• Block teaching as the basis for an innovative redesign of the PG suite of programmes in University of Bedfordshire Business School

      Kofinas, Alexander K.; Bentley, Yongmei; Minett-Smith, Cathy; University of Bedfordshire (Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, 2017-12-31)
      This paper aims to provide a first evaluation of the University of Bedfordshire Business School’s innovative attempt to develop a new suite of Masters Programmes that delivers in terms of academic rigor and employability requirements while providing a rich student learning experience. The new delivery is based on a block delivery model that rationalises the previous offerings by providing a smaller range of standardized large units which are more tightly integrated to each other and are part of courses with particular characteristics such as a four-tier induction system (with inductions being progressively more employabilityfocused as students’ progress from one unit to the next) and the final capstone unit where students have a choice between a traditional dissertation and an experiential final project. That common architecture is coupled with a flipped classroom delivery style, utilization of blended learning and rich peer-to-peer learning opportunities with multiple entry points providing additional students into the cohorts for each unit. Preliminary data is provided here as an early evaluation of the approach’s effectiveness and efficiency in terms of the delivery experience, the assessment strategies, the levels of student engagement and performance, as well as the experience of staff and students.
    • Board gender diversity and organizational determinants: empirical evidence from a major developing country

      Saeed, Abubakr; Sameer, Muhammad; Raziq, Muhammad Mustafa; Salman, Aneel; Hammoudeh, Shawkat (Taylor and Francis, 2018-09-21)
      This article seeks to identify and analyze the organizational determinants of women presence on Indian corporate boards. Using a sample set of 294 Indian firms between years 2004–2014, Tobit regression analysis indicates that firm size, family ownership and affiliation with the high-tech sector exhibit positive association with the number of female directors on corporate boards. Further, we do not find any significant impact of state-ownership on the number of women on those boards. Notably, the effects of the organizational variables are more pronounced for the proportion of female non-executive directors, as compared to female executive directors. We conclude that understanding the organizational characteristics in conjunction with business environment can provide useful insights into state of board gender diversity, particularly in developing countries.
    • Business incubator managers’ perceptions of their role and performance success: role demands, constraints, and choices

      Kakabadse, Nada K.; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicholas; McGowan, Carmel; Nicolopoulou, Katerina (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-01-05)
      Using Stewart's (1976a, 1976b) role framework as an analytical lens, this paper examines how business incubator managers perceive their role and performance, and the choices they make in dealing with constraints and competing demands. Given that the literature in this domain has not considered how these types of managers experience agency and structure in their role, this study is important in theory and practice terms. Drawing on 40 qualitative interviews in different UK regions, the findings demonstrate the ways in which business incubator managers see their role as pivotal in supporting the incubatee entrepreneurs and how they endeavour to address competing role demands against constraints. Notably, while funding is commonly viewed as an enabler, the findings suggest that the funding structure could act as a constraint on the incubator managers, due to the weight of perceived bureaucracy preventing the latter from operating effectively within the full remit of their role.
    • Cabbalistic cases: demystifying generalizability

      Deigh, Linda; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; London Metropolitan University; University of Bedfordshire (2015-07-01)
      Case study research is concerned with in-depth and within context knowledge which is generated empirically. As such it is well suited to address complex marketing problems thus advancing theory in the discipline. In spite of these benefits, case studies are rarely published in marketing journals thus depriving the discipline of rich insights and opportunities to build new theory. This relatively poor showing of case study research may be attributable to a perceived lack of rigour with one particular criticism being that case study findings are not generalizable. This paper sets out to investigate the generalizability ‘problem’ in case study research. It finds that strategic case selection and specificity in the bounding of cases enable the findings of a study to be extended to similar contexts and generalized to theory.
    • Can a values reframing of ISO14001:2015 finally give business an effective tool to tackle climate change

      Williams, Sarah (Emerald, 2018-09-05)
      Purpose: This chapter argues that the revised ISO 14001:2015 environmental standard for business constitutes a fundamental reframing of business engagement with environmental management.   Design: Drawing on the values framework of Shalom Schwartz, it is demonstrated how the revised standard represents a values shift away from self-limiting approaches based on power, control and conformity. Instead, the revised standard frames environmental management into the language of achievement and openness where managers are encouraged to work together, make a difference, lead, inspire, engage and find innovative and creative solutions.   Findings: Drawing on empirical research with SME managers, the significance of this values reframing is illustrated. Managers drawing on power and conformity to engage with environmental actions tended to focus on short-term actions that demonstrated quick financial pay back or reputations wins. This is contrasted with managers drawing on achievement and self-direction values who took a longer-term view to making a difference and working with others to find innovative solutions to complex problems. Originality and Value: It is posited that this reframing represents a significant opportunity for business generally and for the environmental profession specifically to develop the skills and approaches required to tackle climate change and other sustainability related concerns. 
    • Can environmental investments benefit environmental performance? the moderating roles of institutional environment and foreign direct investment

      Li, Ruiqian; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2020-07-06)
      Contribution of environmental investments (EI) to environmental performance (EP) is a lively topic for environmental researchers across the world. In spite of huge amount of research, there is still lack of clarity on the moderating factors that affect the role played by EI. In this study, we distinguish EI into pollution control investments (PCI) and pollution prevention investments (PPI). We further investigate whether institutional environment and foreign direct investment (FDI) can play their moderating effects both on the relationship between EI and EP and on the relationships between different types of investments and EP or not. The results indicate that EI has a positive effect on EP. More specifically, PPI plays a stronger positive role in EP, but PCI does not have a significant effect on EP. In addition, both institutional environment and FDI can strengthen the positive impact of EI on EP. The increase of EI in regions with better institutional environment or high FDI can lead to greater improvement in EP. These moderating effects of institutional environment and FDI are also confirmed on the link between PPI and EP. In summary, our results reinforce the existing views that EI, and specifically PPI, can improve EP, but further contribute to the understanding of the positive moderating roles played by the institutional environment and FDI on the link between EI and EP.
    • Challenges in cost analysis of innovative maintenance of distributed high value assets

      Kirkwood, Leigh; Shehab, Essam; Baguley, Paul; Amorim-Meloa, P.; Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro; Cranfield University (Elsevier, 2014-10-31)
      Condition monitoring is an increasingly important activity, but there is often little thought given to how a condition monitoring approach is going to impact the cost of operating a system. This paper seeks to detail the challenges facing such an analysis and outline the likely steps such an analysis will have to take to more completely understand the problem and provide suitable cost analysis. Adding sensors might be a relatively simple task, but those sensors come with associated cost; not only of the sensor, but of the utilities required to power them, the data gathering and processing and the eventual storage of that data for regulatory or other reasons. By adding condition monitoring sensors as a subsystem to the general system an organisation is required to perform maintenance to the new sensors sub-system. Despite these difficulties it is anticipated that for many high value assets applying condition monitoring will enable significant cost savings through elimination of maintenance activities on assets that do not need such cost and effort expended on them. Further savings should be possible through optimisation of maintenance schedules to have essential work completed at more cost efficient times.
    • Citizens’ adoption of an electronic government system: towards a unified view

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Yogesh Kumar; Lal, Banita; Williams, Michael D.; Clement, Marc; Swansea University; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2015-11-24)
      Sluggish adoption of emerging electronic government (eGov) applications continues to be a problem across developed and developing countries. This research tested the nine alternative theoretical models of technology adoption in the context of an eGov system using data collected from citizens of four selected districts in the state of Bihar in India. Analysis of the models indicates that their performance is not up to the expected level in terms of path coefficients, variance in behavioural intention, or the fit indices of the models. In response to the underperformance of the alternative theoretical models to explain the adoption of an eGov system, this research develops a unified model of electronic government adoption and tests it using the same data. The results indicate that the proposed research model outperforms all alternative models of technology adoption by explaining 77 % of variance in behavioural intention, with acceptable values of fit indices and significant relationships between each pair of hypothesised factors.
    • A combined tactical and operational deterministic food grain transportation model: particle swarm based optimization approach

      Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Thakkar, Jitesh J.; Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (Elsevier, 2017-05-22)
      This paper proposes a combined tactical and operational two stage food grain transportation model with linear formulation in the first stage and a mixed-integer non-linear problem (MINLP) in the second stage taking the case of India. Transportation cost is minimized in both stages to fulfil a deterministic demand. First and the second stages correspond to the movement of food grains in between state and central level warehouses respectively. A novel k-parameter based method of constraint handling has been proposed. Further, the two stage MINLP formulation newly incorporates vehicle capacity constraints and proposes a generic metric for measuring vehicle utilization. First stage is solved by CPLEX and for the second stage, two population based random search techniques: Particle swarm optimization-composite particle (PSOCP) and PSO, have been employed. Experimentations on 10 different problem sets reveal that PSOCP performs marginally better than PSO with lesser standard deviation of global fitness and better solution quality with slightly higher CPU time. Later, sensitivity analysis is conducted on all ten problem sets and a decision support framework is proposed to assist potential stakeholders.
    • A conceptual framework of knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs

      Khilji, Nasrallah; Duan, Yanqing; Tehrani, Jasmine; University of Bedfordshire (2020-12-31)
      Knowledge sharing is an essential management practice that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a vibrant and dynamic economy (Kaur, 2019). To achieve an enhanced performance in the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), it is essential to make sure that the teaching and learning system is determined by knowledge sharing approach (Nair and Munusami, 2019). The Higher Education Institutions are required to consider how they could better share knowledge from experts who have it to learners who need to get the best of such expertise (DarlingHammond et al., 2019). This study examines the knowledge sharing behaviour among academics and leaners in the HEIs by providing a better understanding for their enhanced performance. This is aimed to comprehend the individual acts of knowledge creation and the collective efforts of knowledge sharing adapted in the HEIs towards continuous improvement. A literature review is carried out to propose a conceptual framework of knowledge sharing for enhanced performance in the HEIs.
    • Corporate evolution following initial public offerings in China: a life-course approach

      Liu, Jia; Lister, Roger; Pang, Dong (Elsevier Inc., 2012-12-22)
      We study the determinants of firms' post-IPO trajectory in terms of three outcomes: delisting; acquisition with change of corporate control; and acquisition without such change. Our risk assessment models examine some historical and some current information. Variables cover the perspectives of the issue itself, the issuer, investors, the industry and corporate control, the last being of particular interest in a mixed economy such as China. We find that delisting is predominantly influenced by issue-specific information, by the issuer's financial status leading up to the eventual outcome, and by corporate ownership and governance structure. Acquisition with andwithout change of control differs most significantly according to industry features, ultimate state ownership, divergence of cash flowrights and control rights, and the extent of board independence. Centrally we find that the trajectory is shaped by corporate control considerations. We conclude that the after-market outcomes are mixed consequences of market selection and government control.
    • Corporate social responsibility: engaging the community

      Deigh, Linda; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; Palazzo, Maria; Siano, Alfonso; University of Bedfordshire; London Metropolitan University; University of Salerno (Emerald, 2016-04-11)
      Purpose This paper aims to extend corporate social responsibility (CSR) theory by exploring how firms engage with community. The community is frequently cited as a stakeholder of the firm, but in spite of its status in networks it has not been the focus of research. Drawing on community theory and Carroll’s pyramid for the foundation of this study, the authors undertake an empirical investigation to advance knowledge in CSR engagement with a particular stakeholder group. Design/methodology/approach To generate an in-depth insight, the study adopts a multiple case study approach involving the purposeful selection of three retail banks in Ghana as units of analysis. It draws on multiple data sources to strengthen its findings Findings The study finds that community engagement consists of four spheres of activity: donations, employee voluntarism, projects and partnerships. Philanthropy forms part of largely ad hoc CSR actions by firms. The study also finds that philanthropy is not merely a desired function of the CSR pyramid but an essential one. Practical implications This research imparts increased understanding of how firms engage with an important but frequently overlooked stakeholder group – community. Originality/value This study presents specific theoretical extensions to CSR through its identification of four core activities of community engagement.
    • Corporate strategic change towards sustainability: a dynamic capabilities view

      Wu, Qiang; He, Qile; Duan, Yanqing (Routledge, 2017-08-01)
    • Cost drivers of integrated maintenance in high-value systems

      Shehab, Essam; Kirkwood, Leigh; Amorim-Melo, P.; Baguley, Paul; Cranfield University (Elsevier, 2014-10-31)
      High value systems are determined by a wide structure, where operations are considered to be one structural component. Nowadays “downtime” as a major impact in the operation costs of any system. To avoid or minimize “down-time” it is essential to match the appropriate maintenance to each failure. Therefore, it is relevant to determine the cost drivers of integrated maintenance in any system, in order to minimize the overall cost. It is common to use Value Driven Maintenance (VDM) to capture the cost drivers in maintenance. VDM is a methodology which relies in four distinct areas: Asset Utilization; Resource Allocation; Control Cost and Health and Safety and Environment. Within each category it is possible to allocate different cost drivers, building a framework for each system studied. The aim of this paper is to categorize the cost drivers of rail infrastructure networks, associating them with the maintenance preformed for each case. Furthermore, analysis of which part of the track falls under each VDM category as well as the general failure causes and effects will be included in the framework presented. Finally relating the maintenance type for each effect will provide the necessary inputs towards a cost model structure. The benefit of achieving a successful model will be the optimization of the cost in integrated maintenance of the rail infrastructure.
    • A cost–benefit framework for assessing advanced manufacturing technology development: a case study

      Jones, M.B.; Webb, P.F.; Summers, M.D.; Baguley, Paul; Valerdi, R (Taylor & Francis, 2015-12-31)
      Development of new advanced manufacturing technology for the aerospace industry is critical to enhance the manufacture and assembly of aerospace products. This article presents, verifies and validates a cost–benefit forecasting framework for the initial stages of advanced manufacturing technology development. The framework improves the decision-making process of which potential advanced manufacturing technologies to select and develop from concept to full-scale demonstration. Cost is the first element and is capable of forecasting the advanced manufacturing technology development effort in person-hours and cost of hardware using two parametric cost models. Benefit is the second element and forecasts the advanced manufacturing technology tangible and intangible performance. The proposed framework plots these quantified cost–benefit parameters to present development value advice for a diverse range of advanced manufacturing technologies. A detailed case study evaluating a total of 23 novel aerospace advanced manufacturing technologies verifies the capability and high accuracy of the framework within a large aerospace manufacturing organisation. Further validation is provided by quantifying the responses from 10 advanced manufacturing technology development experts, after utilising the methodology within an industrial setting. The case study demonstrates that quantifying the cost-benefit parameters provides the ability to select advanced manufacturing technologies that generate the best value to a business. ​​​​​​​
    • COTECHMO: The Constructive Technology Development Cost Model

      Jones, Mark B.; Webb, Phil F.; Summers, Mark D.; Baguley, Paul; Cranfield University (Taylor & Francis, 2014-04-03)
      A detailed analysis of the available literature and the aerospace manufacturing industry has identified a lack of cost estimation techniques to forecast advanced manufacturing technology development effort and hardware cost. To respond, this article presents two parametric ‘Constructive Technology Development Cost Models’ (COTECHMO). The COTECHMO Resources model is the first and is capable of forecasting aerospace advanced manufacturing technology development effort in personhours. When statistically analyzed, this model had an outstanding R-squared value of 98% and a high F-value of 106.65, validating model significance. The general model accuracy was tested with 53% of the forecast data falling within 20% of the actual. The second, the COTECHMO Direct Cost model is capable of forecasting the development cost of the aerospace advanced manufacturing technology process hardware. This model had an inferior R-squared value of 76% and an F-value of 5.59, although each was still valid to determine model significance. However, the Direct Cost model accuracy exceeded the Resources model, with 93% of the forecast data falling within 20% of the actual. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including suggestions for further enhancement of each model verification and validation, within and outside of the supporting organization. ​​​​​​​
    • Cultural perspectives on advertising perceptions and brand trustworthiness

      Danbury, Annie Hagen; Palazzo, Maria; Mortimer, Kathleen; Siano, Alfonso (IGI Global, 2015-04-01)
    • Data of the impact of aligning business, IT, and marketing strategies on firm performance

      Al-Surmi, Abdulrahman Mohamed; Cao, Guangming; Duan, Yanqing; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-10-15)
      The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “The Impact of Aligning Business, IT, and Marketing Strategies on Firm Performance” [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019850118304449]. In order to succeed in today's competitive business environment, a firm should have a clear business strategy that is supported by other organizational strategies. While prior studies argue that strategic alignment enhances firm performance, either strategic alignment including multiple factors or strategic orientation of firms has received little attention. This study, drawing on contingency theory and configuration theory, investigates the performance impact of triadic strategic alignment among business, IT, and marketing strategies while simultaneously considers strategic orientation of firms. A research model is tested through SEM and MANOVA using data collected in a questionnaire survey of 242 Yemen managers. The findings indicate that (1) triadic strategic alignment has a positive impact on firm performance and (2) there is an ideal triadic strategic alignment for prospectors and defenders. This research contributes to strategic alignment literature and managers' understanding of how to align business, IT and marketing strategies to improve firm performance.
    • The debate on flexibility of environmental regulations, innovation capabilities and financial performance - a novel use of DEA

      Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Ramanathan, Usha; Bentley, Yongmei; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier Ltd, 2017-03-27)
      Operational research models have been employed to understand development issues associated with environmental sustainability. This article describes a novel application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to help extend a specific debate in the literature on Porter’s hypothesis in environmental policy. The debate deals with the impact of flexibility of regulations on the relationship between innovation capabilities on financial performance in organisations. Using the resource based view of a firm, we hypothesise that relationship between innovation capabilities and financial performance in firms depends on how flexible or inflexible environmental regulations are. We apply DEA to capture the flexibility of environmental regulations. Our results indicate that innovation capabilities significantly influence financial performance of firms if firms feel that the environmental regulations they face are flexible and offer more freedom in meeting the requirements of regulations. On the other hand, corporations that feel that they face more inflexible regulations are not so effective in improving their financial performance with their innovation capabilities.
    • Designing an organization for innovation in emerging economies: the mediating role of readiness for innovation

      Arshi, Tahseen Anwer; Burns, Paul; Majan University College; University of Bedfordshire (Vilnius University Press, 2019-12-31)
      The study proposes an organizational design framework that impacts innovation in corporate firms. In an emerging economy like Oman, innovation helps to reduce the dependence on oil revenues and enhance its international competitiveness. However, the corporate organizations in emerging economies are unable to innovate effectively because they are not designed for innovation. Further, scarcity of resources undermines their readiness for innovation. This study empirically validates measures of an entrepreneurial organizational design framework in Omani corporate sector. In order to explain how a corporate organizational design promotes innovation and clarify the missing links between corporate entrepreneurial activity and innovation, the mediating role of readiness for innovation (RFI) is tested. Using a quantitative research approach, data is collected from 401 corporate firms in Oman and analysed using structural equation modelling. The findings support the proposition that entrepreneurial organizational design promotes both radical and incremental innovation degree and frequency, while RFI partially mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial inputs and innovation outputs. The study contributes to the understanding of innovation in emerging economies as it explains that RFI helps firms to enhance its innovation potential by optimizing its resources, capabilities and processes for innovation. These measures are essential for organizations, particularly in emerging economies focused on low cost innovation. The findings of the study will inform managerial decision-making in terms of designing organizations for innovation and implementation of measures related to readiness for innovation. PDF