• Phenomenology of visual hallucinations and their relationship to cognitive profile in Parkinson’s Disease patients: preliminary observations

      Boubert, Laura; Barnes, Jim (SAGE Publications Inc., 2015-04-01)
      Although the phenomenology of visual hallucinations (VHs) has been investigated, no study to date has related cognitive performance to the content of hallucinations, specifically whether participants who have familiar internally driven hallucinations differ in the executive function from patients with externally driven hallucinations. Here, we examine the relationship between executive function and the content of VHs in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We evaluated three groups: 17 PD patients with internally driven memory-based VHs, 18 PD patients with externally driven non-memory-based VHs, and 20 PD patients without hallucinations on a series of tests previously reported to evaluate executive functions, specifically tests of inhibitory ability, short-term memory, and working memory. Differences were found on test of inhibitory ability with PD patients experiencing externally driven VHs having substantially greater impairment than patients with internally driven VHs. These findings indicate that the cognitive profile of patients may influence the content of the hallucinatory experience and could consequently have implications for treatment of the phenomenon.
    • Neuropsychological approaches to understanding visual hallucinations

      Barnes, Jim (Wiley Blackwell, 2014-12-12)
      Hallucinations are a subjective experience with phenomenologically distinct characteristics, which are most likely to be a result of distinct neuronal origins. The mechanisms of the experience are investigated using a range of cognitive tests designed to examine characteristics such as memory, visual ability and executive function, which have generally been designed for general cognition evaluations rather than to specifically investigate hallucinations. Hallucination research from the perspective of cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the mechanisms integral to both hallucinations and veridical perception, in an attempt to identify the specific cognitive mechanisms which underlie hallucinations as well as their associated neural basis. For instance, although hallucinations are one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia, they are not experienced by all people with schizophrenia. In theory, the internal generation of images, along with compensatory visual processing, could be caused by relatively impaired visual processing in patients with PD who are experiencing visual hallucination (VHs).
    • The hidden costs of working when sick

      Miraglia, Mariella; Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2017-08-31)
      Mariella Miraglia and Gail Kinman review the evidence on presenteeism.
    • Problem solving: perspectives from cognition and neuroscience

      Robertson, S. Ian (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2016-11-28)
      The way that we assess and overcome problems is an essential part of everyday life. Problem Solving provides a clear introduction to the underlying mental processes involved in solving problems. Drawing on research from cognitive psychology and neuroscience, it examines the methods and techniques used by both novices and experts in familiar and unfamiliar situations. This edition has been comprehensively updated throughout, and now features cutting-edge content on creative problem solving, insight and neuroscience. Each chapter is written in an accessible way, and contains a range of student-friendly features such as activities, chapter summaries and further reading. The book also provides clear examples of studies and approaches that help the reader fully understand important and complex concepts in greater detail. Problem Solving fully engages the reader with the difficulties and methodologies associated with problem solving. This book will be of great use to undergraduate students of cognitive psychology, education and neuroscience, as well as readers and professionals with an interest in problem solving.
    • Exploring commitment, professional identity, and support for student nurses

      Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; Teoh, Kevin; Guppy, Andrew; University of Bedfordshire; Birkbeck University (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016-06-10)
      Problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses globally mean that insight into the factors that might increase retention in qualified staff and students is crucial. Despite clear links between work commitment and retention, there is little research exploring commitment in student nurses and midwives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study designed to provide insight into commitment using semi-structured interviews conducted with nine pre-registration students and a qualitative survey completed by 171 pre-registration students. Thematic analysis of the data emphasised the impact of placement experiences on commitment via interpersonal relationships. Students typically emphasised their professional identity as the basis for commitment, although many participants also highlighted a lack of acceptance by qualified practitioners, which reduced it. There was evidence that suggested that practitioner workload may impact the student experience due to challenges in making sufficient time to provide support. Implications for retention strategies are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • The changing workplace

      Begum, P.; Cleaver, S.; Doyle, N.; Maskell, J.; De Mascia, S.; Royle, K.; Marsh, T.; Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; McDowall, Almuth (British Psychological Society, 2017-11-01)
      Six contributions consider how the pace of economic, technological, social and environmental change requires a re-evaluation of how we work now and in the future.
    • Gail Kinman 'People need a period of stability, otherwise they may actively resist beneficial change'

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2018-01-31)
      From compassion fatigue and burnout to resilience – Gail Kinman takes Lance Workman through her work as an occupational health psychologist.
    • The psychosocial hazards of academic work: an analysis of trends

      Wray, Siobhan; Kinman, Gail (Routledge, 2020-07-22)
      This study examines the psychosocial hazards experienced by academic staff working in UK institutions over time. A risk assessment framework developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was used to measure seven key hazards: demands, control, support from managers and colleagues, relationships, role and change management. Data were obtained from three waves of a national survey of academic staff across the UK (2008, n = 6,203; 2012, n = 7,068; 2014, n = 3,952). Mean scores for each hazard were compared with HSE benchmarks from the UK working population and changes over the three waves were examined. Apart from job control, none of the benchmarks was met and the risk associated with demands, manager and peer support, role and change was particularly high. An increase in most of the psychosocial hazards was found over time, particularly for job demands, control, role and relationships, showing clear cause for concern. How the findings could be used to monitor the wellbeing of academic staff over time and develop targeted interventions is considered.
    • Burnout, occupational stressors, and social support in psychiatric and medical trainees

      Sochos, Antigonos; Bowers, Alexis (European Journal of Psychiatry, 2012-07-01)
      Background and Objectives: Although previous research reports that psychiatrists experience greater work-related distress than other specialties, very little is known about how psychiatric trainees compare to their medical colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare psychiatric and general medical trainees in burnout, work stressors, and social support and investigate potential buffering effects of social support. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 112 psychiatric and 72 general medical trainees, based in the UK. Participants completed three questionnaires on-line: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Specialist Doctors' Stress Inventory, and Social Support Scale. Results: According to the findings, psychiatric trainees reported less burnout, fewer time demands, more consultant and emotional support but less family support than general medical trainees. In addition, social support moderated the effects of specialty on burnout, as it substantially reduced depersonalisation in medical but not in psychiatric trainees. Conclusions: Findings may reflect recent changes in psychiatric training in the UK. Factors contributing specifically to medical trainees' burnout and factors potentially preventing psychiatric trainees from utilising social support need to be explored in future research. The cross-sectional design and the low response rate were the main limitations of the study.
    • The defining constituents of adult attachment and their assessment

      Sochos, Antigonos (Springer, 2013-06-04)
      Reviewing the major issues regarding the definition of adult attachment and the nature of the attachment representations, this paper points out that attachment theory approaches intimate interpersonal processes using three fundamental dichotomies: self versus other, autonomy versus relatedness, and dependent versus depended-on positions. When these three dichotomies are intersected, eight components emerge to define the attachment representation: the autonomy and relatedness requests and autonomy and relatedness provisions of self and other. Moreover, as the main methodologies assessing adult attachment are also reviewed, it is argued that these have not yet provided an exhaustive empirical assessment of these eight components individually. It is suggested that such an approach to assessment may yield interesting findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
    • Couple attachment and relationship duration in psychotherapy patients: exploring a new methodology of assessment

      Sochos, Antigonos (Taylor and Francis, 2013-10-25)
      The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief psychotherapy outpatients were interviewed on their couple relationships before they embarked on cognitive analytic therapy. Patients suffered from a variety of psychological difficulties, including anxiety, depression and personality disorder. Thematic analysis captured empirically eight components of couple attachment as proposed by theory. Thematic analysis also suggested that these components defined four overarching relationship themes, indicating different types of relational difficulties experienced by the patients. Triangulation with quantitative data suggested that relationship themes were unrelated to severity and type of patient pathology but were associated with the duration of the relationship. A stage theory of couple attachment formation may provide a useful framework for understanding the findings. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
    • Incoherence in the Iraq War narrative and the concept of collective attachment

      Sochos, Antigonos (Association for Psychohistory, 2015-12-31)
      As a major function of ideological and institutional frameworks is to provide security to the social group, by constructing ideologies and socio-political institutions, social groups also construct their objects of collective attachment. When social debates are conducted openly and freely, they are informed by secure collective attachment representations leading to effective and group-protecting action. When they are conducted in the context of social domination they are informed by insecure collective attachment representations, leading to ineffective and group-compromising action. The decision to invade Iraq in 2003 seems to have been informed by insecure collective attachment representations defining an incoherent social narrative and an ineffective protective strategy.
    • Attachment - beyond interpersonal relationships

      Sochos, Antigonos (British Psychological Society, 2015-12-01)
      Antigonos Sochos considers whether a familiar concept can be extended to social groups, ideological systems and social institutions.
    • Attachment security and the social world

      Sochos, Antigonos (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-12-31)
      With an overview of the existing attachment theory literature and new contributions to the field, this book proposes that social groups seek protection and security as they collectively construct their ideologies and social institutions. In doing so, the book extends attachment theory to show how it can inform wider socio-cultural phenomena.
    • Group attachment through art practice: a phenomenological analysis of being seen and showing

      Sagan, Olivia; Sochos, Antigonos; Bishop Grossteste University; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2016-06-13)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of a social art practice and group attachment in the life of a mental health service user with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Design/methodology/approach: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used as a means by which to explore interview data and bring to bear theories of attachment and psychosocial theories of the creative process. Findings: The study found that the process of coming to be seen and showing, relating and narrating, was part of a process enabled by experiences of group attachment within specific groups. These groups appeared to share the core principles of a TC. The artist's improving reflective capacity and art practice informed and strengthened each other within a context of attachment, containment, communication, inclusion and agency (Haigh, 2013). Research limitations/implications: Whilst phenomenological work of this kind is small scale, the nature of the involvement with the participant facilitates a first person narrative which allows unique insight into human meaning making. Practical implications: The study offers pointers regarding the role of social art practice and emphasises the importance of developing attachments as part of mental well-being, as well as the potential role and challenge of this for individuals with severe relational problems. The study stresses the importance of groups that nurture particular experiences such as belongingness and sense of agency, and suggests why these experiences may be more effective for some individuals than one-to-one therapy. Social implications: The research adds to the debate regarding the benefits of engaging with the arts and the means by which the value of publicly funded community arts projects can be assessed. It also puts forward the case for TCs as potentially offering a substantial springboard not only to recovery but to higher creative functioning. Originality/value: The paper attempts to offer a deeper understanding of the combined and interlaced therapeutic power of creative endeavour; narrative identity; group attachment and the role of the fundamental principles of TCs.
    • Financial aversion and its link to attachment anxiety

      Sochos, Antigonos; Latchford, Eileen (Springer New York LLC, 2015-04-09)
      Recent research has identified a pattern of anxious and averse reactions towards the management of personal finances that particularly affects the young. A correlational study was conducted including 168 UK university students to investigate the nature of financial aversion within an attachment theory framework. It was hypothesised that, in addition to attachment style, financial aversion would be linked to financial stressors, dyslexia, and general anxiety. According to the findings, financial aversion was linked to probable dyslexia, symptoms of anxiety, attachment anxiety, and attachment dependency. Regression analysis identified attachment anxiety as the only independent predictor and suggested that it also moderated the effects of general anxiety on financial aversion. Findings may interest professionals counselling university students or other groups vulnerable to the experience of financial stress.
    • The role of child-keyworker attachment in burnout among Saudi residential staff

      Sochos, Antigonos; Aljasas, Najla Abdulrahman; University of Bedfordshire; University of Shaqra (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020-07-02)
      Research on the impact of the keyworker-child relationship on residential staff is scarce. This longitudinal study investigated the potential moderating effects of child and keyworker attachment styles on the link between child behavioural problems and staff burnout and the moderating effects of child attachment style on the link between keyworker attachment style and keyworker burnout. Participants included 261 children and 59 residential child care workers, from 5 orphanages in Saudi Arabia. Five self-report measures were utilised: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Security Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire. Keyworkers caring for relatively non-avoidant children and those with an avoidant attachment style themselves experienced relatively high burnout a year later. Relatively high burnout was also reported by avoidant keyworkers who cared for avoidant and generally insecure children, while anxiously attached keyworkers reported relatively high burnout when they cared for children with any type of insecure attachment style. The present findings highlight essential interpersonal processes involved in the development of burnout in residential child care workers and call for the employment of attachment-focused interventions as measures of burnout prevention.
    • It's not what you say, it's how you say it: language use on Facebook impacts employability but not attractiveness

      Scott, Graham G.; Sinclair, Jason; Short, Emma; Bruce, Gillian (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2014-07-31)
      The expansion and increasing diversity of the Internet has seen a growth in user-generated online content, and an escalation in incorrect and nonstandardized language use (e.g., text speak). This evolution has been exemplified by social networking sites such as Facebook. In our experiment, participants viewed six Facebook profiles whose walls contained status updates that were either spelled correctly, incorrectly, or using text speak, and then rated the profile owners on measures of attractiveness and employability. It was shown that language use had no impact on attractiveness, but users who used correct language were seen as more intelligent, competent, and employable. These results highlight the need to control language in this area of research by demonstrating the variables' seemingly elevated importance to employers compared to peers. The findings also pave the way for further exploration of the Warranting Theory of impression formation online and the role of language in social media-based identity statements and behavioral residue. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.
    • Cultural modifications of cognitive behavioural treatment of social anxiety among culturally diverse clients: a systematic literature review

      Jankowska, Maja; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2019-01-09)
      The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to ascertain whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) can be successfully used in non-Western contexts and demonstrate sufficient effectiveness. This area is largely under-researched with conflicting evidence presented in quantitative studies, with virtually no qualitative studies published. This review utilized realist review methodology and focused on qualitative case studies presented by clinicians. A systematic search of EBSCO HOST, The Cochrane Library Database, Google, Google Scholar and reference mining, using various combinations of terms relating to: (1) CBT, (2) social anxiety and (3) cultural diversity were employed. Seven case studies of cultural adaptations of CBT treatment for culturally diverse SAD sufferers were included. The treatment outcomes were generally promising in all cases (reporting significant decrease of SAD symptoms, maintained over time) and the success of therapy was often attributed to culturally specific modifications introduced. CBT can be an acceptable and effective treatment for culturally diverse SAD sufferers with ‘modest’ modifications, without major diversions from the original CBT models and protocols, but this finding must be treated with caution and more methodologically rigorous research (qualitative and quantitative) is needed to more fully understand what works, for whom and in what circumstances.
    • Climbing out of the valley

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder (British Psychological Society, 2019-02-28)
      Catrin Pedder Jones on challenges facing PhD students.