• Cannabis use and abstention in first-episode psychosis: the participants’ view

      Seddon, Jennifer L.; Copello, Alex; Birchwood, Max (Taylor & Francis, 2012-02-13)
      Cannabis use has been identified as a prognostic factor for poor outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The research aimed to understand the factors that motivate or inhibit the use of cannabis in people with first-episode psychosis. Thirty first-episode psychosis patients (18 cannabis users and 12 abstainers) were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured methods in order to investigate the self reported factors perceived to influence cannabis abstention, initiation, continued use and consumption change. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using grounded theory based methods. Psychosis specific reasons were not found to be motivationally salient for the initiation or continued use of cannabis, but were found to be important for decreased consumption and cessation. Mental health concerns, such as the impact of cannabis on relapse and psychotic symptom exacerbation were also found to motivate abstention. Psychosis related reasons do not appear to motivate the initial or continued use of cannabis, although thedeleterious effect of cannabis to mental health may promote decreased cannabis consumption, cessation and abstinence following the onset of psychosis. Therefore substance use early interventions for this population should aim to increase emphasis on the potential harms of cannabis to mental health.
    • Cannabis use is associated with increased psychotic symptoms and poorer psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis: a report from the UK National EDEN Study

      Seddon, Jennifer L.; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B.; Fowler D; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2015-11-04)
      OBJECTIVE: The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. DESIGN AND SETTING: One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. CONCLUSION: This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP.
    • The changing workplace

      Begum, P.; Cleaver, S.; Doyle, N.; Maskell, J.; De Mascia, S.; Royle, K.; Marsh, T.; Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; McDowall, Almuth (British Psychological Society, 2017-11-01)
      Six contributions consider how the pace of economic, technological, social and environmental change requires a re-evaluation of how we work now and in the future.
    • Climbing out of the valley

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder (British Psychological Society, 2019-02-28)
      Catrin Pedder Jones on challenges facing PhD students.
    • Couple attachment and relationship duration in psychotherapy patients: exploring a new methodology of assessment

      Sochos, Antigonos (Taylor and Francis, 2013-10-25)
      The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief psychotherapy outpatients were interviewed on their couple relationships before they embarked on cognitive analytic therapy. Patients suffered from a variety of psychological difficulties, including anxiety, depression and personality disorder. Thematic analysis captured empirically eight components of couple attachment as proposed by theory. Thematic analysis also suggested that these components defined four overarching relationship themes, indicating different types of relational difficulties experienced by the patients. Triangulation with quantitative data suggested that relationship themes were unrelated to severity and type of patient pathology but were associated with the duration of the relationship. A stage theory of couple attachment formation may provide a useful framework for understanding the findings. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
    • Cultural modifications of cognitive behavioural treatment of social anxiety among culturally diverse clients: a systematic literature review

      Jankowska, Maja; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2019-01-09)
      The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to ascertain whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) can be successfully used in non-Western contexts and demonstrate sufficient effectiveness. This area is largely under-researched with conflicting evidence presented in quantitative studies, with virtually no qualitative studies published. This review utilized realist review methodology and focused on qualitative case studies presented by clinicians. A systematic search of EBSCO HOST, The Cochrane Library Database, Google, Google Scholar and reference mining, using various combinations of terms relating to: (1) CBT, (2) social anxiety and (3) cultural diversity were employed. Seven case studies of cultural adaptations of CBT treatment for culturally diverse SAD sufferers were included. The treatment outcomes were generally promising in all cases (reporting significant decrease of SAD symptoms, maintained over time) and the success of therapy was often attributed to culturally specific modifications introduced. CBT can be an acceptable and effective treatment for culturally diverse SAD sufferers with ‘modest’ modifications, without major diversions from the original CBT models and protocols, but this finding must be treated with caution and more methodologically rigorous research (qualitative and quantitative) is needed to more fully understand what works, for whom and in what circumstances.
    • Culture and health

      Dogra, Nisha; Li, Shuangyu; Ertubey, Candan (Lancet Publishing Group, 2015-02-14)
    • Cyber victimisation of people with chronic conditions and disabilities: a systematic review of scope and impact

      Alhaboby, Zhraa Azhr; Barnes, Jim; Evans, Hala; Short, Emma; University of Bedfordshire; National Centre for Cyberstalking Research (SAGA journal, 2017-07-05)
      The victimization of individuals with chronic conditions or disabilities is prevalent with severe impact at psychological and physiological levels. With the increasing use of technology these experiences were further reshaped. This systematic review aimed at scoping the experiences of cyber-victimization of people living with chronic conditions or disabilities and examine the documented impact on them. Following a four-stage search strategy in several databases including MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane and snowballing of references, a total of 2,922 studies were scanned and 10 studies were eventually included. Quality assessment was done in two phases using tools specific to observational studies and cyber-victimization research. A narrative synthesis of reported results covered a total of 3,070 people. Sample size ranged between 42 and 823 participants, and the age range was 6-71 years with a majority of White ethnic backgrounds. Most studies (n=9) were cross sectional. The prevalence range of cyber-victimization was 2%-41.7% based on variable definitions, duration and methods. Targeted conditions included physical impairments, intellectual disabilities and specific chronic diseases. The most common documented impact was psychological/psychiatric, mainly depression followed by anxiety and distress. Somatic health complaints and self-harm were also reported. We concluded that people with chronic conditions and disabilities were consistently at higher risk of victimization with devastating health complications. Research gaps were identified such as the need to address more conditions and acknowledge differences between heterogeneous health conditions. Other recommendations include allowing flexibility and accountability to patients/victims in research design, education on victimization and health consequences, and improving primary care.
    • Dealing with comparability problem of cross-cultural data

      Ertubey, Candan; Russell, R.J.H.; University of Bedfordshire (PSYCHOLOGY PRESS, 1996-01-01)
    • The defining constituents of adult attachment and their assessment

      Sochos, Antigonos (Springer, 2013-06-04)
      Reviewing the major issues regarding the definition of adult attachment and the nature of the attachment representations, this paper points out that attachment theory approaches intimate interpersonal processes using three fundamental dichotomies: self versus other, autonomy versus relatedness, and dependent versus depended-on positions. When these three dichotomies are intersected, eight components emerge to define the attachment representation: the autonomy and relatedness requests and autonomy and relatedness provisions of self and other. Moreover, as the main methodologies assessing adult attachment are also reviewed, it is argued that these have not yet provided an exhaustive empirical assessment of these eight components individually. It is suggested that such an approach to assessment may yield interesting findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    • Disowned recollections: denying true experiences undermines belief in occurrence but not judgments of remembering

      Mazzoni, Giuliana; Clark, Andrew; Nash, Robert A.; University of Hull; University of Surrey (Elsevier, 2013-12-15)
      Recent research findings have illustrated that false memories induced in the laboratory can be dissociated from the beliefs that the events had in fact occurred. In this study we assessed whether this dissociability is a quality peculiar to false memory, or whether it represents a general characteristic of autobiographical memory. To this end we examined whether people can be induced to stop believing in memories for true experiences. Participants observed and performed simple actions, and were later falsely informed that they had not performed some of them-that false memories for these actions had been implanted through the use of fabricated evidence. Before and after receiving this misinformation, participants rated their belief in and memory of performing those actions, other actions that they had also performed, and actions that they had not performed. Whereas the misinformation substantially undermined participants' beliefs in the specific performed actions about which they had been misinformed, it had little effect on their endorsement of remembering those actions. The misinformation thus boosted the proportion of occasions in which participants rated their memories as stronger than their beliefs, and it weakened the correlation between belief and memory ratings. Thus, this study provides the first experimental demonstration of non-believed memories of true experiences. We discuss our findings with reference to the small literature concerning the use of socially-communicated misinformation to undermine event memories, and with reference to the structure of autobiographical memory. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
    • Drink wise, age well; reducing alcohol related harm among people over 50: a study protocol

      Seddon, Jennifer L.; Wadd, Sarah; Wells, E.; Elliott, L.; Madoc-Jones, I.; Breslin, J.; University of Bedfordshire; Drink Wise, Age Well Programme; Glasgow Caledonian University; Glyndŵr University (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019-02-28)
      Background: Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol among older adults (defined as those aged 50+) has increased in recent years, with people aged 55-64 now more likely to exceed the recommended weekly guidelines than any other age group. Methods/ design: This is a quasi-experimental study with a before-after design. A postal questionnaire will be sent to 76,000 people aged 50 and over registered with a general practice in five different 'demonstration' (intervention) and control areas in the UK. Multiple interventions will then be delivered in demonstration areas across the UK. At the end of the programme, a postal questionnaire will be sent to the same individuals who completed it pre-programme to establish if there has been a reduction in alcohol use, at-risk drinking and alcohol related problems. Qualitative interviews with clients and staff will explore how the interventions were experienced; how they may work to bring about change and to identify areas for practice improvements. Discussion: This study protocol describes a multi-level, multi-intervention prevention-to-treatment programme which aims to reduce alcohol-related harm in people aged 50 and over.
    • The effect of ANKK1 Taq1A and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Klaus, Kristel; Butler, Kevin; Curtis, Ffion; Bridle, Christopher; Pennington, Kyla; ; University of Lincoln (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-03-02)
      Research in healthy adults suggests that C957T polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor encoding DRD2 and the Taq1A polymorphism of the neighbouring gene ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) alter dopaminergic signalling and may influence prefrontally-mediated executive functions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out on the evidence for the association of DRD2 C957T and ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphisms in performance on tasks relating to the three core domains of executive function: working memory, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility in healthy adults. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsychINFO databases were searched for predefined key search terms associated with the two polymorphisms and executive function. Studies were included if they investigated a healthy adult population with the mean age of 18–65 years, no psychiatric or neurological disorder and only the healthy adult arm were included in studies with any case-control design. Data from 17 independent studies were included in meta-analysis, separated by the Taq1A and C957T polymorphisms and by executive function tests: working memory (Taq1A, 6 samples, n = 1270; C957 T, 6 samples, n = 977), cognitive flexibility (C957 T, 3 samples, n = 620), and response inhibition (C957 T, 3 samples, n = 598). The meta-analyses did not establish significant associations between these gene polymorphisms of interest and any of the executive function domains. Theoretical implications and methodological considerations of these findings are discussed.
    • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; University of Winchester; University of Bedfordshire; University of Wolverhampton (Conscientia Beam, 2021-02-25)
      Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.
    • Effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Keogh, Sophie; Bridle, Christopher; Siriwardena, Niroshan A.; Nadkarni, Amulya; Laparidou, Despina; Durrant, Simon J.; Kargas, Niko; Law, Graham A.; Curtis, Ffion; Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2019-08-22)
      Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by behavioural, communication and social impairments. The prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is 40–80%, with significant effects on quality of life for the children and carers. This systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence of the effects of behavioural interventions to improve sleep among children with ASD. Methods Databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Autism Data, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia in children with autism spectrum conditions. Results Three studies met the inclusion criteria, one provided actigraphy data, one Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) data, and one both actigraphy and CSHQ data for use in meta-analyses. There were significant differences between the behavioural intervention and comparison groups (actigraphy data) for total sleep time (24.41 minutes, 95% CI 5.71, 43.11, P = 0.01), sleep latency (-18.31 minutes, 95% CI -30.84, -5.77, P = 0.004) and sleep efficiency (5.59%, 95% CI 0.87, 10.31, P = 0.02). There was also a favourable intervention effect evident for the subjective CSHQ data (-4.71, 95% CI -6.70, -2.73, P<0.00001). Risk of bias was low across several key domains (randomisation, allocation concealment and reporting), with some studies being unclear due to poor reporting. Conclusions There are very few high quality randomised controlled trials in this area. Here we provide initial synthesised quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for treating sleep problems in children with ASD.
    • Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy on insomnia in adults with tinnitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

      Curtis, Ffion; Laparidou, Despina; Bridle, Christopher; Law, Graham R.; Durrant, Simon J.; Rodriguez, Alina; Pierzycki, Robert H.; Siriwardena, Aloysius N.; ; University of Lincoln; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-12-01)
      Insomnia is common in patients with tinnitus and negatively affects tinnitus symptoms and quality of life. This systematic review aimed to synthesise evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) based interventions on insomnia in adults with tinnitus. We conducted a comprehensive database search (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov and PROSPERO) for published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials of CBT in adults with tinnitus. Five trials met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, with four of these providing data for the meta-analysis. This demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in Insomnia Severity Index (a standard diagnostic questionnaire of insomnia used in clinical settings) following CBT (−3.28, 95% CI -4.51, −2.05, P=&lt;0.001). There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Risk of bias was considered low in all categories except blinding of participants, personnel, and/or the assessment of outcomes. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that CBT-based interventions can significantly improve sleep in adults with tinnitus.
    • The effects of dream rebound: evidence for emotion-processing theories of dreaming

      Malinowski, Josie; Carr, Michelle; Edwards, Christopher; Ingarfill, Anya; Pinto, Alexandra; University of East London; Swansea University; University of Bedfordshire (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2019-03-12)
      Suppressing thoughts often leads to a “rebound” effect, both in waking cognition (thoughts) and in sleep cognition (dreams). Rebound may be influenced by the valence of the suppressed thought, but there is currently no research on the effects of valence on dream rebound. Further, the effects of dream rebound on subsequent emotional response to a suppressed thought have not been studied before. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether emotional valence of a suppressed thought affects dream rebound, and whether dream rebound subsequently influences subjective emotional response to the suppressed thought. Participants (N = 77) were randomly assigned to a pleasant or unpleasant thought suppression condition, suppressed their target thought for 5 min pre-sleep every evening, reported the extent to which they successfully suppressed the thought, and reported their dreams every morning for 7 days. It was found that unpleasant thoughts were more prone to dream rebound than pleasant thoughts. There was no effect of valence on the success or failure of suppression during wakefulness. Dream rebound and successful suppression were each found to have beneficial effects for subjective emotional response to both pleasant and unpleasant thoughts. The results may lend support for an emotion-processing theory of dream function.
    • Effects of intradialytic cycling exercise on exercise capacity, quality of life, physical function and cardiovascular measures in adult haemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Young, Hannah M.L.; March, Daniel S.; Graham-Brown, Matthew P.M .; Jones, Arwel; Curtis, Ffion; Grantham, Charlotte S.; Churchward, Darren R.; Highton, Patrick; Smith, Alice C.; Singh, Sally J.; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2018-03-28)
      Background. Intradialytic cycling (IDC), delivered during haemodialysis (HD), has the potential to improve many health issues. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the evidence on the effects of IDC on exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL), physical function and cardiovascular health. Methods. Twenty-four databases were searched alongside Internet and hand searching, and consultation with experts. Eligibility criteria were cluster randomized, randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IDC versus usual care in prevalent adult HD patients. Primary outcome measures were exercise capacity (VO2 peak and field tests) and QoL. Secondary measures were cardiac and physical function. Results. Thirteen RCTs were eligible. Eight provided data for use in meta-analyses, which indicated no significant change in VO2 peak (mean difference, MD 1.19 mL/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.52, P ¼ 0.3), physical (mean change, MC 1.97, 8.27 to 12.22, P ¼ 0.7) or mental component (MC 3.37, 7.94 to 14.68, P ¼ 0.6) summary scores of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, pulse wave velocity (MD 0.57 m/s, 1.55 to 0.41, P ¼ 0.4), systolic (MD 2.28 mmHg, 14.46 to 9.90, P ¼ 0.7) or diastolic blood pressure (MD 2.25 mmHg, 3.01 to 7.50, P ¼ 0.4) following IDC. IDC, however, leads to an improvement in performance on the 6-min walk test (MD 87.84 m, 39.60-136.09, P ¼ 0.0004). All included studies were considered to have high risk of bias. Conclusions. There is insufficient evidence demonstrating whether cycling exercise during HD improves patient outcomes. High-quality, adequately powered RCTs of IDC are required.
    • Efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise following pulmonary rehabilitation on health care use: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Jenkins, Alex R.; Gowler, Holly; Curtis, Ffion; Holden, Neil S.; Bridle, Christopher; Jones, Arwel; ; University of Lincoln (Dove Medical Press Ltd., 2018-01-10)
      Introduction: The clinical benefit of continued supervised maintenance exercise programs following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise programs compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion on health care use and mortality. Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PEDro) and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for randomized trials comparing supervised maintenance exercise programs with usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion. Primary outcomes were respiratory-cause hospital admissions, exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics and/or systemic corticosteroids, and mortality. Results: Eight trials (790 COPD patients) met the inclusion criteria, six providing data for meta-analysis. Continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion significantly reduced the risk of experiencing at least one respiratory-cause hospital admission (risk ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.81, P,0.001). Meta-analyses also suggested that supervised maintenance exercise leads to a clinically important reduction in the rate of respiratory-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.50–1.05, P=0.09), overall risk of an exacerbation (risk ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.52–1.19, P=0.25), and mortality (risk ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.17–1.92, P=0.37). Conclusion: In the first systematic review of the area, current evidence demonstrates that continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation reduces health care use in COPD. The variance in the quality of the evidence included in this review highlights the need for this evidence to be followed up with further high-quality randomized trials.
    • Effort-reward imbalance in academic employees: examining different reward systems

      Kinman, Gail; University of Bedfordshire (APA, 2019-05-01)
      This study draws upon the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress to predict mental and physical health in academic employees working in UK universities. It examines the main and interactive effects of extrinsic efforts over time and the three reward systems of the ERI model independently (i.e. promotion, esteem and security rewards). The main and interactive effects of intrinsic effort (known as overcommitment) in predicting health status are also examined. A sample of 458 academic employees completed ERI scales at baseline and the health measures 14 months later. The results showed that higher extrinsic effort, lower esteem and security rewards and an imbalance between efforts and esteem rewards assessed at Time 1 predicted mental health status on follow-up. Physical health symptoms were predicted by higher extrinsic effort and lower security rewards. Overcommitment was an independent risk factor for both mental and physical health. No further contribution was made to the variance in either outcome by the other effort-reward ratios independently or by their interactions with overcommitment. Interventions are suggested that have potential to reduce extrinsic and intrinsic efforts and increase rewards in the university sector.