• Parental attachment style and young persons’ adjustment to bereavement

      Sochos, Antigonos; Aleem, Sadia; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2021-05-26)
      Background: Previous clinical and theoretical work supports the idea that parental attachment style and complicated grief affect young persons’ mental health, but empirical research investigating their impact on young person’s adjustment to bereavement is lacking. Objective: This study investigated the impact of parental attachment style and complicated grief on young person’s adjustment to bereavement. It was hypothesised that a) parental attachment anxiety, avoidance, and complicated grief would moderate the link between bereavement experience and psychological distress in young persons and b) parental attachment style would moderate the link between parental complicated grief and psychological distress experienced by bereaved young persons. Method: This was a questionnaire-based case control study, involving two participant groups: 133 parents of young persons who had experienced the loss of the loved one and 101 parents of young persons with no bereavement experience. Results: Bereaved young persons experienced greater externalising and internalising problems than the non-bereaved only when they were raised by an anxiously attached parent, but when parental attachment anxiety was low, bereaved children had fewer problems than the non-bereaved. When parental attachment avoidance was low, bereaved children also had fewer externalising problems than the non-bereaved. Among the bereaved, high levels of parental attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance amplified the link between parental complicated grief and child post-traumatic stress, while in the presence of low parental anxiety, complicated grief was negatively associated with an immediate distressing response and numbing-dissociative symptomatology. Conclusions: Psychological vulnerability in bereaved young persons was associated with an insecure parental attachment style.
    • The peculiar experience of being a complete novice : a reflection on supervising systemic practitioner researchers on a doctoral programme

      Gaitan, Alfredo; University of Bedfordshire (Everything is Connected Press, 2017-10-22)
      The experience of being a novice sailor has put me in a peculiar, but privileged position to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of an adult learner who is also a competent professional. I initially used first-person writing in order to express and explore my experience of a week of sailing in the Norfolk Broads. I tried to capture, among many things, my fear of falling in the water, of failing and of embarrassment. I described how I overcame my fear as I enjoyed small success at simple tasks. I then reflected on what I could learn about these experiences in nine themes, drawing on ideas by Maslow (1968/1972) on growth and safety, but also by Rogers (1951) on significant learning, and the all-important role of support and skilful guidance, with doctoral students and supervisors in mind. I drew on Shotter’s (1993, 2013) notions of ‘joint action’ and ‘third agency’ in order to explore the student-supervisor relationship and the construction of knowledge that takes place during a doctorate. This author’s ideas seemed particularly well-suited to the description of learning and supervising, as involving a way of being in which we are mostly responding to the requirements of concrete circumstances in a fluid process. I tried to infer what the appropriate skills and pedagogical strategies needed on the part of the supervisor may be. However, it is possible that the readers discover more possibilities hidden in the metaphor of learning to sail as they apply it to their own experience of learning in the doctoral programme.  
    • People are unable to recognize or report on their own eye movements

      Clarke, Alasdair D.F.; Mahon, Aoife; Irvine, Alex; Hunt, Amelia R.; University of Aberdeen; University of Cambridge (SAGE, 2017-11-01)
      Eye movements bring new information into our visual system. The selection of each fixation is the result of a complex interplay of image features, task goals, and biases in motor control and perception. To what extent are we aware of the selection of saccades and their consequences? Here we use a converging methods approach to answer this question in three diverse experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were directed to find a target in a scene by a verbal description of it. We then presented the path the eyes took together with those of another participant. Participants could only identify their own path when the comparison scanpath was searching for a different target. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a scene for three seconds and then named objects from the scene. When asked whether they had looked directly at a given object, participants' responses were primarily determined by whether or not the object had been named, and not by whether it had been fixated. In Experiment 3, participants executed saccades towards single targets and then viewed a replay of either the eye movement they had just executed or that of someone else. Participants were at chance to identify their own saccade, even when it contained under- and overshoot corrections. The consistent inability to report on one's own eye movements across experiments suggests that awareness of eye movements is extremely impoverished or altogether absent. This is surprising given that information about prior eye movements is clearly used during visual search, motor error correction, and learning.
    • Perceptions of professional drug treatment staff in England about client barriers to Narcotics Anonymous attendance

      Day, Ed; Wall, Rosemary; Chohan, Gagandeep; Seddon, Jennifer L.; King's College London; University of Birmingham (Taylor & Francis, 2015-11-04)
      A growing body of research evidence shows that Twelve Step Group (TSG) attendance confers a consistent moderate beneficial effect on substance use. Clinicians potentially represent a major referral pathway to TSG. This qualitative study aimed to explore staff perceptions of the barriers to Narcotics Anonymous (NA) group attendance in a population receiving drug treatment, and potential strategies to increase attendance. A cross-sectional survey of substance misuse treatment professionals was conducted between January and April 2012 in Birmingham, England. Fifty-eight members of staff working within statutory community drug treatment teams were interviewed using qualitative research methods. The overarching themes within the staff accounts are described and the importance of these themes explored. Perceived objections to core elements of the 12 step programme (religious nature of the programme, powerlessness, surrender, desire to stop using drugs) were major obstacles to recommending NA attendance. However, a perception that the client would object to any form of group process, and concerns about risk both to the client and the TSG members were also important. Increased education about TSG practices and procedures was a commonly cited strategy for increasing levels of TSG referral, and in particular ensuring that clinicians attend open meetings themselves. An increased understanding and familiarity with the process and principles of TSGs may be necessary to increase promotion of TSG within drug treatment services in line with recent national policy promoting recovery from drug use.
    • Phenomenology of visual hallucinations and their relationship to cognitive profile in Parkinson’s Disease patients: preliminary observations

      Boubert, Laura; Barnes, Jim (SAGE Publications Inc., 2015-04-01)
      Although the phenomenology of visual hallucinations (VHs) has been investigated, no study to date has related cognitive performance to the content of hallucinations, specifically whether participants who have familiar internally driven hallucinations differ in the executive function from patients with externally driven hallucinations. Here, we examine the relationship between executive function and the content of VHs in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We evaluated three groups: 17 PD patients with internally driven memory-based VHs, 18 PD patients with externally driven non-memory-based VHs, and 20 PD patients without hallucinations on a series of tests previously reported to evaluate executive functions, specifically tests of inhibitory ability, short-term memory, and working memory. Differences were found on test of inhibitory ability with PD patients experiencing externally driven VHs having substantially greater impairment than patients with internally driven VHs. These findings indicate that the cognitive profile of patients may influence the content of the hallucinatory experience and could consequently have implications for treatment of the phenomenon.
    • Phonetic and orthographic cues are weighted in speech sound perception by second language speakers: evidence from Greek speakers of English.

      Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari; University of Bedfordshire; Winchester University; University of Helsinki (Acoustical Society of America, 2016-05-01)
      Second language (L2) learning can involve processing of speech-sound contrasts that have multiple phonetic cues (e.g. Iverson et al., 2003). This can be particularly difficult for foreign-language learners especially if the cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages (e.g., Giannakopoulou et al., 2011, 2013). The orthographic representation of words is suggested to also interfere with speech sound perception in way of presenting additional cues for the second language learner. Greek child and adult speakers of English were studied to determine on what basis they are making perceptual identification between English vowels with the use of pictures as visual stimuli. Performance was impaired for Greek speakers across all tasks but worst for Greek speakers for the picture stimuli task. Findings suggest a 'link' between orthography and perceptual identification serving as an additional cue for L2 speakers.
    • A pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of an adjunct brief social network intervention in opiate substitution treatment services

      Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Seddon, Jennifer L.; Christie, Marilyn; Bamber, Deborah; Powell, Charlotte; Bennett C.; Akhtar, Shabana; George, Sanju; Ball, Andrew; et al. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018-01-15)
      Background: Approximately 3% of people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in the UK manage to achieve abstinence from prescribed and illicit drugs within three years of commencing treatment. Involvement of families and wider social networks in supporting psychological treatment may be an effective strategy in facilitating recovery, and this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a social network-focused intervention for patients receiving OST. Methods: A two-site, open feasibility trial randomised patients receiving OST for at least 12 months but still reporting illicit opiate use in the past 28 days to one of three treatments: 1) treatment as usual (TAU), 2) Brief Social Behaviour and Network Therapy (B-SBNT)+TAU, or 3) Personal Goal Setting (PGS)+TAU. The two active interventions consisted of 4 sessions. There were 3 aims: 1) test the feasibility of recruiting OST patients to a trial of B-SBNT, and following them up over 12 months; 2) test the feasibility of training clinicians to deliver B-SBNT; 3) test whether B-SBNT reduces heroin use 3 and 12 months after treatment, and to explore potential mediating factors. The primary outcome for aim 3 was number of days of heroin use in the past month, and a range of secondary outcome measures were specified in advance (level of drug dependence, mental health, social satisfaction, therapist rapport, treatment satisfaction, social network size and support). Results: A total of 83 participants were randomised, and 70 (84%) were followed-up at 12 months. Fidelity analysis of showed that B-SBNT sessions were clearly distinguishable from PGS and TAU sessions, suggesting it was possible to train clinical staff to an adequate level of competence. No significant differences were found between the 3 intervention arms in the primary or secondary outcome measures. Attendance at psychosocial treatment intervention sessions was low across all three arms (44% overall). Conclusions: Patients receiving OST can be recruited into a trial of a social network-based intervention, but poor attendance at treatment sessions makes it uncertain whether an adequate dose of treatment was delivered. In order to achieve the benefits of psychosocial interventions, further work is needed to overcome poor engagement. Trial registration: ISRCTN Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN22608399. Date of registration: 27/04/2012. Date of first randomisation: 14/08/2012.
    • Pilot study of a social network intervention for heroin users in opiate substitution treatment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

      Ball, Andrew; Frew, Emma; Freemantle, Nick; Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Seddon, Jennifer L.; Christie, Marilyn; Bamber, Deborah; Powell, Charlotte; George, Sanju (BioMed Central, 2013-08-19)
      Background: Research indicates that 3% of people receiving opiate substitution treatment (OST) in the UK manage to achieve abstinence from all prescribed and illicit drugs within 3 years of commencing treatment, and there is concern that treatment services have become skilled at engaging people but not at helping them to enter a stage of recovery and drug abstinence. The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse recommends the involvement of families and wider social networks in supporting drug users' psychological treatment, and this pilot randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the impact of a social network-focused intervention for patients receiving OST.Methods and design: In this two-site, early phase, randomized controlled trial, a total of 120 patients receiving OST will be recruited and randomized to receive one of three treatments: 1) Brief Social Behavior and Network Therapy (B-SBNT), 2) Personal Goal Setting (PGS) or 3) treatment as usual. Randomization will take place following baseline assessment. Participants allocated to receive B-SBNT or PGS will continue to receive the same treatment that is routinely provided by drug treatment services, plus four additional sessions of either intervention. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome will be assessment of illicit heroin use, measured by both urinary analysis and self-report. Secondary outcomes involve assessment of dependence, psychological symptoms, social satisfaction, motivation to change, quality of life and therapeutic engagement. Family members (n = 120) of patients involved in the trial will also be assessed to measure the level of symptoms, coping and the impact of the addiction problem on the family member at baseline, 3 and 12 months.Discussion: This study will provide experimental data regarding the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a social network intervention within routine drug treatment services in the UK National Health Service. The study will explore the impact of the intervention on both patients receiving drug treatment and their family members.Trial registration: Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN22608399. ISRCTN22608399 registration: 27/04/2012. Date of first randomisation: 14/08/2012. © 2013 Day et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Presenteeism in academic employees - occupational and individual factors

      Kinman, Gail; Wray, Siobhan; University of Bedfordshire; York St John University (Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option D, 2018-01-17)
      Background: There is growing evidence that presenteeism can be damaging for individuals and organisations. It is therefore important to identify the prevalence of working while sick in different working environments and the factors that contribute to such behaviour.   Aims: To examine the prevalence of self-reported presenteeism in academic staff working in UK universities and colleges and the extent to which job demands, control, support and work engagement are risk factors. Methods: Scales from the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool were used to measure job demands, control and support from managers and co-workers. Work engagement was assessed using a validated measure and the frequency of self-reported presenteeism was measured. The effects of demands, control, support and engagement on presenteeism were examined with ordinal regression analysis. Results: The study sample comprised 6,874 people working in academic roles in UK colleges and universities (59% female).  Most respondents (88%) reported working while sick at least sometimes. The risk factors for presenteeism were job demands, control, support from managers and work engagement. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that presenteeism is commonplace in UK colleges and universities. Some of the features of the job that might encourage employees to work while sick are highlighted, whereas engagement in work was an additional risk factor.  
    • Problem solving: perspectives from cognition and neuroscience

      Robertson, S. Ian (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-28)
      The way that we assess and overcome problems is an essential part of everyday life. Problem Solving provides a clear introduction to the underlying mental processes involved in solving problems. Drawing on research from cognitive psychology and neuroscience, it examines the methods and techniques used by both novices and experts in familiar and unfamiliar situations. This edition has been comprehensively updated throughout, and now features cutting-edge content on creative problem solving, insight and neuroscience. Each chapter is written in an accessible way, and contains a range of student-friendly features such as activities, chapter summaries and further reading. The book also provides clear examples of studies and approaches that help the reader fully understand important and complex concepts in greater detail. Problem Solving fully engages the reader with the difficulties and methodologies associated with problem solving. This book will be of great use to undergraduate students of cognitive psychology, education and neuroscience, as well as readers and professionals with an interest in problem solving.
    • Problem-solving deficits in Iranian people with borderline personality disorder

      Akbari Dehaghi, Ashraf; Kaviani, Hossein; Tamanaeefar, Shima; Tehran University of Medical Sciences; University of Bedfordshire (Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 2014-12-31)
      Interventions for people suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD), such as dialectical behavior therapy, often include a problem-solving component. However, there is an absence of published studies examining the problem-solving abilities of this client group in Iran. The study compared inpatients and outpatients with BPD and a control group on problem-solving capabilities in an Iranian sample. It was hypothesized that patients with BPD would have more deficiencies in this area. Fifteen patients with BPD were compared to 15 healthy participants. Means-ends problem-solving task (MEPS) was used to measure problem-solving skills in both groups. BPD group reported less effective strategies in solving problems as opposed to the healthy group. Compared to the control group, participants with BPD provided empirical support for the use of problem-solving interventions with people suffering from BPD. The findings supported the idea that a problem-solving intervention can be efficiently applied either as a stand-alone therapy or in conjunction with other available psychotherapies to treat people with BPD. OBJECTIVE METHODS RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
    • Procedural and declarative memory task performance, and the memory consolidation function of sleep, in recent and abstinent ecstasy/MDMA users

      Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer L.; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C.; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.; Jones, Katy A.; Morgan, Michael J. (SAGE, 2010-07-08)
      Ecstasy/MDMA use has been associated with various memory deficits. This study assessed declarative and procedural memory in ecstasy/MDMA users. Participants were tested in two sessions, 24 h apart, so that the memory consolidation function of sleep on both types of memory could also be assessed. Groups were: drug-naive controls (n = 24); recent ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy/MDMA 2-3 days before the first testing session (n = 25), and abstinent users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before testing (n = 17). Procedural memory did not differ between groups, but greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy was associated with poorer procedural memory. Recent ecstasy/MDMA users who had taken other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48-24 h before testing exhibited poorer declarative memory than controls, but recent users who had not taken other drugs in this 48-24-h period did not differ from controls. Greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy, and of cocaine, were associated with greater deficits in declarative memory. These results suggest that procedural, as well as declarative, memory deficits are associated with the extent of past ecstasy use. However, ecstasy/MDMA did not affect the memory consolidation function of sleep for either the declarative or the procedural memory task.
    • Psychological distress, physical symptoms, and the role of attachment style in acupuncture

      Sochos, Antigonos; Bennett, Ashley; University of Bedfordshire (InnoVision Health Media, 2016-10-04)
      Context • Attachment research has contributed significantly to the understanding of the origins as well as the treatment of psychological and somatic distress; however, no study so far has explored the role of attachment in acupuncture. The effects on endogenous opioids of both acupuncture and intimate interpersonal bonding as well as clients’ reliance on a practitioner’s care may suggest that individual differences in attachment style could be linked to individual differences in responses to acupuncture. Objective • The study intended to investigate the role of attachment style in determining outcomes in acupuncture. Design • A pre- and postintervention, single group, quasiexperimental design was used. Setting • Treatment and data collection took place in an acupuncture clinic in London, England, United Kingdom. Participants: Eighty-two acupuncture clients with a mean age of 46 ± 14.53 took part in the study. Participants suffered from a variety of somatic and psychological complaints. Intervention • Traditional Chinese acupuncture was administered to all participants in weekly sessions, with the mean number of sessions that participants received being 5 ± 3.5. Outcome Measures • Psychological distress and somatic symptoms were measured using the General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), respectively. The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) was used to assess attachment style, with the 4 styles being secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful. Results • After treatment, both somatic and nonsomatic distress were reduced (P <.001), whereas pretreatment associations between attachment insecurity and symptom severity ceased to exist. The strength rather than the quality of the attachment style moderated the reduction in somatic distress, whereas the preoccupied style of attachment moderated the effects of medically unexplained symptoms on distress. Conclusions • Attachment style may have an impact on acupuncture outcomes by predisposing individuals to different patterns of opioid elicitation and a different manner of relating to the practitioner.
    • The psychosocial hazards of academic work: an analysis of trends

      Wray, Siobhan; Kinman, Gail (Routledge, 2020-07-22)
      This study examines the psychosocial hazards experienced by academic staff working in UK institutions over time. A risk assessment framework developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was used to measure seven key hazards: demands, control, support from managers and colleagues, relationships, role and change management. Data were obtained from three waves of a national survey of academic staff across the UK (2008, n = 6,203; 2012, n = 7,068; 2014, n = 3,952). Mean scores for each hazard were compared with HSE benchmarks from the UK working population and changes over the three waves were examined. Apart from job control, none of the benchmarks was met and the risk associated with demands, manager and peer support, role and change was particularly high. An increase in most of the psychosocial hazards was found over time, particularly for job demands, control, role and relationships, showing clear cause for concern. How the findings could be used to monitor the wellbeing of academic staff over time and develop targeted interventions is considered.
    • Relationships between psychosocial characteristics and democratic values in Iranians: a cross-cultural study

      Kaviani, Hossein; Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire (2017-04-11)
      This paper investigates the extent to which differences in people’s socio-political attitudes and behaviours are underpinned by individual characteristics. Two groups of volunteers: (a) an Iranian sample that have been resident in UK for less than two years, and (b) a British sample, took part in this study. A series of validated scales was used to examine differences in levels of empathy, theory of mind, flexibility, suggestibility, emotionality, openness, normative identity style, interpersonal trust, cooperativeness, emotionality, prosocial behaviour, egalitarian sex role, and authoritarianism between groups. Self-reported socio-political tendency, in terms of adherence to democracy, was also assessed. The results show significant differences in levels of these variables between the two cultural groups. Furthermore, the findings shed some light on the psychological and social factors that are related to democratic values and that predict this outcome in the two groups. Implications of the findings for policy makers and educational systems are discussed.
    • Research ethics in practice: lessons from studies exploring interpersonal violence in different contexts

      Vearey, Jo; Barter, Christine; Hynes, Patricia; McGinn, Tony (Policy Press, 2016-08-26)
      Studies researching interpersonal violence (IPV) are associated with a range of ethical challenges. In this article, lessons are drawn from three case studies exploring the experiences of different groups of survivors and perpetrators of IPV in diverse contexts: refugees in the Thailand-Burma border area; partner-violent adult men and female survivors in Ireland; and school children in five European countries. The ethical – and associated methodological – challenges faced, and the ways in which they were overcome, are presented. Drawing on the case studies presented, the article concludes that three key areas require special attention when conducting research in this field: accessing and recruiting participants, researcher skills and experience, and appropriate use of data.
    • A review of the role of radical feminist theories in the understanding of rape myth acceptance

      Maxwell, Louise; Scott, Graham G.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2013-02-27)
      Research into rape myth acceptance (RMA) first emerged in the 1970s, when authors such as Brownmiller (1975) and Burt (1980) proposed that rape was a mechanism that allowed men to exert power over women and that the endorsement of rape myths justified this sexual dominance. These influential theories have meant that subsequent definitions of rape myths have failed to acknowledge male victims of serious sexual assault, despite an increase in prevalence rates. More recent research has attempted to explore RMA in relation to male victims, with results suggesting that men are more likely than women to endorse rape myths regarding male victims when the victim is assumed to be homosexual, or when the victim is heterosexual and the perpetrator is female. Brownmiller's theory is challenged and a more holistic view of the importance of sex-role traditionality is explored, while acknowledging the contribution of individual factors relating to the development of RMA. © 2014 © 2014 National Organisation for the Treatment of Abusers.
    • The role of attention in eye-movement awareness

      Mahon, Aoife; Clarke, Alasdair D.F.; Hunt. Amelia R.; University of Aberdeen; University of Bedfordshire; University of Essex, (Springer, 2018-07-02)
      People are unable to accurately report on their own eye movements most of the time. Can this be explained as a lack of attention to the objects we fixate? Here, we elicited eye-movement errors using the classic oculomotor capture paradigm, in which people tend to look at sudden onsets even when they are irrelevant. In the first experiment, participants were able to report their own errors on about a quarter of the trials on which they occurred. The aim of the second experiment was to assess what differentiates errors that are detected from those that are not. Specifically, we estimated the relative influence of two possible factors: how long the onset distractor was fixated (dwell time), and a measure of how much attention was allocated to the onset distractor. Longer dwell times were associated with awareness of the error, but the measure of attention was not. The effect of the distractor identity on target discrimination reaction time was similar whether or not the participant was aware they had fixated the distractor. The results suggest that both attentional and oculomotor capture can occur in the absence of awareness, and have important implications for our understanding of the relationship between attention, eye movements, and awareness.