• The occurrence and potential health risk of microcystins in drinking water of rural areas in China.

      Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Lan; Ma, Wuren; Huang, Yu; Crabbe, M. James C.; Qu, Weidong (Elsevier, 2018-12-26)
      Large-scale use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in agricultural production, environmental pollution and climate warming cause frequent algal blooms and the generation of algal toxins in water bodies in China. Algal pollution is increasing and microcystins (MCs) are detectable in both surface and ground water in China at sub- μg/L and μg/L levels. Toxicological studies show that microcystins have hepatic and  renal toxicity, genotoxicity, tumor-promoting effects, neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Epidemiological evidence from China further reveals that chronic exposure to MCs through drinking water and liver cancer are positively correlated and demonstrate that MCs in drinking water are a main risk factor in liver cancer. Effectively controlled water pollution, reduced sewage discharge, and enhanced wastewater treatments are pivotal measures to control algal pollution and toxins in the drinking water of rural China.