• Effects of intradialytic cycling exercise on exercise capacity, quality of life, physical function and cardiovascular measures in adult haemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Young, Hannah M.L.; March, Daniel S.; Graham-Brown, Matthew P.M .; Jones, Arwel; Curtis, Ffion; Grantham, Charlotte S.; Churchward, Darren R.; Highton, Patrick; Smith, Alice C.; Singh, Sally J.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-28)
      Background. Intradialytic cycling (IDC), delivered during haemodialysis (HD), has the potential to improve many health issues. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the evidence on the effects of IDC on exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL), physical function and cardiovascular health. Methods. Twenty-four databases were searched alongside Internet and hand searching, and consultation with experts. Eligibility criteria were cluster randomized, randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IDC versus usual care in prevalent adult HD patients. Primary outcome measures were exercise capacity (VO2 peak and field tests) and QoL. Secondary measures were cardiac and physical function. Results. Thirteen RCTs were eligible. Eight provided data for use in meta-analyses, which indicated no significant change in VO2 peak (mean difference, MD 1.19 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.52, P ¼ 0.3), physical (mean change, MC 1.97, 8.27 to 12.22, P ¼ 0.7) or mental component (MC 3.37, 7.94 to 14.68, P ¼ 0.6) summary scores of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, pulse wave velocity (MD 0.57 m/s, 1.55 to 0.41, P ¼ 0.4), systolic (MD 2.28 mmHg, 14.46 to 9.90, P ¼ 0.7) or diastolic blood pressure (MD 2.25 mmHg, 3.01 to 7.50, P ¼ 0.4) following IDC. IDC, however, leads to an improvement in performance on the 6-min walk test (MD 87.84 m, 39.60-136.09, P ¼ 0.0004). All included studies were considered to have high risk of bias. Conclusions. There is insufficient evidence demonstrating whether cycling exercise during HD improves patient outcomes. High-quality, adequately powered RCTs of IDC are required.
    • Efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise following pulmonary rehabilitation on health care use: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Jenkins, Alex R.; Gowler, Holly; Curtis, Ffion; Holden, Neil S.; Bridle, Christopher; Jones, Arwel; ; University of Lincoln (Dove Medical Press Ltd., 2018-01-10)
      Introduction: The clinical benefit of continued supervised maintenance exercise programs following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise programs compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion on health care use and mortality. Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PEDro) and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for randomized trials comparing supervised maintenance exercise programs with usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion. Primary outcomes were respiratory-cause hospital admissions, exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics and/or systemic corticosteroids, and mortality. Results: Eight trials (790 COPD patients) met the inclusion criteria, six providing data for meta-analysis. Continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion significantly reduced the risk of experiencing at least one respiratory-cause hospital admission (risk ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.81, P,0.001). Meta-analyses also suggested that supervised maintenance exercise leads to a clinically important reduction in the rate of respiratory-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.50–1.05, P=0.09), overall risk of an exacerbation (risk ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.52–1.19, P=0.25), and mortality (risk ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.17–1.92, P=0.37). Conclusion: In the first systematic review of the area, current evidence demonstrates that continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation reduces health care use in COPD. The variance in the quality of the evidence included in this review highlights the need for this evidence to be followed up with further high-quality randomized trials.
    • Effort-reward imbalance in academic employees: examining different reward systems

      Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire (APA, 2019-05-01)
      This study draws upon the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress to predict mental and physical health in academic employees working in UK universities. It examines the main and interactive effects of extrinsic efforts over time and the three reward systems of the ERI model independently (i.e. promotion, esteem and security rewards). The main and interactive effects of intrinsic effort (known as overcommitment) in predicting health status are also examined. A sample of 458 academic employees completed ERI scales at baseline and the health measures 14 months later. The results showed that higher extrinsic effort, lower esteem and security rewards and an imbalance between efforts and esteem rewards assessed at Time 1 predicted mental health status on follow-up. Physical health symptoms were predicted by higher extrinsic effort and lower security rewards. Overcommitment was an independent risk factor for both mental and physical health. No further contribution was made to the variance in either outcome by the other effort-reward ratios independently or by their interactions with overcommitment. Interventions are suggested that have potential to reduce extrinsic and intrinsic efforts and increase rewards in the university sector.
    • Effort–reward imbalance and overcommitment in UK academics: implications for mental health, satisfaction and retention

      Kinman, Gail (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2016-05-09)
      This study utilises the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress to predict several indices of well-being in academics in the UK: mental ill health, job satisfaction and leaving intentions. This model posits that (a) employees who believe that their efforts are not counterbalanced by sufficient rewards will experience impaired well-being and (b) feelings of ERI are more frequent and damaging in employees who are overcommitted to the job. A sample of 649 academic employees working in UK higher education institutions completed validated measures. Findings showed that academics who found their work more demanding, who perceived greater rewards and who were less overcommitted typically reported poorer well-being across all measures. Rewards related to esteem/support and financial/status appeared to be particularly important in protecting academics from the negative impact of work-related efforts. Potential interventions are discussed that draw on the ERI framework to improve mental health, satisfaction and retention in the sector.
    • Eligibility for interventions, co-occurrence and risk factors for unhealthy behaviours in patients consulting for routine primary care: results from the Pre-Empt study

      Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Simpson, Sharon A.; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C. (BioMed Central, 2015-10-09)
      Smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise and a poor diet remain key causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, yet it is not clear what proportion of patients attending for routine primary care are eligible for interventions about these behaviours, the extent to which they co-occur within individuals, and which individuals are at greatest risk for multiple unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the trial was to examine 'intervention eligibility' and co-occurrence of the 'big four' risky health behaviours - lack of exercise, smoking, an unhealthy diet and excessive drinking - in a primary care population. Data were collected from adult patients consulting routinely in general practice across South Wales as part of the Pre-Empt study; a cluster randomised controlled trial. After giving consent, participants completed screening instruments, which included the following to assess eligibility for an intervention based on set thresholds: AUDIT-C (for alcohol), HSI (for smoking), IPAQ (for exercise) and a subset of DINE (for diet). The intervention following screening was based on which combination of risky behaviours the patient had. Descriptive statistics, χ2 tests for association and ordinal regressions were undertaken. Two thousand sixty seven patients were screened: mean age of 48.6 years, 61.9 % female and 42.8 % in a managerial or professional occupation. In terms of numbers of risky behaviours screened eligible for, two was the most common (43.6 %), with diet and exercise (27.2 %) being the most common combination. Insufficient exercise was the most common single risky behaviour (12.0 %). 21.8 % of patients would have been eligible for an intervention for three behaviours and 5.9 % for all four behaviours. Just 4.5 % of patients did not identify any risky behaviours. Women, older age groups and those in managerial or professional occupations were more likely to exhibit all four risky behaviours. Very few patients consulting for routine primary care screen ineligible for interventions about common unhealthy behaviours, and most engage in more than one of the major common unhealthy behaviours. Clinicians should be particularly alert to opportunities to engaging younger, non professional men and those with multi-morbidity about risky health behaviour. ISRCTN22495456. BACKGROUND METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSION TRIAL REGISTRATION
    • Emotional demands, compassion and mental health in social workers

      Kinman, Gail; Grant, Louise (Oxford Journals, 2020-01-31)
      Background: Compassion, described as the act of providing care based on empathy, dignity and respect, is intrinsic to effective health and social care.  Although delivering compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for service users, more insight is needed into its effects on health and social care professionals. The emotional demands of ‘helping’ work can engender compassion fatigue that may impair wellbeing, whereas compassion satisfaction and feelings of compassion towards the self could be protective.  Aims: To examine the effects (direct and indirect) of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and self-compassion on mental health in a cohort of social workers. Methods: We used validated scales to measure emotional demands, compassion satisfaction and fatigue, and self-compassion and the General Health Questionnaire-12 to assess mental health. We tested the main and moderating effects of emotional demands and the three facets of compassion using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: The study sample comprised 306 social workers (79% female). Participants who reported higher levels of compassion satisfaction and self-compassion tended to report better mental health, whereas compassion fatigue was a significant risk factor for wellbeing. The models explained 44% - 53% of the variance in mental health symptoms.  We found some evidence that compassion satisfaction and self-compassion buffer the negative effects of emotional demand on mental health, contributing 2% and 3% respectively to the incremental variance. Conclusions:  Our findings suggest that evidence-based interventions are needed to reduce compassion fatigue and enhance compassion satisfaction and self-compassion in social care work. We consider ways to accomplish this using targeted interventions. 
    • Emotional expressivity and somatization symptoms in clinically depressed patients

      Kaviani, Hossein; Tabrizi, Maryam Kompani (OMICS International, 2016-07-06)
      Somatization might be defined as a process by which psychological, emotional pains and distress is expressed as physical symptoms without a known organic basis. This study aims to examining somatization symptoms among clinically depressed patients with White-American and Hispanic background. Participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder without psychotic features (DSM-V) completed self-report measures for somatization, depression, emotional expressivity (EE), and demographics. The findings suggest that patients low on emotional expressivity may tend to experience and report more bodily pains and complains than those who are emotionally expressive. No link between EE and depression was observed. Women scored higher on somatization then men in this study. In addition, Hispanics reported more somatization symptoms than their White American counterparts. The results of this study might contribute to provision of a clearer picture to distinguish between somatization syndrome and other actual physical conditions.
    • Emotional labour and wellbeing: what protects nurses?

      Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2016-11-30)
      Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting) in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered.
    • Epigenetic-based hormesis and age-dependent altruism: additions to the behavioural constellation of deprivation

      Brown, William Michael; Olding, Rose Jyoti; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2017-10-22)
      We support Pepper and Nettle’s (P&N’s) hypothesised adaptive responses to deprivation. However, we argue that adaptive responses to stress shift with age. Specifically, present-oriented behaviours are adaptive for young people (e.g., in terms of mating and reproduction) but costly for older people in deprived communities who would benefit from investing in grandchildren. Epigenetic mechanisms may be responsible for age-related tactical shifts.    
    • Evaluating follow-up and complexity in cancer clinical trials (EFACCT): an eDelphi study of research professionals' perspectives

      Jones, Helene Markham; Curtis, Ffion; Law, Graham A.; Bridle, Christopher; Boyle, Dorothy; Ahmed, Tanweer; University of Lincoln; United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust; University of Bedfordshire; South East Scottish Cancer Research Network (SESCRN) (BMJ Publishing Group, 2020-02-18)
      To evaluate patient follow-up and complexity in cancer clinical trial delivery, using consensus methods to: (1) identify research professionals' priorities, (2) understand localised challenges, (3) define study complexity and workloads supporting the development of a trial rating and complexity assessment tool (TRACAT). A classic eDelphi completed in three rounds, conducted as the launch study to a multiphase national project (evaluating follow-up and complexity in cancer clinical trials). Multicentre online survey involving professionals at National Health Service secondary care hospital sites in Scotland and England varied in scale, geographical location and patient populations. Principal investigators at 13 hospitals across nine clinical research networks recruited 33 participants using pre-defined eligibility criteria to form a multidisciplinary panel. Statements achieving a consensus level of 70% on a 7-point Likert-type scale and ranked trial rating indicators (TRIs) developed by research professionals. The panel developed 75 consensus statements illustrating factors contributing to complexity, follow-up intensity and operational performance in trial delivery, and specified 14 ranked TRIs. Seven open questions in the first qualitative round generated 531 individual statements. Iterative survey rounds returned rates of 82%, 82% and 93%. Clinical trials operate within a dynamic, complex healthcare and innovation system where rapid scientific advances present opportunities and challenges for delivery organisations and professionals. Panellists highlighted cultural and organisational factors limiting the profession's potential to support growing trial complexity and patient follow-up. Enhanced communication, interoperability, funding and capacity have emerged as key priorities. Future operational models should test dialectic Singerian-based approaches respecting open dialogue and shared values. Research capacity building should prioritise innovative, collaborative approaches embedding validated review and evaluation models to understand changing operational needs and challenges. TRACAT provides a mechanism for continual knowledge assimilation to improve decision-making.
    • Evaluation of an collision-involved driver improvement scheme

      Guppy, Andrew; Adams-Guppy, Julie Rachel (Emerald, 2021-03-01)
      The purpose of this study was to compare driver knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (in terms of hazard, risk, accident, offence detection and driving skill perceptions) and self-reported driving style in a sample of 461 drivers before and after attending a UK Driver Improvement Scheme for culpable collision-involved drivers, in order to inform future directions in the design of driver retraining programmes. Participants were a sample of 461 drivers attending a UK 1.5 day Driver Improvement Scheme course for culpable collision-involved drivers. The course contained classroom-based training and a practical driving component. Participants completed a Driver Improvement Scheme Questionnaire (DISQ) before and immediately after attending the 1.5 day course, and again 3 months later. Results indicated significant pre and post course effects in terms of increased driving safety with respect to driving knowledge, perceptions of control, perceived likelihood of accident-involvement, hazard perception and reported risk-taking. Key positive effects of reduced risk-taking and nearmisses persisted three months after course completion. One limitation of this study is that at the 3-month follow-up there was a reduction in the response rate (44.69%) which included significantly fewer young drivers. Results indicate positive behavioural, perceptual and behavioural changes, along with specific age, gender and driving experience effects which have implications for the design of future driving courses. This study has implications for community safety through enhanced road safety training measures. The analysis of age, gender and driving experience effects of the impact of this Driver Improvement Scheme will allow targeted training methods for specific groups of drivers.
    • Examining the dark tetrad and its links to cyberbullying

      Brown, William Michael; Hazraty, Sana; Palasinski, Marek (Mary Ann Liebert, 2019-07-12)
      Cyberbullying is a growing problem in the fast-evolving world of social media.  Although this problem has been studied extensively, there is relatively little research examining it from the angle of the dark tetrad (i.e., Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, Sadism and Narcissism), especially across different ethnicities.In other words, this research makes original contribution by exploring the predictive ability of the dark tetrad traits in individuals of different ethnicities and their subsequent willingness to engage in cyberbullying.  The study (N=1464) explores whether there is a positive association between the dark tetrad personality traits and cyberbullying.  The results reveal that all four traits predict cyberbullying in participants from across three different ethnicities (Asian, Black and White). Furthermore, female participants score less than their male counterparts across all four traits.  Researchers, academics and legislators might potentially benefit from this research by considering focusing their interventions on helping offenders minimize the display of certain personality traits, thus taking steps towards cyberbullying reduction.  
    • Exercise epigenetics and the foetal origins of disease

      Chalk, Thomas E.W.; Brown, William Michael (Future Medicine, 2014-11-28)
      Exercise epigenetics is a nascent area of research with vast health implications (e.g., from the treatment of obesity-related diseases to beneficially decoupling epigenetic and chronological age). Evidence is accumulating [1] that exercise can acutely modify the epigenome (e.g., via DNA methylation) for short-term regulatory purposes (e.g., mRNA expression). More speculatively perhaps, maternal exercise during the pre and post–partum period could cause epigenetic changes in offspring. It is generally believed that there are benefits of regular moderate exercise during pregnancy [2]. The phenotypic benefits of maternal exercise notwithstanding, exercise can be viewed as a type of organismal stressor [1]. There are a myriad of ways in which environmental perturbations can affect foetal development. For example gestational stress could alter the epigenome and subsequent physical development. We suggest that maternal exercise -- like most gestational stressors -- will have a dose-response relationship on an offspring’s epigenome (i.e., negative effects at high doses), akin to the phenomenon of hormesis. Interestingly there is no research investigating the epigenetic effects of maternal exercise in humans. This editorial is a call for research on the subject.
    • An exploration of ending psychotherapy: the experiences of volunteer counsellors

      Ling, Lydia Success; Stathopoulou, C. Haroula; (Wiley Blackwell, 2020-12-27)
      Background/aims: Literature suggests that the ending phase of therapy can be difficult and challenging for counsellors. Despite this, there is limited research in this area and no study has specifically looked at the experiences of volunteer counsellors. This is the first study to explore the experiences and challenges of volunteer counsellors and the impact of ending therapeutic relationships. Method/design: A verbatim account of semi-structured interview data was analysed using thematic analysis. The participants were six volunteer counsellors working in a mental health charity. Findings: Three main themes were identified during the analysis—length of therapy, impact of organisational structure and strategies for managing challenges. Discussion: The counsellors perceived the fixed number of eight sessions as insufficient to address the presenting issues and problematic with regard to managing endings. The organisational structure (most likely influenced by the commissioning contracts) had a particular impact on these experiences. Endings were generally experienced as challenging; however, some of the participants perceived the time-limited therapy as helpful in working with less difficult and complex issues. Clinical implications: The study highlighted the need for an ongoing consideration of the impact of inflexible regulations/structure by counselling organisations and funding bodies in order to empower and enable these clinicians to practice and manage endings effectively. There is need for therapeutic settings to consider flexibility of therapy length and allow volunteer counsellors to offer their services with some degree of autonomy. Services could think of creative ways of offering interventions based on clients’ needs and complexity of presenting problems.
    • Exploring commitment, professional identity, and support for student nurses

      Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; Teoh, Kevin; Guppy, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire; Birkbeck University (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2015-06-10)
      Problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses globally mean that insight into the factors that might increase retention in qualified staff and students is crucial. Despite clear links between work commitment and retention, there is little research exploring commitment in student nurses and midwives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study designed to provide insight into commitment using semi-structured interviews conducted with nine pre-registration students and a qualitative survey completed by 171 pre-registration students. Thematic analysis of the data emphasised the impact of placement experiences on commitment via interpersonal relationships. Students typically emphasised their professional identity as the basis for commitment, although many participants also highlighted a lack of acceptance by qualified practitioners, which reduced it. There was evidence that suggested that practitioner workload may impact the student experience due to challenges in making sufficient time to provide support. Implications for retention strategies are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • The face of early cognitive decline? Shape and asymmetry predict choice reaction time independent of age, diet or exercise

      Brown, William Michael; Usacka, Agnese; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2019-10-29)
      Slower reaction time is a measure of cognitive decline and can occur as early as 24 years of age. We are interested if developmental stability predicts cognitive performance independent of age and lifestyle (e.g., diet and exercise). Developmental stability is the latent capacity to buffer ontogenetic stressors and is measured by low fluctuating asymmetry (FA). FA is random – with respect to largest side – departures from perfect morphological symmetry. Degree of asymmetry has been associated with physical fitness, morbidity and mortality in many species, including humans. We expected that low FA (independent of age, diet and exercise) will predict faster choice reaction time (i.e., correct keyboard responses to stimuli appearing in a random location on a computer monitor). Eighty-eight university students self-reported their fish product consumption, exercise, had their faces 3D scanned and cognitive performance measured. Unexpectedly, increased fish product consumption was associated with worsened choice reaction time. Facial asymmetry and multiple face shape variation parameters predicted slower choice reaction time independent of sex, age, diet or exercise. Future work should develop longitudinal interventions to minimize early cognitive decline among vulnerable people (e.g., those who have experienced ontogenetic stressors affecting optimal neurocognitive development). 
    • Film clips smoking behavior and nicotine craving: the interrelationship between stress, smoking cues and craving

      Kasdovasilis, P.; Alikari, V.; Zyga, S.; Guppy, Andrew; Theofilou, P.; University of Bedfordshire; University of Peloponnese; Ministry of Health, Athens (Hellenic Psychiatric Association, 2019-06-01)
      Αn abundance of research has demonstrated that substance addicted individuals, when they are exposed to a substance related stimulus, show a positive correlation between physiological measurements, such as an increase in heart rate and sweating, and behavioral reactions, that include craving and substance use or consumption. Films depicting smoking behavior are regarded as cues to induce smoking behavior. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of smoking behavior portrayed in movies on actual craving experienced by smokers who watch on screen actors consume tobacco products. In addition, the effects of receiving orally administered nicotine (chewing gum), a regular chewing gum or no additional intervention were examined. In particular, the study aimed to investigate how these factors impact nicotine craving as well as the heart rate and sweating. The majority of the participants were University of Bedfordshire students and staff. Thirty smokers (12 males and 18 females) having received a nicotine gum, a regular chewing gum or no gum, were exposed to a digital video clip showing actors smoking. The participants chose the type of chewing gum they wanted. Heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) were measured during the course of the experiment. Prior to and after watching the movie clip participants completed the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). According to the results, the craving was increased when compared to the baseline score (t=-3.76, p<0.001). Additionally, a correlation was found between the baseline level of craving and perceived stress before and after the movie (r=0.39). Nicotine chewing gum was found to have a significant impact on participants' heart rate (p<0.05) but not on GSR. A significant difference was found in participants in the normal chewing gum condition reporting higher levels of craving than the other two groups (p<0.05). Age was found to positively related to post-measures of nicotine craving which was found to be higher for young respondents (r=-0.47, p<0.01). The data further show that the depiction of smoking behavior in the media is likely to have a significant impact on smoking craving, smoking behavior and nicotine consumption. The current study confirms and replicates some of the previous findings within the field of smoking behavior and nicotine craving such as high susceptibility of younger adults to media influence.
    • Financial aversion and its link to attachment anxiety

      Sochos, Antigonos; Latchford, Eileen (Springer New York LLC, 2015-04-09)
      Recent research has identified a pattern of anxious and averse reactions towards the management of personal finances that particularly affects the young. A correlational study was conducted including 168 UK university students to investigate the nature of financial aversion within an attachment theory framework. It was hypothesised that, in addition to attachment style, financial aversion would be linked to financial stressors, dyslexia, and general anxiety. According to the findings, financial aversion was linked to probable dyslexia, symptoms of anxiety, attachment anxiety, and attachment dependency. Regression analysis identified attachment anxiety as the only independent predictor and suggested that it also moderated the effects of general anxiety on financial aversion. Findings may interest professionals counselling university students or other groups vulnerable to the experience of financial stress.
    • Food avoidance in children : the influence of maternal feeding practices and behaviours

      Powell, Faye; Farrow, Claire; Meyer, Caroline; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2011-08-30)
      The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of maternal feeding practices in predicting parental reports of food avoidance eating behaviours in young children, after controlling for child temperament, and maternal dietary restraint which have previously been associated with feeding problems. One hundred and four mothers of children aged between 3 and 6 years completed self report measures of their child's eating behaviour and temperament, maternal dietary restraint and child feeding practices. Maternal reports of food avoidance eating behaviours were associated with an emotional child temperament, high levels of maternal feeding control, using food for behaviour regulation and low encouragement of a balanced and varied food intake. Maternal feeding practices, predominantly pressure to eat, significantly predicted food avoidance eating behaviours after controlling for child emotionality and maternal dietary restraint. The significant contribution of maternal feeding practices, which are potentially modifiable behaviours, suggests that the feeding interactions of parents and their children should be targeted for intervention and the prevention of feeding difficulties during early childhood. Future research should continue to explore how a broader range of feeding practices, particular those that may be more adaptive, might influence child eating behaviour.
    • From cure to prevention

      Chater, Angel M. (2011-12-01)
      Ian Florance talks to Angel Chater about her love affair with health psychology