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Discovery of a high-altitude ecotype and ancient lineage of Arabidopsis thaliana from TibetArabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) has long been a model species for dicotyledon study, and was the first flowering plant to get its genome completed sequenced . Although most wild A. thaliana are collected in Europe, several studies have found a rapid A. thaliana west-east expansion from Central Asia . The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is close to Central Asia and known for its high altitude, unique environments and biodiversity . However, no wild-type A. thaliana had been either discovered or sequenced from QTP. Studies on the A. thaliana populations collected under 2000 m asl have shown that the adaptive variations associated with climate and altitudinal gradients . Hence a high-altitude A. thaliana provides a precious natural material to investigate the evolution and adaptation process. Here, we present the genome of a new ecotype of A. thaliana collected in the Gongga County, Tibet (4200 m asl) (Fig. 1a), to demonstrate its evolutionary history and adaptation to highaltitude regions.
Effects of Jitai tablet, a traditional Chinese medicine, on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in Heroin addicts during abstinenceObjectives: To investigate the changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in heroin addicts given Jitai tablet treatment during abstinence. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Settings/Location: Drug Rehabilitation Bureau of Shanghai Police, China. Participants: 99 volunteers, including 69 heroin addicts and 30 healthy volunteers. Interventions: 69 heroin addicts randomly divided into two groups: the Jitai tablet group, which comprised 34 heroin addicts given Jitai tablet treatment during abstinence, and the placebo group, which comprised 35 heroin addicts given placebo. A control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Outcome Measures: ACTH and cortisol in plasma were measured in all groups at baseline and in the Jitai tablet and placebo groups on the third, seventh, and 14th days of abstinence. Results: Levels of both ACTH ( p < .01) and cortisol ( p < .001) were significantly higher in heroin addicts at baseline than in the healthy volunteers. Jitai tablet treatment restored plasma cortisol levels to normal more rapidly than did placebo treatment ( p < .05), but not ACTH levels. A positive correlation between ACTH and cortisol values at baseline ( p < .01) was also found with withdrawal symptom scores and daily dosages of heroin. Conclusions: Heroin addicts could respond to Jitai tablets through changes in the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal axis.