• Differential mechanisms of lipid transfer from parasite fatty acid binding proteins to phospholipid vesicles

      McDermott, Lindsay C.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; McManus, Donald P.; Bradley, Jannette E.; Cooper, Alan; Storch, Judith (Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology, 2001-03-08)
    • Digest: Drivers of coral diversification in a major marine biodiversity hotspot*

      Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Cass, Susannah; Dodsworth, Steven (Society for the Study of Evolution, 2018-01-10)
      This article corresponds to Huang, D., E. E. Goldberg, L. M. Chou, and K. Roy. 2018. The origin and evolution of coral species richness in a marine biodiversity hotspot. Evolution.https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13402.
    • Digest: Linking coordinated shifts in plant resource allocation to a chromosomal inversion

      Dodsworth, Steven; Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro (Wiley, 2019-04-22)
      Local adaptation in plants often requires coordinated shifts among resources. Lowry et al. provide evidence for physiological and genomic mechanisms underpinning adaptive shifts in yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus), such as the transition between annual and perennial life histories. In M. guttatus, differential activity of gibberellins, governed partially by a chromosomal inversion, is responsible for shifts between growth, reproduction, and herbivore defense (secondary compound production).
    • Digest: Shape-shifting in Solanaceae flowers: the influence of pollinators*

      Dodsworth, Steven; Orejuela, Andrés; Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra (Society for the Study of Evolution, 2018-01-30)
      This article corresponds to Smith, S. D., and R. Kriebel. 2018. Convergent evolution of floral shape tied to pollinator shifts in Iochrominae (Solanaceae). Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13416.
    • Digests: Salamanders’ slow slither into genomic gigantism

      Dodsworth, Steven; Guignard, Maite S.; Hidalgo, Oriane; Leitch, Ilia J.; Pellicer, Jaume (Society for the Study of Evolution, 2016-11-12)
      This article corresponds to Mohlhenrich, E. R., and R. L. Mueller. 2016. Genetic drift and mutational hazard in the evolution of salamander genomic gigantism. Evolution. DOI:10.1111/evo.13084.
    • Direct BMP2/4 signaling through BMP receptor IA regulates fetal thymocyte progenitor homeostasis and differentiation to CD4+CD8+ double-positive cell

      Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L.; Ross, Susan; Sahni, Hemant; Mishina, Yuji; Furmanski, Anna L.; Crompton, Tessa (Taylor & Francis, 2013-11-18)
      BMP2/4 signaling is required for embryogenesis and involved in thymus morphogenesis and T-lineage differentiation. In vitro experiments have shown that treatment of thymus explants with exogenous BMP4 negatively regulated differentiation of early thymocyte progenitors and the transition from CD4-CD8- (DN) to CD4+CD8+ (DP). Here we show that in vivo BMP2/4 signaling is required for fetal thymocyte progenitorhomeostasis and expansion, but negatively regulates differentiation from DN to DP cell. Unexpectedly, conditional deletion of BMPRIA from fetal thymocytes (using the Cre-loxP system and directing excision to hematopoietic lineage cells with the Vav promoter) demonstrated that physiological levels of BMP2/4 signaling directly to thymocytes through BMPRIA are required for normal differentiation and expansion of early fetal DN thymocytes. In contrast, the arrest in early thymocyte progenitor differentiation caused by exogenous BMP4 treatment of thymus explants is induced in part by direct signaling to thymocytes through BMPRIA, and in part by indirect signaling through non-hematopoietic cells. Analysis of the transition from fetal DN to DP cell, both by ex vivo analysis of conditional BMPRIA-deficient thymocytes and by treatment of thymus explants with the BMP4-inhibitor Noggin demonstrated that BMP2/4 signaling is a negative regulator at this stage. We showed that at this stage of fetal T-cell development BMP2/4 signals directly to thymocytes through BMPRIA.
    • Discovery of a high-altitude ecotype and ancient lineage of Arabidopsis thaliana from Tibet

      Zeng, Liyan; Gu, Zhuoya; Xu, Min; Zhao, Ning; Zhu, Weidong; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Liu, Tianmeng; Qiong, Lha; Tersing, Tashi; Xu, Lingli; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-12-29)
      Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) has long been a model species for dicotyledon study, and was the first flowering plant to get its genome completed sequenced [1]. Although most wild A. thaliana are collected in Europe, several studies have found a rapid A. thaliana west-east expansion from Central Asia [2]. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is close to Central Asia and known for its high altitude, unique environments and biodiversity [3]. However, no wild-type A. thaliana had been either discovered or sequenced from QTP. Studies on the A. thaliana populations collected under 2000 m asl have shown that the adaptive variations associated with climate and altitudinal gradients [4]. Hence a high-altitude A. thaliana provides a precious natural material to investigate the evolution and adaptation process. Here, we present the genome of a new ecotype of A. thaliana collected in the Gongga County, Tibet (4200 m asl) (Fig. 1a), to demonstrate its evolutionary history and adaptation to highaltitude regions.
    • A diverse and intricate signalling network regulates stem cell fate in the shoot apical meristem

      Dodsworth, Steven; University of Cambridge (Academic Press Inc., 2009-09-25)
      At the shoot apex of plants is a small region known as the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that maintains a population of undifferentiated (stem) cells whilst providing cells for developing lateral organs and the stem. All aerial structures of the plant develop from the SAM post-embryogenesis, enabling plants to grow in a characteristic modular fashion with great phenotypic and developmental plasticity throughout their lifetime. The maintenance of the stem cell population is intimately balanced with cell recruitment into differentiating tissues through intercellular communication involving a complex signalling network. Recent studies have shown that diverse regulators function in SAM maintenance, many of which converge on the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene. In this review the diverse regulatory modules that function in SAM maintenance are discussed: transcriptional and epigenetic control, hormonal regulation, and the balance with organogenesis. The central role of WUS as an integrator of multiple signals is highlighted; in addition, accessory feedback loops emerge as a feature enabling dynamic regulation of the stem cell niche.
    • DNA extraction from old herbarium material of Veronica subgen. Pseudolysimachium (Plantaginaceae)

      Höpke, Jannes; Brewer, Grace E.; Dodsworth, Steven; Ortiz, Edgardo M.; Albach, Dirk C.; Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; University of Bedfordshire; Technical University of Munich (M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, 2019-02-11)
      Herbarium specimens have become a major source of information in molecular biodiversity research, framing the term "herbarium genomics". However, obtaining good DNA from old herbarium specimens is still a challenge. Currently, DNA extraction methods from old herbarium material often yield highly degraded and fragmented DNA. A number of studies have discussed such methods, especially how to avoid further DNA fragmentation. This study aims to compare different DNA extraction methods applied to old herbarium material from Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachium. One such method is a CTABbased DNA extraction followed by a clean-up with paramagnetic beads that is used in the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK. This method was compared to a modified NucleoSpin Plant II protocol, based on silica columns, as used at the Technical University Munich-Freising, which was already successfully used for extracting DNA from a Linnean type specimen. Further tests were conducted on the influence of incubation time on the CTAB DNA extraction protocol with a subsample of specimens. Our preliminary results suggest that CTAB DNA extraction might have some advantages in specific cases but also that silica column-based methods have fewer problems with contamination by polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. Regarding the incubation time, we did not observe a clear pattern, but we developed several ideas on how to proceed with tests to find an optimal DNA extraction protocol to deal with highly fragmented DNA. Taking practical considerations into account, the column-based method proves to be preferable, especially when trying to reduce the amount of leaf tissue used, but further modifications of both methods should be explored.
    • DNA methylation and body-mass index: a genome-wide analysis

      Dick, Katherine J.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tsaprouni, Loukia G.; Sandling, Johanna K.; Aïssi, Dylan; Wahl, Simone; Meduri, Eshwar; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gagnon, France; Grallert, Harald; et al. (Lancet Publishing Group, 2014-03-13)
      Background Obesity is a major health problem that is determined by interactions between lifestyle and environmental and genetic factors. Although associations between several genetic variants and body-mass index (BMI) have been identified, little is known about epigenetic changes related to BMI. We undertook a genome-wide analysis of methylation at CpG sites in relation to BMI. Methods 479 individuals of European origin recruited by the Cardiogenics Consortium formed our discovery cohort. We typed their whole-blood DNA with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. After quality control, methylation levels were tested for association with BMI. Methylation sites showing an association with BMI at a false discovery rate q value of 0·05 or less were taken forward for replication in a cohort of 339 unrelated white patients of northern European origin from the MARTHA cohort. Sites that remained significant in this primary replication cohort were tested in a second replication cohort of 1789 white patients of European origin from the KORA cohort. We examined whether methylation levels at identified sites also showed an association with BMI in DNA from adipose tissue (n=635) and skin (n=395) obtained from white female individuals participating in the MuTHER study. Finally, we examined the association of methylation at BMI-Associated sites with genetic variants and with gene expression. Findings 20 individuals from the discovery cohort were excluded from analyses after quality-control checks, leaving 459 participants. After adjustment for covariates, we identified an association (q value ≤middot&05) between methylation at five probes across three different genes and BMI. The associations with three of these probes - cg22891070, cg27146050, and cg16672562, all of which are in intron 1 of HIF3A - were confirmed in both the primary and second replication cohorts. For every 0·1 increase in methylation β value at cg22891070, BMI was 3·6% (95% CI 2·9) higher in the discovery cohort, 2·7% (1·2) higher in the primary replication cohort, and 0·8% (0·4) higher in the second replication cohort. For the MuTHER cohort, methylation at cg22891070 was associated with BMI in adipose tissue (p=1·72×10) but not in skin (p=0·882). We observed a significant inverse correlation (p=0·005) between methylation at cg22891070 and expression of one HIF3A gene-expression probe in adipose tissue. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms - rs8102595 and rs3826795 - had independent associations with methylation at cg22891070 in all cohorts. However, these single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with BMI. Interpretation Increased BMI in adults of European origin is associated with increased methylation at the HIF3A locus in blood cells and in adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that perturbation of hypoxia inducible transcription factor pathways could have an important role in the response to increased weight in people. Funding The European Commission, National Institute for Health Research, British Heart Foundation, and Wellcome Trust.
    • Downregulation of hsa_circ_0000285 serves as a prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer and is involved in cisplatin resistance

      Wang, S.; Chi, B.; Zhao, D.; Liu, L.; Yin, X.; Wang, F.; Bi, S.; Gui, S.; Zhou, Shaobo; Qin, W.; et al. (AEPress, 2019-03-19)
      Bladder cancer remains a very challenging disease to treat with the high rates of recurrence and progression associated with current therapies. Although the association between bladder cancer pathology and circRNAs remains undetermined, circRNAs signatures may be useful as prognostic and predictive factors and clinical tools for assessing disease state, treatment response and outcome. This study investigates if these circRNAs can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer diagnosis and predicting treatment response. Herein, qPCR measured the expression of hsa_circRNA_100783, hsa_circ_0000285 and hsa_circRNA_100782 in bladder cancer tissues. It was established that sa_circ_0000285, but not hsa_circRNA_100782 and hsa_circRNA_10078, are significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues and serum compared to adjacent tissues and healthy controls. Moreover, hsa_circ_0000285 expression was lower in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer patients than in those who were cisplatin-sensitive. Here, hsa_circ_0000285 was associated with tumor size (p<0.001), differentiation (p<0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.038), distant metastasis (p=0.004) and TNM stage (p=0.013). Further analysis showed that hsa_circ_0000285 would be an independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer patient outcome. In conclusion, our study indicates hsa_circ_0000285 may be a novel biomarker for bladder cancer because of its involvement in bladder cancer chemo-sensitivity.
    • Economic losses of carbon emissions from circum-Arctic permafrost regions under RCP-SSP scenarios

      Chen, Yating; Liu, Aobo; Zhang, Zhihua; Hope, Chris; Crabbe, M. James C.; Beijing Normal University; Shandong University; Cambridge University; University of Oxford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2018-12-20)
      Under rapid Arctic warming, the vast amount of labile organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost soils poses a potentially huge threat. Thawing permafrost will release hundreds of billion tons of soil carbon into the atmosphere in the form of CO2 and CH4 that would further intensify global warming and bring more challenges to human society. In this study, we use the PInc-PanTher model to estimate carbon emissions from thawing permafrost in the circum-Arctic during 2010-2100 followed by the PAGE09 integrated assessment model to evaluate the net economic losses caused by these permafrost carbon emissions. Our results show that in terms of net present value (NPV), the release of CO2 and CH4 from circum-Arctic permafrost will generate estimated net economic losses of US$2.5 trillion (5-95% range: 0.3-11.2 US$ trillion) under the RCP4.5-SPP1 scenario and US$12.7 trillion (5-95% range: 1.6-41.8 US$ trillion) under the RCP8.5-SPP3 scenario between 2010-2100, which contribute ~4.9% and ~6.4% respectively of net economic losses of global carbon emissions.
    • Effect and mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum spores on alleviation diabetic cardiomyopathy in a pilot in vivo study

      Shaher, Fahmi; Wang, Shuqiu; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Weiqun; AL-ward, Hisham; Abdulghani, Mahfoudh A. M.; Baldi, Salem; Zhou, Shaobo; et al. (Dove Press, 2020-12-07)
      Background: Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) exhibit disease prevention properties, but no study has been carried out on the anti-diabetic cardiomyopathy property of GLS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hyperglycemia-mediated cardiomyopathy protection and mechanisms of GLS in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups. Two groups were given STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment and when their fasting plasma glucose was above 16.7 mmol/L, one group was given placebo, as diabetic group; and another group was given GLS (300 mg/kg) treatment. The group without STZ treatment was given placebo as a control group. The experiment lasted 70 days. The histology of myocardium and biomarkers of antioxidant, myocardial injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, pro-apoptotic proteins and phosphorylation of key proteins in PI3K/AKT pathway were assessed. Results: Biochemical analysis showed that GLS treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose (-20.3%) and triglyceride (-20.4%) levels compared to diabetic group without treatment. GLS treatment decreased the content of MDA (-25.6%) and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (-18.9%) but increased the activity of GSH-Px (65.4%). Western blot analysis showed that GLS treatment reduced the expression of both alpha-smooth muscle actin and brain natriuretic peptide. Histological analysis on the cardiac tissue micrographs showed that GLS treatment reduced the collagen fibroses and glycogen reactivity in myocardium. Both western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that GLS treatment decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (cytokines IL-1β, and TNF-α) as well as apoptosis regulatory proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and -9), but increased the Bcl-2. Moreover, GLS treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of key proteins involved in PI3K/AKT pathway, e.g. p-AKT p-PI3K and mTOR. Conclusion: The results indicated that GLS treatment alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by reducing hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and further attenuating the fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction induced by STZ through the stimulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
    • Effect of culture medium on morphogenic processes in vitro in Cinchona officinalis L.

      Moreno Serrano, José Antonio; Pérez Ruíz, César; Moreno Fierro, Ivonne; Moreno Fierro, Jorge (Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 2019-06-30)
      This paper describes the effect of the various plant growth regulators of the culture medium on morphogenic processes in vitro in Cinchona officinalis L, a highly vulnerable species from southern Ecuador. To do this, different concentrations of NaOCl were used in combination with different immersion times for seed disinfection; for seed germination in vitro GA3 was added to the MS basal culture medium in different concentrations, and for morphogenic processes in vitro, different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins were combined. The decrease in the contamination rate was with high concentrations of NaOCl and an increase in the germination rate in 45 days with the addition of 1.0 mg L-1 GA3 to the culture medium the hormonal combination of 0.5 mg L-1 NAA + 2.5 mg L-1 BAP showed a high rate of shoot proliferation and with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA a high number of roots was obtained. In the callogenesis phase, the best results were obtained with 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D + 0.5 mg L-1 BAP for callus proliferation. In vitro propagation protocols were generated in Cinchona officinalis L, for the preservation and conservation of the species.
    • Effect of dietary fatty acids on tumorigenesis of colon cancer induced by methyl nitrosourea in rats

      Zhou, Shaobo; Wang, G.; Chen, B.; Wang, P.; ; Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (Begell House, 2000-01-01)
      We studied the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the tumorigenesis of colon cancer induced by methyl nitrosourea (MNU) in rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with semi-synthetic diets that contained different proportions of beef tallow, soybean oil, alkana oil, corn oil, and fish oil for 180 days. Each group was matched with a control group fed with the same diet. The experimental groups were given MNU in PBS i.p. 6 times at weekly intervals. The control groups were given PBS only. The incidence of colon cancer, the average volume of the tumors, PCNA, cell kinetics, membrane lipid fluidity, ALP activity, and the content of PGE2 in colonic mucous and the fatty acid distribution in the testis pad fat were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the incidence of colon cancer and the average volume of the tumors in animals fed with diets that contained mainly beef tallow, soybean oil, or alkana oil were significantly higher than that in animals fed with diets that contained mainly fish oil. The diet containing 13.9% of SFA, 16.4% of MUFA, and 68.8% of PUFA showed the strongest inhibition effect. This may be due to the mechanism of protecting the membrane lipid fluidity, decreasing the amount of PCNA in colon cells, the number of propidium iodine-labeled cells in S phase, the activity of ALP and inhibiting the production of AA and thus decreasing the amount of PGE2.
    • The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)

      Le Comber, Steven C.; Chittka, Lars; Dodsworth, Steven; Verity, Robert; Kelly, Laura J.; Knapp, Sandra; Baldwin, Ian T.; Chase, Mark W.; Mhiri, Corinne; Kovařík, Aleš; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2015-05-15)
      Background and Aims. Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. Methods. Spectral reflectance of corolla tissue was examined for 60 Nicotiana (Solanaceae) accessions (41 taxa) based on spectral shape (corresponding to pigmentation) as well as bee and hummingbird colour perception in order to assess patterns of floral colour evolution. Polyploid and homoploid hybrid spectra were compared with those of their progenitors to evaluate whether hybridization has resulted in floral colour shifts. Key Results. Floral colour categories in Nicotiana seem to have arisen multiple times independently during the evolution of the genus. Most younger polyploids displayed an unexpected floral colour, considering those of their progenitors, in the colour perception of at least one pollinator type, whereas older polyploids tended to resemble one or both of their progenitors. Conclusions. Floral colour evolution in Nicotiana is weakly constrained by phylogeny, and colour shifts do occur in association with both polyploid and homoploid hybrid divergence. Transgressive floral colour in N. tabacum has arisen by inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation from its paternal progenitor while having a plastid phenotype like its maternal progenitor. Potentially, floral colour evolution has been driven by, or resulted in, pollinator shifts. However, those polyploids that are not sympatric (on a regional scale) with their progenitor lineages are typically not divergent in floral colour from them, perhaps because of a lack of competition for pollinators.
    • Effects of Jitai tablet, a traditional Chinese medicine, on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in Heroin addicts during abstinence

      Fan, Hua-Ying; Sun, Li; Li, Xiao-xiao; Zhou, Shaobo; Liang, Jun-cheng; Yan, Ben-yong; Li, Yu; Deng, Yan-ping; Peking University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Mary Ann Liebert, 2014-07-10)
      Objectives: To investigate the changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in heroin addicts given Jitai tablet treatment during abstinence. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Settings/Location: Drug Rehabilitation Bureau of Shanghai Police, China. Participants: 99 volunteers, including 69 heroin addicts and 30 healthy volunteers. Interventions: 69 heroin addicts randomly divided into two groups: the Jitai tablet group, which comprised 34 heroin addicts given Jitai tablet treatment during abstinence, and the placebo group, which comprised 35 heroin addicts given placebo. A control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Outcome Measures: ACTH and cortisol in plasma were measured in all groups at baseline and in the Jitai tablet and placebo groups on the third, seventh, and 14th days of abstinence. Results: Levels of both ACTH ( p < .01) and cortisol ( p < .001) were significantly higher in heroin addicts at baseline than in the healthy volunteers. Jitai tablet treatment restored plasma cortisol levels to normal more rapidly than did placebo treatment ( p < .05), but not ACTH levels. A positive correlation between ACTH and cortisol values at baseline ( p < .01) was also found with withdrawal symptom scores and daily dosages of heroin. Conclusions: Heroin addicts could respond to Jitai tablets through changes in the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal axis.
    • Effects of stimulation of mu opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors on alcohol drinking in rhesus monkeys

      Flynn, Shawn M.; Epperly, Phillip M.; Davenport, April T.; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Husbands, Stephen M.; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Czoty, Paul W. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-04-10)
      Alcohol use disorder (AUD) persists as a devastating public health problem; widely effective pharmacological treatments are needed. Evidence from rodent models suggests that stimulating brain receptors for the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) can decrease ethanol drinking. We characterized the effects of the mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist buprenorphine and the buprenorphine analog (2S)-2-[(5R,6R,7R,14S)-N-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5-epoxy-6,14-ethano-3-hydroxy-6 methoxymorphinan-7-yl]-3,3-dimethylpentan-2-ol (BU08028), which stimulates MOP and NOP receptors, in a translational nonhuman primate model of AUD. Rhesus monkeys drank a 4% ethanol solution 6 h per day, 5 days per week via an operant behavioral panel in their home cages. To assess behavioral selectivity, monkeys responded via a photo-optic switch to earn food pellets. After characterizing the acute effects of BU08028 (0.001–0.01 mg/kg, i.m.) and buprenorphine (0.003–0.056 mg/kg, i.m.), the drugs were administered chronically using a model of pharmacotherapy assessment that incorporates clinical aspects of AUD and treatment. Acutely, both drugs decreased ethanol drinking at doses that did not affect food-maintained responding. During chronic treatment, effects of BU08028 and buprenorphine were maintained for several weeks without development of tolerance or emergence of adverse effects. BU08028 was ~0.5 and 1.0 log units more potent in acute and chronic studies, respectively. The selective NOP receptor agonist SCH 221510 also selectively decreased ethanol intakes when given acutely (0.03–1.0 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas the MOP antagonist naltrexone (1.7–5.6 mg/kg, i.m.) decreased both ethanol intake and food pellets delivered. These data demonstrate that bifunctional MOP/NOP agonists, which may have therapeutic advantages to MOP-selective drugs, can decrease alcohol drinking in nonhuman primates.
    • Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer-by-layer assembled enzyme electrodes

      Kang, Jing; Hussain, Anisah T.; Catt, Michael; Trenell, Michael I.; Haggett, Barry G.D.; Yu, Eileen Hao; Newcastle University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2013-09-12)
      In this study, detection and measurement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration has been achieved by electrochemical method in one operation step. Multilayer films of poly(dimethyldiallyammonium chloride) (PDA) wrapped multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two enzymes acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOD) were assembled on a carbon screen printed electrode by the layer-by-layer (LbL) immobilization. The fine polymer-enzyme layers produced by the LbL method, allowed mass transport from the reactant cascading down the layers to accomplish the two-step enzyme reactions. The polymer-CNTs and enzyme modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytical property retaining enzyme activity. Linear increase of anodic current from H2O2 produced from NEFA oxidation was observed with the increasing concentrations of oleic acid. These results indicate a promising technique for a simple, rapid one-step determination of NEFA for diabetes management.
    • Encapsulation of α-tocopherol in whey protein isolate/chitosan particles using oil-in-water emulsion with optimal stability and bioaccessibility

      Xu, Weili; Lv, Kangxing; Mu, Wei; Zhou, Shaobo; Yang, Yang; University of Bedfordshire; Harbin Institute of Technology (Elsevier, 2021-05-23)
      The aim of this study was to develop an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion using whey protein isolate (WPI)-chitosan (CN) complex to encapsulate α-tocopherol and to characterize their stability and bioaccessibility in vitro. The O/W emulsions prepared under the optimal conditions (mass ratio of WPI:CN = 1: 1, corn oil containing 5 g/100 g of α-tocopherol) exhibited a monomodal distribution (d = 803.3 ± 6.9 nm) with encapsulation rate of 86.3 ± 2.3%. The emulsions were stable under NaCl (0–150 mmol/L), sugar (0–5 g/100 g), 55 °C for 30 min, pH 5–6.5, even storage for 20 d at 4 °C and 25 °C. During gastric digestion, WPI situated at the surface of emulsion particles can be digested into small molecular peptides by pepsin, but the structure of the core-shell particles remained due to the cross-linking with CN. During intestinal digestion, the structure of the particles disintegrated over the digestion time, and the inner-oil phase was released. Release profiles of the α-tocopherol and free fatty acids showed a burst effect followed by slow release. These results suggest that the WPI-CN complex could be used to achieve a controlled and sustainable release of liposoluble bioactive compounds from O/W emulsions.