bring any serious change to the amount of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) in the relatively rich mixtures regions. However, by decreasing the fuel rate (higher lambda) the difference between different diluent strategies become more obvious as the minimum amount of BMEP is achieved when 83% of carbon dioxide is used. In addition, the results show a considerable reduction of PM emissions while the NOx emission have been completely eliminated using oxyfuel combustion.
    • Passive localization through light flicker fingerprinting

      Munir, Bilal; Dyo, Vladimir (IEEE, 2019-08-22)
      In this paper, we show that the flicker waveforms of various CFL and LED lamp models exhibit distinctive waveform patterns due to harmonic distortions of rectifiers and voltage regulators, the key components of modern lamp drivers. We then propose a passive localization technique based on fingerprinting these distortions that occur naturally in indoor environments and thus requires no infrastructure or additional equipment. The novel technique uses principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the most important signal features from the flicker frequency spectra followed by kNN clustering and neural net- work classifiers to identify a light source based on its flicker signature. The evaluation on 39 flicker patterns collected from 8 residential locations demonstrates that the technique can identify a location within a house with up to 90% accuracy and identify an individual house from a set of houses with an average accuracy of 86.3%.
    • Experimental investigation into the effect of magnetic fuel reforming on diesel combustion and emissions running on wheat germ and pine oil

      Thiyagarajan, S.; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Geo, V. Edwin; Peng, Zhijun; SRM University, India; University of Hertfordshire; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-01-11)
      The present study aims to explore the effect of fuel ionisation on engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a twin cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine running on biofuel. Wheat germ oil (WGO) and pine oil (PO) have been identified as diesel fuel surrogates with high and low viscosities, respectively. High viscosity biofuels result in incomplete combustion due to poor atomisation and vaporisation which ultimately leads to insufficient fuel and air mixing to form a combustible mixture. Consequently, engines running on this type of fuel suffer from lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher soot emissions. In contrast, low viscosity biofuels exhibit superior combustion characteristics however they have a low cetane number which causes longer ignition delay and therefore higher NO emission. To overcome the limitations of both fuels, a fuel ionisation filter (FIF) with a permanent magnet is installed before the fuel pump which electrochemically ionises the fuel molecules and aids in quick dispersion of the ions. The engine used in this investigation is a twin cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was initially run on diesel to warm-up before switching to WGO and PO, this was mainly due to poor cold start performance characteristics of both fuels. At 100% load, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for WGO is reduced by 4% compared to diesel and improved by 7% with FIF. In contrast, BTE for PO is 4% higher compared to diesel, however, FIF has minimal effect on BTE when running on PO. Although, smoke, HC and CO emissions were higher for WGO compared to diesel, they were lower with FIF due to improved combustion. These emissions were consistently lower for PO due to superior combustion performance, mainly attributed to low viscosity of the fuel. However, NO emission for PO (1610 ppm) is higher compared to diesel (1580 ppm) at 100% load and reduced with FIF (1415 ppm). NO emission is reduced by approximately 12% for PO+FIF compared to PO. The results suggest that FIF has the potential to improve the combustion performance and reduce NO emission of high viscosity and low viscosity biofuels, respectively.
    • A novel fuzzy logic variable geometry turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation control scheme for optimizing the performance and emissions of a diesel engine

      Cheng, Li; Dimitriou, Pavlos; Wang, William; Peng, Jun; Aitouch, Abdel; University of Sussex; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan; University of Bedfordshire; Centre de Recherche en Informatique, Signal et Automatique de Lille (CRIStAL), France (SAGE, 2018-10-31)
      Variable geometry turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation valves are widely installed on diesel engines to allow optimized control of intake air mass flow and exhaust gas recirculation ratio. The positions of variable geometry turbocharger vanes and exhaust gas recirculation valve are predominantly regulated by dual-loop proportional–integral–derivative controllers to achieve predefined set-points of intake air pressure and exhaust gas recirculation mass flow. The setpoints are determined by extensive mapping of the intake air pressure and exhaust gas recirculation mass flow against various engine speeds and loads concerning engine performance and emissions. However, due to the inherent nonlinearities of diesel engines and the strong interferences between variable geometry turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation, an extensive map of gains for the P, I, and D terms of the proportional–integral–derivative controllers is required to achieve desired control performance. The present simulation study proposes a novel fuzzy logic control scheme to determine appropriate positions of variable geometry turbocharger vanes and exhaust gas recirculation valve in realtime. Once determined, the actual positions of the vanes and valve are regulated by two local proportional–integral–derivative controllers. The fuzzy logic control rules are derived based on an understanding of the interactions among the variable geometry turbocharger, exhaust gas recirculation, and diesel engine. The results obtained from an experimentally validated one-dimensional transient diesel engine model showed that the proposed fuzzy logic control scheme is capable of efficiently optimizing variable geometry turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation positions under transient engine operating conditions in real-time. Compared to the baseline proportional–integral–derivative controllers approach, both engine’s efficiency and total turbo efficiency have been improved by the proposed fuzzy logic control scheme while NOx and soot emissions have been significantly reduced by 34% and 82%, respectively.
    • A novel disparity-assisted block matching-based approach for super-resolution of light field images

      Farag, Saber; Velisavljević, Vladan; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2018-06-01)
      Currently, available plenoptic imaging technology has limited resolution. That makes it challenging to use this technology in applications, where sharpness is essential, such as film industry. Previous attempts aimed at enhancing the spatial resolution of plenoptic light field (LF) images were based on block and patch matching inherited from classical image super-resolution, where multiple views were considered as separate frames. By contrast to these approaches, a novel super-resolution technique is proposed in this paper with a focus on exploiting estimated disparity information to reduce the matching area in the super-resolution process. We estimate the disparity information from the interpolated LR view point images (VPs). We denote our method as light field block matching super-resolution. We additionally combine our novel super-resolution method with directionally adaptive image interpolation from [1] to preserve sharpness of the high-resolution images. We prove a steady gain in the PSNR and SSIM quality of the super-resolved images for the resolution enhancement factor 8x8 as compared to the recent approaches and also to our previous work [2].
    • Real-time refocusing using an FPGA-based standard plenoptic camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljević, Vladan; University of Bedfordshire; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (IEEE, 2018-03-22)
      Plenoptic cameras are receiving increased attention in scientific and commercial applications because they capture the entire structure of light in a scene, enabling optical transforms (such as focusing) to be applied computationally after the fact, rather than once and for all at the time a picture is taken. In many settings, real-time inter active performance is also desired, which in turn requires significant computational power due to the large amount of data required to represent a plenoptic image. Although GPUs have been shown to provide acceptable performance for real-time plenoptic rendering, their cost and power requirements make them prohibitive for embedded uses (such as in-camera). On the other hand, the computation to accomplish plenoptic rendering is well structured, suggesting the use of specialized hardware. Accordingly, this paper presents an array of switch-driven finite impulse response filters, implemented with FPGA to accomplish high-throughput spatial-domain rendering. The proposed architecture provides a power-efficient rendering hardware design suitable for full-video applications as required in broadcasting or cinematography. A benchmark assessment of the proposed hardware implementation shows that real-time performance can readily be achieved, with a one order of magnitude performance improvement over a GPU implementation and three orders ofmagnitude performance improvement over a general-purpose CPU implementation.
    • Characteristics of near-nozzle spray development from a fouled GDI injector

      Zhou, Jianwei; Pei, Yiqiang; Peng, Zhijun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Qin, Jing; Wang, Li; Liu, Changwen; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Tianjin University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2018-03-16)
      The near-nozzle spray development of a typical fouled gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector was investigated. The fouled injector had been used in a stratified-charge combustion GDI engine and showed typical characteristics, such as accumulated deposits inside and around the nozzles and a reduced flow rate of 2.9–5.7%. Back-illumination and Mie-scattering methods were employed in spray experiments, in conjunction with a high speed camera and a macro lens, to assess the near-nozzle spray behaviors. The experimental results show that at all injection pressures tested, the interaction between deposits and spray led to several poor spray behaviors during the full injection evolution, including spray distortion, residual fuel storage in the nozzles and deposits layer, liquid splashing, the formation of ligament and large droplets and tip wetting/dripping. These effects all may result in high soot emissions. The after-injection stage of the fouled injector produced more liquid ligaments than that of the new injector. It was also found that high injection pressures did not improve atomization during after-injection, nor reduce the amounts of ligaments and droplet clusters beyond the main spray boundary. The plume width and projected spray area of a single nozzle in the fouled injector were decreased by 5–7% and 17–20%, respectively, due to fuel flow losses. The delays in the start of injection and end of injection were approximately 20 μs and 30–40 μs, respectively.
    • Large Eddy Simulation analysis on confined swirling flows in a gas turbine swirl burner

      Liu, Tao; Bai, Fuqiang; Zhao, Zixuan; Lin, Yuzhen; Du, Qing; Peng, Zhijun; Tianjin University; University of Ottawa; University of Bedfordshire; Beihang University (MDPI, 2017-12-07)
      This paper describes a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) investigation into flow fields in a model gas turbine combustor equipped with a swirl burner. A probability density function was used to describe the interaction physics of chemical reaction and turbulent flow as liquid fuel was directly injected into the combustion chamber and rapidly mixed with the swirling air. Simulation results showed that heat release during combustion accelerated the axial velocity motion and made the recirculation zone more compact. As the combustion was taking place under lean burn conditions, NO emissions was less than 10 ppm. Finally, the effects of outlet contraction on swirling flows and combustion instability were investigated. Results suggest that contracted outlet can enhance the generation of a Central Vortex Core (CVC) flow structure. As peak RMS of velocity fluctuation profiles at center-line suggested the turbulent instability can be enhanced by CVC motion, the Power Spectrum Density (PSD) amplitude also explained that the oscillation at CVC position was greater than other places. Both evidences demonstrated that outlet contraction can increase the instability of the central field.  [m1]Is’t right? Yes.
    • Improved efficiency of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells with wide band-gap CdS buffer layer

      Jabeen, Maria; Haxha, Shyqyri; Charlton, Martin D.B.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Southampton (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017-12-01)
      In this paper, we have reported a new structure based upon an optical simulation of maximum light trapping and management in microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells by using multi texture schemes and introducing an n-type cadmium sulphide (CdS) buffer layer with the goal of extreme light coupling and absorption in silicon absorber layer. Photon absorption was improved by optimising the front and back texturing of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers and variation in buffer layer thickness. We have demonstrated that light trapping can be improved with proposed geometry of 1μm thick crystalline silicon absorber layer below a thin layer of wide band gap material. We have improved the short circuit current densities by 1.35mA/cm2 resulting in a total short circuit current of 25 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 9% with the addition of CdS buffer layer and multi textures, under global AM1.5 conditions. In this study, we have used 2 Dimensional Full Vectorial Finite Element (2DFVFEM) to design and optimize the proposed light propagation in solar cell structure configuration. Our simulation results show that interface morphology of CdS layer thickness and textures with different aspect and ratios have the most prominent influence on solar cell performance in terms of both short circuit current and quantum efficiency.
    • Separate and combined effects of hydrogen and nitrogen additions on diesel engine combustion

      Mobasheri, Raouf; Seddiq, Mahdi; Peng, Zhijun; University of Ayatollah Ozma Boroujerdi; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-12-01)
      Shortage of non-renewable energies, increase in fossil fuel prices and stricter emissions regulations due to high NOx and soot emissions emitted from combustion of heavy diesel fuels by compression ignition engines, has led consumers to use renewable, cleaner and cheap fuels. An investigation has been computationally carried out to explore the influences of hydrogen and nitrogen addition on engine performance such as indicated power and indicated specific energy consumption and amounts of pollutant emissions like NOx, soot, and CO in an HSDI (High-Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine. Optimized sub-models, such as turbulence model, spray model, combustion model and emissions models have selected for the main CFD code. Meanwhile, HF (Homogeneity Factor) has been employed for analysing in-cylinder air-fuel mixing quality under various addition conditions. After validations with experimental data of diesel combustion with a single addition of 4% hydrogen and combined addition of 6% hydrogen + 6% nitrogen, investigations have conducted for modelling mixing and combustion processes with additions of hydrogen and nitrogen by ranges of 2% to 8% (v/v). Results showed that a single addition of H2 increased NOx and decreased CO and soot and improved ISEC and IP. In the case of nitrogen addition, NOx decreased, both CO and soot emission increased and ISEC and IP considerably ruined compared with NDC operation. Based on the results obtained for simultaneous addition of N2 (8% of v/v) and H2 (8% of v/v), NOx and soot emissions decreased by 11.5% and 42.5% respectively, and ISEC and IP improved 25.7% and 13%, respectively. But amount of CO emissions had an increase of 52% should be paid ncecessary attention as a main disadvantage.
    • Authentication in millimeter-wave body-centric networks through wireless channel characterization

      Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Zhiya; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Ren, Aifeng; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianxun; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Binbin; Xidian University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2017-11-13)
      Advent of 5G technologies has ensued in massive growth of body-centric communications (BCC), especially at millimeter-wave frequencies. As a result, the portable/handheld terminals are becoming more and more “intelligent” but not without the cost of being less secure. Improved authentication measures need to be explored, as effective identity authentication is the first level of security in these devices. This paper presents a novel keyless authentication method exploiting wireless channel characteristics. Human palm has distinct transmission coefficient (S21) for each of the users and is used for in-vivo fingerprint identification in this work. A detailed channel modeling using data acquisition from real environment and empirical approach is adopted to evaluate the usability of this method. The results show that this method can provide a secure operation for the millimeter-wave 5G BCCs.
    • Fabrication of periodically micropatterned magnetite nanoparticles by laser-interference-controlled electrodeposition

      Wang, Lu; Dong, Litong; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Xu, Hongmei; Yu, Miao; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology (Springer US, 2017-11-09)
      This paper introduces a laser-interference-controlled electrochemical deposition method for direct fabrication of periodically micropatterned magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs). In this work, Fe3O4 NPs were controllably synthesized on the areas where the photoconductive electrode was exposed to the periodically patterned interferometric laser irradiation during the electrodeposition. Thus, the micropattern of Fe3O4 NPs was controlled by interferometric laser pattern, and the crystallization of the particles was controlled by laser interference intensity and electrochemical deposition conditions. The bottom-up electrochemical approach was combined with a top-down laser interference methodology. This maskless method allows for in situ fabrication of periodically patterned magnetite NPs on the microscale by electrodeposition under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. In the experiment, Fe3O4 NPs with the mean grain size below 100 nm in the pattern of 5-lm line array were achieved within the deposition time of 100 s. The experiment results have shown that the proposed method is a one-step approach in fabricating large areas of periodically micropatterned magnetite NPs.
    • Design and study of a circular polarised conical-disc-backed spiral antenna for X-Band applications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaodong; University of Bedfordshire; Xidian University; Queen Mary University of London (IEEE, 2017-10-02)
      Design of a conical-disc-backed circular-polarized Archimedean single-arm spiral antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna operation covers the X -band frequencies ranging from 8 to 12 GHz. The antenna makes use of a very simple structure having the single-arm spiral backed by a cone-shaped metallic disc to achieve high gain, circular polarization, and unidirectional symmetric radiation near the boresight. The diameter of the antenna only measures to 40 mm. The simulated and measured results show that the antenna has a very good impedance matching (better than −10 dB), good right-hand circular polarization (with an axial ratio of ≤3 dB) throughout the frequency range of interest, and offers a maximum peak gain of 11.4 dBiC. The presented S11 response and radiation pattern results also show that the antenna offers excellent performance in the X -band with no need of a balun. Antenna usefulness is also established through a detailed parametric study and comparison with a traditional flat disc structure. Compact size, simple design, wide range, and high gain make the proposed antenna design a good choice for radar, terrestrial communications, and satellite/aerospace communications applications.
    • A low profile antenna for millimetre-wave body-centric applications

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Malik, Nabeel A.; Yang, Xiaodong; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Xidian University (IEEE, 2017-09-27)
      Millimetre-Wave frequencies are a front runner contender for the next generation body-centric wireless communications. In this paper, design of a very low profile antenna is presented for body-centric applications operating in the millimetre-wave frequency band centred at 60 GHz. The antenna has an overall size of 14£10.5£1.15 mm3 and is printed on a flexible printed circuit board. The performance of the antenna is evaluated in off-body, on-body and body-to-body communication scenarios using a realistic numerical phantom and verified through measurements. The antenna has a bandwidth of 9.8 GHz and offers a gain of 10.6 dBi in off-body (free space) configuration while 12.1 dBi in on-body configuration. It also acheives an efficiency of 74% in off-body and 63% in on-body scenario. The small and flexible structure of the antenna along with excellent impedance matching, broad bandwidth, high gain and good efficiency makes it a suitable candidate to attain simultaneous data transmission/reception at millimetre-wave frequencies for the 5G body-centric applications.
    • Convexity characterization of virtual view reconstruction error in multi-view imaging

      Velisavljević, Vladan; Dorea, Camilo; Chakareski, Jacob; de Queiroz, Ricardo (IEEE, 2017-09-22)
      Virtual view synthesis is a key component of multi-view imaging systems that enable visual immersion environments for emerging applications, e.g., virtual reality and 360-degree video. Using a small collection of captured reference viewpoints, this technique reconstructs any view of a remote scene of interest navigated by a user, to enhance the perceived immersion experience. We carry out a convexity characterization analysis of the virtual view reconstruction error that is caused by compression of the captured multi-view content. This error is expressed as a function of the virtual viewpoint coordinate relative to the captured reference viewpoints. We derive fundamental insights about the nature of this dependency and formulate a prediction framework that is able to accurately predict the specific dependency shape, convex or concave, for given reference views, multi-view content and compression settings. We are able to integrate our analysis into a proof-of-concept coding framework and demonstrate considerable benefits over a baseline approach.
    • A hybrid approach for image super-resolution of light field images

      Farag, Saber; Velisavljević, Vladan; Aggoun, Amar (IEEE, 2017-09-22)
      Recent advances in camera technologies has led to the design of plenoptic cameras. This camera type can capture multiple images of the same scene using arrays of microlenses, where each microlens has a shifted location providing a separate view of the scene. Such a design results in a superior performance as compared to traditional cameras, enabling multi-view or multi-focal imaging captured in a single shot. However, currently available plenoptic cameras are limited in spatial resolution, which makes it difficult to use them in applications where sharpness or high resolution is key, such as the film industry. Our paper presents a novel light field hybrid super-resolution method that combines two classical super-resolution techniques for efficient application to plenoptic images. After this combination, we first segment the output hybrid super-resolution image into the objects of interest. Afterward, we apply sparse representation to super resolve the segmented image. This technique helps to improve the quality by decrease computations for light field images and extract significant features from the objects of interest. We demonstrate the gain achieved by the novel method as compared to the current relevant approaches in terms of both PSNR and SSIM for various enhanced spatial resolutions.
    • Baseline and triangulation geometry in a standard plenoptic camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljević, Vladan; Fiebig, Susanne; Pesch, Matthias (Springer, 2017-09-22)
      In this paper, we demonstrate light field triangulation to determine depth distances and baselines in a plenoptic camera. The advancement of micro lenses and image sensors enabled plenoptic cameras to capture a scene from different viewpoints with sufficient spatial resolution. While object distances can be inferred from disparities in a stereo viewpoint pair using triangulation, this concept remains ambiguous when applied in case of plenoptic cameras. We present a geometrical light field model allowing the triangulation to be applied to a plenoptic camera in order to predict object distances or to specify baselines as desired. It is shown that distance estimates from our novel method match those of real objects placed in front of the camera. Additional benchmark tests with an optical design software further validate the model’s accuracy with deviations of less than 0:33 % for several main lens types and focus settings. A variety of applications in the automotive and robotics field can benefit from this estimation model.
    • Advanced engine flows and combustion

      Peng, Zhijun; Megaritis, Thanos; Sung, Chih-Jen; Yaga, Minoru; Hellier, Paul; Tian, Guohong; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University; University of Connecticut; University of the Ryukyus; et al. (Hindawi, 2017-08-07)
      The transport sector accounts for a significant part of carbon emissions worldwide, and so the need to mitigate the greenhouse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, and to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions has been the primary driver for developing cleaner and more efficient vehicle powertrains, and environmentally friendly fuels.  As alternatives to combustion engines have yet to overcome technical challenges to attain significant utilisation in the transport sector, piston-driven internal combustion engines and gas turbine aero-engines remain very attractive powertrain options due to their high thermal efficiency. Meanwhile, since the introduction of various emissions standards, that have forced the employment of various aftertreatment systems, the evolution of combustion process has been significant. Advanced combustion strategies have attempted to find in-chamber approaches to either meet these emission standards fully and thus avoid the need to use aftertreatment, or at the very least, to lower the performance demands required from aftertreatment systems and thus reducing their cost and complexity. While the main focus of combustion system development has been recently to lower emissions of CO2, there is also significant interest to lower nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and other harmful emissions.
    • Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

      Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming; University of Bedfordshire; University of Hertfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-07-10)
      As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.
    • Optical-based sensor prototype for continuous monitoring of the blood pressure

      Cohen, Zachary Joel Valentino; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE Sensors Journal, 2017-07-01)
      In this paper, we report a prototype ring sensor device for continuous measurement of blood pressure with the use of our, previously developed, heart rate monitoring ring device. An experiment is described where the heart rate device provides the voltage output of the heart using the transmission photoplethysmography (PPG) method and predicts the blood pressure’s value to ±5% of its true value. We report a novel potential non-invasive, low cost, continuous heart rate and blood pressure monitoring device that uses transmission PPG instead of the traditional cuff method to observe the changes in volume of the pressure through the arteries of the finger. The continuous samples are averaged out constantly. We employed the PPG technique to optically determine the blood volume changes in the arteries of the finger. A Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient proved an r value of 0.86 showing strong linear correlation between the average voltage of the heart rate and the corresponding blood pressure. The proposed blood pressure ring sensor device was tested and benchmarked (against Nonin 2120 benchmark blood pressure device) four participants for a continuous period of four hours, where the average Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) (using Nonin 2120) for four hours was at 98.92mmHg and the average predicted MAP was at 92.8mmHg, which demonstrates an accuracy of 93.8%.The average real systolic pressure (using Nonin 2120) was at 144.25mmHg and the predicted average systolic pressure was at 132.77mmHg which shows an accuracy of 92%. The average real diastolic pressure (using Nonin 2120) was at 76.25mmHg and the predicted diastolic pressure was 72.7mmHg, showing an accuracy of 95.5%.