• Avant-folk: small press poetry networks from 1950 to the present

      Farmer, Gareth; University of Bedfordshire (2018-09-11)
    • A bridge between worlds: parallel universes and the observer in “The Celestial Plot” by Adolfo Bioy Casares

      Carpenter, Victoria; Halpern, Paul; University of Bedfordshire; University of the Sciences, Philadelphia (Brill Academic Publishers, 2019-09-24)
      Adolfo Bioy Casares’s story “The Celestial Plot” (1948) is among the best known examples of Latin American science fiction writing of the early twentieth century inspired by contemporary advances in quantum physics. Most readings of the story focus on the movements of its main protagonist, Captain Ireneo Morris, as he traverses realities while test-flying a plane. This approach overlooks the role of the story’s other protagonist, Dr. Carlos Servian, who, we argue, is the lynchpin upon which the multiple realities are dependent. We read the changes to Dr. Servian’s character from a variety of scientific and philosophical perspectives on parallel universes. By addressing variations in Servian’s character and language, and focusing on the disparate representations of the key objects in the story, we show how the story anticipates in some ways the Many Worlds notion which argues that reality bifurcates during quantum measurements, leading to near-identical copies of observers.
    • Diurnal Sweigh: 365 poems

      Farmer, Gareth (The Knives, Forks and Spoons Press, 2019-06-03)
      A collection of poems.
    • Fiction and 'the Woman Question' from 1830 to 1930

      Darwood, Nicola; Owens, W.R.; Weedon, Alexis (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020-08-01)
      This book is about how ‘The Woman Question’ was represented in works of fiction published between 1850 and 1930. The essays here offer a wide-ranging and original approach to the ways in which literature shaped perceptions of the roles and position of women in society. Debates over ‘The Woman Question’ encompassed not only the struggle for voting rights, but gender equality more widely. The book reaches beyond the usual canonical texts to focus on writers who have, in the main, attracted relatively little critical attention in recent years: Stella Benson, Kate Chopin, Marie Corelli, Dinah Mulock Craik, Clemence Dane, Arthur Conan Doyle, George Gissing, Ouida, and William Hale White (who wrote under the pseudonym ‘Mark Rutherford’). These writers dealt imaginatively with issues such as marriage, motherhood, sexual desire, adultery and suffrage, and they represented female characters who, in varying degrees and with mixed success, sought to defy the social, sexual and political constraints placed upon them. The collection as a whole demonstrates how fiction could contribute in striking and memorable ways to debates over gender equality—debates which continue to have relevance in the twenty-first century.
    • The intaglio element in Prince's verse

      Farmer, Gareth (Liverpool University Press, 2017-01-23)
      There is something peculiar about the syntax of Prince’s verse. Which adjectives come close to describing the curious, entangled emotions elicited when reading the lines from Prince’s most famous poem ‘Soldiers Bathing’: ‘And my mind towards the meaning of it strives // All’s pathos now. The body than was gross […] by pain and labour grows at length / Fragile and luminous’? How would we describe the quiet, reserved restraint of ‘Guns, gallows, barracks, poles and bars; / Seem to have laboured but to fetch us love’ from ‘The Book’? In this paper I propose that Prince’s syntax in the poems of Soldiers Bathing is a product of multiple pressures mirroring those he outlines in his intriguing The Italian Element in Milton’s Verse. It is just such pressures, I suggest, that enable him to carve out and maintain the co-presence of both conceptual and affective contradictions – entangled and uncertain ideas – which are the primary subject of these poems and which give his verse its peculiar quality.    
    • Interwar women's comic fiction: 'have women a sense of humour?'

      Darwood, Nicola; Turner, Nick (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020-02-01)
      This collection of essays examines the work of five intermodernist writers. Some were established authors before the First World War and others continued to write after the Second World War, but this book focuses particularly on their writing between 1918 and 1939. Stella Benson, Bradda Field, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Stella Gibbons and Winifred Watson had much in common: they all wrote novels full of comic moments, which often challenged the cultural politics of the interwar period. Drawing on the literary and critical contexts of each novel, the essays here discuss the use of comic structures that enabled the authors to critique the dominant patriarchal structures of their time, and offer an alternative, sometimes subversive, view of the world in which their characters reside. This book contributes to the growing scholarly interest in interwar fiction, focusing principally on novelists who have fallen out of public view. It widens our understanding both of the authors and of the continuing, highly topical debate about interwar women novelists.
    • Introduction

      Darwood, Nicola; Turner, Nick (The Elizabeth Bowen Society, 18-06-22)
      An introduction to the first volume of The Elizabeth Bowen Review (2018)
    • Languishing in 'rent-a-Marx/Margaret rhetoric': the phono-politics of Douglas Oliver's The Infant and the Pearl

      Farmer, Gareth; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2019-06-21)
      In The Infant and the Pearl (1985), the poet Douglas Oliver draws on the alliterative and allegorical features of mediaeval verse to create a dream-like satire of Britain under Margaret Thatcher. Once a central feature of most Old English poetry, since Chaucer, alliteration and rhyme have often been used in the service of parody and satire. But, how do complex sound-structures aid satire and generate political content? Drawing on Oliver’s poetic and critical work, as well as contemporary research into prosody and politics, this article argues that the sound patterning in The Infant and the Pearl creates a caricatured version of Thatcher’s ‘politically unsound’ Britain. Oliver uses sonic patterns to create an artificial parody of the bathetic ‘uncommon rhetoric’ of consumerism and the ‘false pearls’ of the political classes. Far from being an accessory to meaning, the sound structures are vehicles for parodying the operations of the rhetoric of the ‘unreal’ apparent in social and political discourse. Oliver envisages sound patterning – as performed with every private and public reading – as offering recalibrations of people’s experience of language and the world, as well as leading to glimpses of a communality beyond political and social division.
    • Laughter and dying: Stella Benson's Hope against hope and other stories, and Tobit transplanted

      Darwood, Nicola (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020-02-01)
      The novels and short stories of Stella Benson (1982-1933) cover a wide range of issues including suffrage, the morality of war and the rights of women through a mixture of realism, fantasy and satire.  Drawing on a range of twentieth and twenty first century theoretical approaches relating to humour and satire this essay considers Benson’s use of humour and satire in her collection of short stories Hope Against Hope and Other Stories (1931) and Tobit Transplanted (1931). Throughout both texts, Benson explores human frailties, inviting the reader to view her characters with an ironic detachment.  This essay argues that this use of comedy highlights the tension between humour and subject matter, and provides an insight into both her life and 1930s society.
    • The making of a suffragette: Stella Benson and I Pose (1915)

      Darwood, Nicola (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020-08-01)
      Drawing extensively on Benson’s unpublished diaries and correspondence, this essay irst considers her engagement with the campaign for votes for women, in particular, her work with the Women Writers’ Suffrage League, and the influence of her aunt, the novelist Mary Cholmondeley, in that engagement. Placing Benson’s first novel within the context of other suffragette literature of the period, the essay then focuses on the portrayal of the suffragette movement in I Pose, a novel in which the protagonist rehearses arguments about equality and women’s suffrage
    • The paradoxical pedagogy of creative writing

      Jarvis, Timothy; Pelletier, Caroline (Polity Press, 2018-06-27)
    • Poetic artifice: a theory of twentieth-century poetry / Veronica Forrest-Thompson

      Farmer, Gareth (Shearsman Books, 2016-04-29)
      First published posthumously in 1978 by Manchester University Press, this volume turned sharply against critics of the previous generation, notably William Empson, and against emergent strains of historicism. The book is an exhaustive (and sometimes exhausting) defence of "all the rhythmic, phonetic, verbal, and logical devices which make poetry different from prose." According to the author, such devices are responsible for poetry's most significant effect-not pleasure or ornament or some kind of special expressivity, but the production of "alternative imaginary orders."
    • Pomes: incidental, uncollected poetry 2008-2013

      Farmer, Gareth (The Knives, Forks and Spoons Press, 2019-06-03)
      A selection of poems
    • Review of The Concept of the Book: The Production, Progression and Dissemination of Information: edited by Cynthia Johnston, Institute of English Studies, University of London, 2019, 146 pp., £25.00, ISBN: 9780992725747,

      Darwood, Nicola (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-13)
      Review of The Concept of the Book: The Production, Progression and Dissemination of Information edited by Cynthia Johnston, Institute of English Studies, University of London, 2019, 146 pp., £25.00, ISBN: 9780992725747