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ABL1 and Cofilin1 promote T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell migrationThe fusion gene of ABL1 is closely related to tumor proliferation, invasion, and migration. It has been reported recently that ABL1 itself is required for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell migration induced by CXCL12. Further experiments revealed that ABL1 inhibitor Nilotinib inhibited leukemia cell migration induced by CXCL12, indicating the possible application of Nilotinib in T-ALL leukemia treatment. However, the interacting proteins of ABL1 and the specific mechanisms of their involvement in this process need further investigation. In the present study, ABL1 interacting proteins were characterized and their roles in the process of leukemia cell migration induced by CXCL12 were investigated. Co-immunoprecipitation in combination with mass spectrometry analysis identified 333 proteins that interact with ABL1, including Cofilin1. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of them were enriched in the intracellular organelle or cytoplasm, including nucleic acid binding components, transfectors, or co-transfectors. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the top three enriched pathways were translation, glycan biosynthesis, and metabolism, together with human diseases. ABL1 and Cofilin1 were in the same complex. Cofilin1 binds the SH3 domain of ABL1 directly; however, ABL1 is not required for the phosphorylation of Cofilin1. Molecular docking analysis shows that ABL1 interacts with Cofilin1 mainly through hydrogen bonds and ionic interaction between amino acid residues. The mobility of leukemic cells was significantly decreased by Cofilin1 siRNA. These results demonstrate that Cofilin1 is a novel ABL1 binding partner. Furthermore, Cofilin1 participates in the migration of leukemia cells induced by CXCL12. These data indicate that ABL1 and Cofilin1 are possible targets for T-ALL treatment.
The role of histone protein modifications and mutations in histone modifiers in pediatric b-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemiaWhile cancer has been long recognized as a disease of the genome, the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in neoplasia was acknowledged more recently. The most active epigenetic marks are DNA methylation and histone protein modifications and they are involved in basic biological phenomena in every cell. Their role in tumorigenesis is stressed by recent unbiased large-scale studies providing evidence that several epigenetic modifiers are recurrently mutated or frequently dysregulated in multiple cancers. The interest in epigenetic marks is especially due to the fact that they are potentially reversible and thus druggable. In B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) there is a relative paucity of reports on the role of histone protein modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation) as compared to acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell ALL, or other hematologic cancers, and in this setting chromatin modifications are relatively less well studied and reviewed than DNA methylation. In this paper, we discuss the biomarker associations and evidence for a driver role of dysregulated global and loci-specific histone marks, as well as mutations in epigenetic modifiers in BCP-ALL. Examples of chromatin modifiers recurrently mutated/disrupted in BCP-ALL and associated with disease outcomes include MLL1, CREBBP, NSD2, and SETD2. Altered histone marks and histone modifiers and readers may play a particular role in disease chemoresistance and relapse. We also suggest that epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation may have parallel roles in leukemogenesis.