• Architecture and self-assembly of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium botulinum spore surfaces illustrate a general protective strategy across spore formers

      Janganan, Thamarai K.; Mullin, Nic; Dafis-Sagarmendi, Ainhoa; Brunt, Jason; Tzokov, Svetomir B.; Stringer, Sandra; Moir, Anne; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Fagan, Robert P.; Hobbs, Jamie K.; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2020-07-01)
      Spores, the infectious agents of many Firmicutes, are remarkably resilient cell forms. Even distant relatives can have similar spore architectures although some display unique features; they all incorporate protective proteinaceous envelopes. We previously found that Bacillus spores can achieve these protective properties through extensive disulfide cross-linking of self-assembled arrays of cysteine-rich proteins. We predicted that this could be a mechanism employed by spore formers in general, even those from other genera. Here, we tested this by revealing in nanometer detail how the outer envelope (exosporium) in Clostridium sporogenes (surrogate for C. botulinum group I), and in other clostridial relatives, forms a hexagonally symmetric semipermeable array. A cysteine-rich protein, CsxA, when expressed in Escherichia coli, self-assembles into a highly thermally stable structure identical to that of the native exosporium. Like the exosporium, CsxA arrays require harsh “reducing” conditions for disassembly. We conclude that in vivo, CsxA self-organizes into a highly resilient, disulfide cross-linked array decorated with additional protein appendages enveloping the forespore. This pattern is remarkably similar to that in Bacillus spores, despite a lack of protein homology. In both cases, intracellular disulfide formation is favored by the high lattice symmetry. We have identified cysteine-rich proteins in many distantly related spore formers and propose that they may adopt a similar strategy for intracellular assembly of robust protective structures.
    • Characterization of the spore surface and exosporium proteins of Clostridium sporogenes; implications for Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

      Janganan, Thamarai K.; Mullin, Nic; Tzokov, Svetomir B.; Stringer, Sandra; Fagan, Robert P.; Hobbs, Jamie K.; Moir, Anne; Bullough, Per A.; Institute of Food Research; University of Sheffield (Elsevier, 2016-06-06)
      Clostridium sporogenes is a non-pathogenic close relative and surrogate for Group I (proteolytic) neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strains. The exosporium, the sac-like outermost layer of spores of these species, is likely to contribute to adhesion, dissemination, and virulence. A paracrystalline array, hairy nap, and several appendages were detected in the exosporium of C. sporogenes strain NCIMB 701792 by EM and AFM. The protein composition of purified exosporium was explored by LC-MS/MS of tryptic peptides from major individual SDS-PAGE-separated protein bands, and from bulk exosporium. Two high molecular weight protein bands both contained the same protein with a collagen-like repeat domain, the probable constituent of the hairy nap, as well as cysteine-rich proteins CsxA and CsxB. A third cysteine-rich protein (CsxC) was also identified. These three proteins are also encoded in C. botulinum Prevot 594, and homologues (75-100% amino acid identity) are encoded in many other Group I strains. This work provides the first insight into the likely composition and organization of the exosporium of Group I C. botulinum spores.