• Scenarios for the development of smart grids in the UK: synthesis report

      Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye; Watson, Tom; Connor, Peter; Axon, Colin; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Davidson, Rosemary; Spence, Alexa; Baker, Phil; Xenias, Demitrios; UKERC (UKERC, 2014-02-05)
      ‘Smart grid’ is a catch-all term for the smart options that could transform the ways society produces, delivers and consumes energy, and potentially the way we conceive of these services. Delivering energy more intelligently will be fundamental to decarbonising the UK electricity system at least possible cost, while maintaining security and reliability of supply. Smarter energy delivery is expected to allow the integration of more low carbon technologies and to be much more cost effective than traditional methods, as well as contributing to economic growth by opening up new business and innovation opportunities. Innovating new options for energy system management could lead to cost savings of up to £10bn, even if low carbon technologies do not emerge. This saving will be much higher if UK renewable energy targets are achieved. Building on extensive expert feedback and input, this report describes four smart grid scenarios which consider how the UK’s electricity system might develop to 2050. The scenarios outline how political decisions, as well as those made in regulation, finance, technology, consumer and social behaviour, market design or response, might affect the decisions of other actors and limit or allow the availability of future options. The project aims to explore the degree of uncertainty around the current direction of the electricity system and the complex interactions of a whole host of factors that may lead to any one of a wide range of outcomes. Our addition to this discussion will help decision makers to understand the implications of possible actions and better plan for the future, whilst recognising that it may take any one of a number of forms.
    • Sickness presenteeism at work: prevalence, costs and management

      Kinman, Gail (OUP, 2019-01-11)
      Introduction: Presenteeism is defined as continuing to attend work during illness. As a growing health concern, awareness of the factors that encourage presenteeism and the risks of this behaviour is needed. Sources of data: A narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and Psycinfo, was conducted. Areas of agreement:  A range of contextual and individual factors is associated with presenteeism.  Workers in some sectors, such as healthcare, appear to be at greater risk. Presenteeism may facilitate rehabilitation and recovery but it can exacerbate existing health problems and increase the risk of subsequent illness and absence as well as impair workability. Areas of controversy: The incidence of sickness presenteeism is rising, alongside reductions in absenteeism. The growing awareness of the costs of presenteeism, especially in safety-critical environments, suggests that it should be considered a risk-taking behaviour and carefully measured and managed. Growing points and areas for developing research: Measuring presenteeism as well as absenteeism will provide more accurate information about employee health. Raising awareness of the risks of working while sick and the economic, moral, cultural and social pressures on employees to do so appears crucial. Systemic interventions to manage presenteeism based on research evidence are required. 
    • Silence is golden: using ‘safe words’ to promote research student ownership in supervisory meetings

      Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-03)
      The quality of supervisory relationships has a significant impact on research students’ ability to successfully attain their goals. One risk factor is contrasting expectations of the role of the supervisory team. We report a case where we became aware firstly, that a student may have different expectations to us (as supervisors) relating to the level of independence that we expected from them and secondly, that we had unwittingly enabled a passive approach which masked the student’s ability. We subsequently describe a strategy we developed, based on the use of ‘safe words,’ for ensuring that the student’s contributions took centre stage during supervisory meetings. Also considered is how this practice allowed us to make a more accurate assessment of their abilities as well as enabling us to form recommendations to help the student develop their ideas more independently.
    • Slower is not always better: response-time evidence clarifies the limited role of miserly information processing in the Cognitive Reflection Test.

      Stupple, Edward J.N.; Pitchford, Melanie; Ball, Linden J.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Steel, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire; Loughborough University (Public Library of Science, 2017-12-31)
      We report a study examining the role of 'cognitive miserliness' as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people's response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers. Evidence indicated only a weak correlation between CRT response times and accuracy. Item-level analyses also failed to demonstrate predicted response-time differences between correct analytic and incorrect intuitive answers for two of the three CRT items. We question whether participants who give incorrect intuitive answers on the CRT can legitimately be termed cognitive misers and whether the three CRT items measure the same general construct.
    • Stress and wellbeing in prison officers

      Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Hart, Jacqui Ann (Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2020-03-01)
      Prison officers are at greater risk of work-related stress than most other occupations in the UK (Johnson, et al, 2005). The rates of mental health problems and burnout in the profession are also comparatively high (Kinman et al., 2016; Kunst, 2011). Challenges to the wellbeing of prison staff include heavy workloads, lack of autonomy and support, low resources, role stressors and exposure to aggression and violence (Finney et al,. 2013).  In this chapter we draw on research conducted by ourselves and others that identifies the key stressors experienced by UK prison officers and the implications for their wellbeing and job performance. Particular focus is placed on our research that has utilised the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards framework to diagnose the psychosocial hazards experienced by prison staff, but other stressors, such as personal experiences of aggression and violence, poor recovery opportunities and presenteeism, are also considered.  We argue that carefully targeted, multi-level interventions are needed to address the challenges faced by the sector and identify priorities for future research.
    • Student experience of gamified learning: a qualitative approach

      Clements, Andrew James; Ahmed, Sajeel; Henderson, Bernadette; University of Bedfordshire (Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017-10-17)
      Student engagement and student outcomes in Higher Education continue to be the subject of academic concern, and thus receive research attention. To address these concerns, we aim to explore the use of gamification to enhance student engagement, and thereby improving student learning and performance. Gamification represents the use of game elements to enhance engagement in activities such as learning.  This paper highlights the use of game elements such as: leader boards, scores for activities, and multiplayer (group) activities.  The paper does this by exploring students’ learning journeys, as well as their experience of modules in which gamification had been introduced. Group-based competitive activities were introduced to modules undertaken by business students, student nurses, and paramedic students.  Students undertaking these modules were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews.  Twelve students drawn from the three disciplines took part in these semi-structured interviews, which were digitally recorded to enable production of accurate transcripts. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from the interviews. To explain student responses and their learning experience, four themes were developed; challenge, difference, group processes, and competition. Students often presented themselves as enjoying challenge, although this was sometimes contrasted with enjoyment of ‘easy’ activities.  Challenge was presented not only as a motivational factor, but also sometimes as a barrier to success.  This sense of challenge was often conceptually linked to students’ perception of difference within their gamified learning, which was pedagogically distinct from their typical learning experience.  Most, but not all, expressed positive views of this difference.  As with the theme of challenge, discussion of difference could be both positive and negative.  Participants highlighted competition as a positive factor.  The competition between groups influenced some group processes.  Some students noted previous challenges involved in group-work, such as unequal work distribution.  Participants observed the potential for intra-group friction, while identifying the positive learning outcomes of group work.  Taken together, the analysis suggests that competitive group work is a beneficial strategy for enhancing student engagement and performance.
    • Supporting students of diverse cultures and faiths - experiences from a university perspective

      Gale, Jill; Thalitaya, Madhusudan Deepak (Medicinska Naklada Zagreb, 2017-09-01)
      Background: University of Bedfordshire is a large University with over 24000 students from over 100 countries. The main religions recorded are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jewish and Sikhism amongst others. Around 45% of them do not have any recorded religion. The Mental Health Advisor will come across a wide range of students from different backgrounds each with their own unique presentation of mental health distress. It is well known that people of different communities and cultures experience signs and symptoms of mental distress in different ways. This is very important for clinicians to be aware of the nuances around cultures and traditions in the context of mental illness in order to assist clinicians more accurately diagnose, support and manage them. In an effort to improve diagnosis and care to people of all backgrounds, the 5th edition of the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) incorporates a greater cultural sensitivity throughout the manual. This includes a reflection of crosscultural variations in presentations and cultural concepts of distress. Role of the Mental Health Advisor: The mental Health Advisor is available to help with practical support to assist students to manage their mental health and study. This includes support with an initial assessment, structures support, assisting with making reasonable adjustments under the Equality Act (2010), support students to access Disabled Student's Allowances and reasonable adjustments to enable them to study effectively and achieve their potential and where necessary, making appropriate referrals to internal and/or external services. One of the main roles of the advisor is to support students with mental health difficulties which are impacting on their studies. This support may include anxiety management, motivation, relaxation techniques, study plans and understanding the impact of medication. Discussion: This paper will look at some of the experiences faced by the mental health advisor and will also reflect on understanding the finer nuances of cultural aspects of mental health in different student communities. This paper will also reflect on the learning gained by these experiences which will help better support and assist the student population at the University of Bedfordshire.
    • A systematic review of interventions for homeless alcohol-abusing adults

      Adams-Guppy, Julie R.; Guppy, Andrew (Taylor and Francis Ltd, 2015-05-26)
      Aims: To compile and critically analyse published research on interventions with alcohol-abusing homeless adults. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of research published utilising the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL and SocIndex databases from inception to March 2015. A meta-analysis was performed on studies that met the inclusion criteria, to determine if there were any significant pre- and post-intervention effects on alcohol-use. Results: Seventeen studies from three continents were included in this systematic review. A meta-analysis of pre- and post-intervention effects on alcohol use across the 17 studies found highly significant effects (p < 0.001). A smaller subset of studies (n = 10), where the same specific alcohol use outcome measurement was employed across all studies, also showed highly significant pre-post intervention effects (p < 0.001). Results indicate that a range of interventions were effective in reducing alcohol use and abuse within samples of homeless participants, although short-term effects are more apparent than longer term ones. Conclusions: There is a relative paucity of research into alcohol abusing homeless adults, which has implications for evidence-based practice. This systematic meta-analytical review demonstrates that a range of alcohol abuse interventions for homeless adults produces improvements in alcohol use (p < 0.001).
    • Take note of the fuss: selective eating and autistic spectrum disorders

      Chater, Angel M.; Stein, Samuel; Chowdhury, Uttom; University of Bedfordshire (2012-12-01)
      Selective eating in children can be a huge concern for parents. In most cases the problem is self-limiting and it can be associated with a developmental disorder. This article presents observations from two case studies from a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) in the south east of England that link selective eating with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). It concludes with recommendations to consider ASD, alongside dietetic advice, when a child is presenting with selective eating.
    • Teaching diversity to medical undergraduates: curriculum development, delivery and assessment. AMEE GUIDE No. 103

      Dogra, Nisha; Bhatti, Farah; Ertubey, Candan; Kelly, Moira; Rowlands, Angela; Singh, Davinder; Turner, Margot; University of Leicester; Swansea University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-04-02)
      The aim of this Guide is to support teacher with the responsibility of designing, delivering and/or assessing diversity education. Although, the focus is on medical education, the guidance is relevant to all healthcare professionals. The Guide begins by providing an overview of the definitions used and the principles that underpin the teaching of diversity as advocated by Diversity and Medicine in Health (DIMAH). Following an outline of these principles we highlight the difference between equality and diversity education. The Guide then covers diversity education throughout the educational process from the philosophical stance of educators and how this influences the approaches used through to curriculum development, delivery and assessment. Appendices contain practical examples from across the UK, covering lesson plans and specific exercises to deliver teaching. Although, diversity education remains variable and fragmented there is now some momentum to ensure that the principles of good educational practice are applied to diversity education. The nature of this topic means that there are a range of different professions and medical disciplines involved which leads to a great necessity for greater collaboration and sharing of effective practice.
    • Understanding students’ experiences of e-PDP and the factors that shape their attitudes

      Gaitan, Alfredo; University of Bedfordshire (Center for Teaching and Learning, University of Georgia., 2012-01-01)
      Using an action research approach, e-PDP (electronically-supported Personal Development Planning) was embedded within an undergraduate psychology curriculum at an English university for more than two years. e-PDP was embedded in three ways: (a) information literacy micro-tasks, (b) blogs of learning activities, and (c) eportfolios submitted at the end of each academic year in which the students assessed their experiences and development across all units. This paper focuses on findings from the qualitative analysis of a sample of interviews with students. A system of five interconnected categories was identified at the center of which were the students' "attitudes" towards reflective writing and the construction of eportfolios. These attitudes were closely related to a perception of "purpose" (many different purposes, but also lack of purpose), as well as "technical aspects" (experiences of using the software), the students' willingness (or reluctance) to "disclose personal aspects" in their eportfolios, and the "guidance" received from tutors.
    • Understanding students’ motivation towards proactive career behaviours through goal-setting theory and the job demands–resources model

      Clements, Andrew James; Kamau, Caroline (Routledge, 2017-05-16)
      The graduate labour market is highly competitive but little is known about why students vary in their development of employability. This study contributes to the literature by applying goal-setting theory and the job demands–resources model to investigate how motivational processes influence students’ proactive career behaviours. We tested four hypotheses using structural equation modelling and moderation/mediation analysis using a nested model approach; 432 undergraduates from 21 UK universities participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that students higher in mastery approach had greater perceived employability mediated by two proactive career behaviours (skill development and network building). Students’ career goal commitment was associated with all four proactive career behaviours (career planning, skill development, career consultation and network building). Students’ academic and employment workloads did not negatively impact their proactive career behaviours. University tutors and career services should therefore encourage students to set challenging career goals that reflect mastery approach.
    • Using patchwork text assessments to support and document learning processes

      Gaitan, Alfredo; Adonu, Joseph; Jankowska, Maja; University of Bedfordshire (Centre for Recording Achievement, 2018-12-10)
    • Weighing up the risks, considering the benefits: public perceptions of smart grid technologies

      Davidson, Rosemary; Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye; Spence, Alexa; Watson, Tom; Nash, N.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; University of Bedfordshire (2014-09-18)
      Much has been written on the possible implications of the introduction of smart grids for the UK energy market on standards and technical issues, data handling, regulation and investment. Less consideration has been given to lay perceptions of smart grids; yet consumer engagement will likely influence the extent to which such technologies will help with managing energy demand more efficiently, reduce peak loads and household bills. Sharing data, compromising confidentiality and being subjected to unsolicited marketing calls were key, interlinked issues of great importance to participants when considering a future smart grid. Participants were usually comfortable with their data being used if anonymised for the smoother operation of the network and in return for cheaper prices. If data could be linked back to them personally, opinion was divided over whether this would be an invasion of privacy or simply knowledge of daily routines and household energy usage. Some wanted to see a more dynamic relationship whereby if consumers shared information, they would be kept informed as to how it was used, and thus also receive some benefit. Quantitative data collected supported these ideas, highlighting that participants did not perceive benefits to the consumer of a future smart grid to outweigh the related risks. We additionally found that perceived benefits to society and to energy companies were perceived as higher than those conferred to the consumer and significantly outweighed the relative perceived risks. Discussions highlighted that particip ants assumed that future changes to the energy system were likely to maximise profits and benefit supply and demand for energy companies alone. We note that current negative perceptions of the ‘big six’ energy companies also greatly influenced participants’ attitudes to data sharing, and motivations to change their behaviour. Frequently emerging was the idea that energy supply was a basic need to be managed for the good of everyone rather than led by commercial pressures and share holders in the private sector. In relation to behavior change, participants envisaged being able to interact with new technologies and systems in order to use mainly renewable ‘clean’ energy, with the proviso that they could override systems where necessary. Yet there was also the view that such decisions should be taken out of consumers’ hands as part of a government-led green strategy where only one sustainable option would be available. Developing and effectively communicating consumer and societal benefits would likely increase engagement with a future smart grid. It is argued that strong policy to address this along with decisive regulation would help to build trust and reduce risks.
    • Wellbeing in academic employees– a benchmarking approach

      Kinman, Gail; Wray, Siobhan (Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2019-04-27)
      Research from several countries indicates that university lecturers and researchers are particularly vulnerable to work-related stress from various sources. This chapter draws on the findings of research conducted by the authors in the United Kingdom (UK) over several years to highlight the value of a benchmarking approach in monitoring the wellbeing of academic employees.  The literature on the stressors and strains experienced by academics is initially reviewed.  The findings of three studies using a well-established framework to assess psychosocial hazards in the university sector in the UK are then presented and discussed.   Except for job control, respondents reported lower wellbeing for each of the seven specified hazards than recommended, with evidence of deterioration over time in some areas. The implications of these findings and the value of supplementing the benchmarking approach with hazards reflecting the current working context are discussed. Priority areas for interventions to enhance wellbeing among academic employees are identified and topics for future research proposed.
    • What could make a difference to the mental health of UK doctors? A review of the research evidence

      Kinman, Gail; Teoh, Kevin; Louise Tebboth Foundation; Society of Occupational Medicine (Society of Occupational Medicine, 2018-10-08)
    • What motivational processes underpin student engagement with employability? : a critical review

      Clements, Andrew James (Springer, 2019-10-08)
      There are concerns that students fail to engage with employability soon enough in their studies, and do not seek the best available support.  This chapter explores the role that motivation plays in students’ career management behaviours, notably career exploration, decision-making, and job search.  The literature highlights the crucial role played by self-efficacy, i.e. belief in one’s ability to perform a task, which is informed by personal experience and feedback.  Time spent on career exploration (i.e. reflecting on one’s own qualities and exploring opportunities) is associated with greater confidence in making career decisions.  Job search behaviours, such as effort, is associated with better career outcomes.  However, there is a gap in the literature regarding how earlier exploration and decision activities inform the job search.  This chapter identifies opportunities for addressing this gap, and the potential value of exploring student job search strategies.  Yet while attention to motivation may inform how we work with individual students, it remains necessary to consider environmental conditions in the labour market.
    • “When are you coming back?” Presenteeism in UK Prison Officers

      Kinman, Gail; Clements, Andrew James; Hart, Jacqui Ann; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      Presenteeism has negative implications for staff wellbeing and the safety of prisons, but little is known about its prevalence and causes.  This mixed-methods study examines these issues among 1,682 UK officers. Most respondents (84%) reported working while sick at least sometimes, with 53% always doing so. Six linked themes were identified that underpinned presenteeism in the prison sector: punitive absence management systems; pressure from management; short-staffing and fear of letting colleagues down; job insecurity; fear of disbelief and shaming; and duty and professionalism. The implications of presenteeism for the health and job performance of prison officers are considered. 
    • Work-related wellbeing in UK higher education - 2014

      Kinman, Gail; Wray, Siobhan; University and College Union (University and College Union, 2017-08-30)
      This report presents the findings of a national survey of work-related wellbeing in higher education. The sample comprised 6439 respondents working in academic and academic-related roles in UK universities and colleges.  The Health and Safety Executive framework for measuring work-related stress was used and findings compared with data obtained in previous waves of the research.  Other factors, such as perceptions of stress, illegitimate tasks and change fatigue and job satisfaction were examined.  Mental and physical health, absenteeism and presenteeism and work-life balance were also assessed. The implications for UK higher education are discussed. 
    • Work-related wellbeing in UK prison officers: a benchmarking approach

      Kinman, Gail; Clements, Andrew James; Hart, Jacqui Ann; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2016-06-20)
      Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to examine the well-being of UK prison officers by utilising a benchmarking approach. Design/methodology/approach-The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Stress Indicator Tool is widely used in the UK to assess key psychosocial hazards in the workplace encompassing demands, control, support from managers and co-workers, relationship quality, role and change management. This study utilises this approach to examine the extent to which a sample of UK prison officers meets the HSE recommended minimum standards for the management of work-related well-being. Levels of mental health and job satisfaction in the sector are also assessed using measures with extensive occupational norms. The psychosocial hazards that make the strongest contribution to mental health and job satisfaction are also considered. Findings-Respondents reported lower levels of well-being for all of the hazard categories than recommended. Moreover, mental health and job satisfaction were considerably poorer among prison officers than other occupational groups within the emergency and security services in the UK. Considerable variation was found in the psychosocial hazards that predicted mental health and job satisfaction. Practical implications-The high levels of stressors and strains experienced by UK prison officers gives serious cause for concern. Priority areas for interventions to enhance well-being in the sector are considered and areas for future research discussed. Originality/value-This study highlights the wide-ranging benefits of a benchmarking approach to investigate work-related stressors and strains at the sector level.