• Developing a real-time monitoring traceability system for cold chain of Tricholoma matsutake

      Li, Xinwu; Yang, Lin; Duan, Yanqing; Wu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaoshuan; China Agricultural University; Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry College; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2019-04-11)
    • Examining perceived entrepreneurial stress: a causal interpretation through cross-lagged panel study

      Arshi, Tahseen Anwer; Kamal, Qazi; Burns, Paul; Tewari, Veena; Rao, Venkoba; American University of Ras Al Khaimah; Leeds Beckett University; University of Bedfordshire; Majan University College (MDPI, 2020-12-22)
      The entrepreneurial stress construct’s nomological validity is not well established as past studies have not delineated between entrepreneurial and employee stress. This study investigated several entrepreneurship-specific stressors positing their causal effect on perceived entrepreneurial stress (PES). It examined four directional hypotheses testing the causal, reverse, reciprocal relationships and moderation effects between stressors and PES. Further, it looked at the moderating impact of psychological capital. More than 300 entrepreneurs in emerging markets, namely India, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates, participated in this longitudinal study (Time 1 n = 325, Time 2 n = 310). The study adopted a cross-lagged competing model research design and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that entrepreneurship-specific personal, social, and occupational stressors cause PES. Further, the results also support the reverse causal effect of PES on stressors and a reciprocal relationship. The study advances resource-based theory to an entrepreneurial background, highlighting the role of intangible resource gaps in perceived entrepreneurial stress. The study concludes that entrepreneurship-specific intangible resources are useful to entrepreneurs at personal, social, and occupational levels. An actual or perceived loss of these resources may lead to perceived entrepreneurial stress. Furthermore, PES can interfere with the entrepreneurial capacity for innovation over time. Psychological capital can be an effective coping response as a moderator of perceived entrepreneurial stress’ adverse effects. This is one of the first studies that examines PES in an emerging market context, specific to entrepreneurial employment.
    • Exploring the factors influencing business model innovation using grounded theory: the case of a Chinese high-end equipment manufacturer

      Tian, Qingfeng; Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Huimin; Cao, Guangming; Northwestern Polytechnical University, China; University of Bedfordshire (MDPI, 2019-03-08)
      Business model innovation is vitally important for firms to gain competitive advantages and improve their performance. While it has attracted much attention recently, considerable work is still needed to properly understand business model innovation. This study aims to examine the factors influencing business model innovation through a case study of Shaanxi Blower, a high-end equipment manufacturer in China. Using grounded theory in terms of open coding, axial coding and selective coding, this case study found seven main factors that influenced business model innovation, namely, market pressure, government policy, entrepreneurship, culture and strategy, technology, human resources, and organizational capabilities. Market pressure, government policy and information technology are external factors, whereas, entrepreneurship and technological innovation are internal factors. Culture and strategy, human resources, and organizational capabilities are the guarantee factors. This study’s findings add to the growing literature by developing a more holistic understanding of the factors that influence business model innovation in the Chinese context, which indicates a possibility for Chinese high-end equipment manufacturers to improve their competitiveness and performance through better management of their business model innovation. View Full-Text
    • An investigation of the policies and crucial sectors of Smart Cities based on IoT application

      Razmjoo, Armin; Gandomi, Amirhossein; Mahlooji, Maral; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Rezvani, Alireza; Ahmadzadeh, Sahar; Memon, Saim; Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya; University of Technology Sydney; et al. (MDPI, 2022-03-04)
      As smart cities (SCs) emerge, the Internet of Things (IoT) is able to simplify more sophisti-cated and ubiquitous applications employed within these cities. In this regard, we investigate seven predominant sectors including the environment, public transport, utilities, street lighting, waste management, public safety, and smart parking that have a great effect on SC development. Our findings show that for the environment sector, cleaner air and water systems connected to IoT-driven sensors are used to detect the amount of CO2, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen to monitor air quality and to detect water leakage and pH levels. For public transport, IoT systems help traffic management and prevent train delays, for the utilities sector IoT systems are used for reducing overall bills and related costs as well as electricity consumption management. For the street-lighting sector, IoT systems are used for better control of streetlamps and saving energy associated with urban street lighting. For waste management, IoT systems for waste collection and gathering of data regarding the level of waste in the container are effective. In addition, for public safety these systems are important in order to prevent vehicle theft and smartphone loss and to enhance public safety. Finally, IoT systems are effective in reducing congestion in cities and helping drivers to find vacant parking spots using intelligent smart parking.
    • Opening the black box: the impacts of environmental regulations on technological innovation

      Li, Muyao; Zhang, Jinsong; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Li, Ruiqian; ; Harbin University of Commerce; University of Bedfordshire; Heilongjiang University (MDPI, 2020-06-16)
      Whether environmental regulations (ERs) can stimulate technological innovation (TI) is the key for realizing the win-win strategy between economic development and environmental protection. This study seeks to analyze the impacts of ERs on TI. Though previous literature has highlighted that the black box of TI can be decomposed into technology investment and technology transformation, further empirical studies on such a decomposition has largely been ignored. Moreover, a detailed discussion of the links between ER and the decomposed components of TI has not been conducted in developing countries such as China. Our study attempts to address these research gaps by (i) decomposing TI using a novel DEA procedure and to further analyze the impacts of ERs on the decomposed components of TI, and (ii) apply this novel methodology to Chinese context. Accordingly, this study is conducted in two stages. First, a novel application of the slack-based Network DEA model is developed to uncover the black box of TI using Chinese data; to estimate the overall efficiency of technological innovation (TIE) and decompose it into the efficiency of technology investment (TVE) and the efficiency of technology transformation (TTE). Second, a random effect Tobit model is applied to (i) investigate both the linear and non-linear impacts of ERs on TIE in all sectors, and (ii) examine whether the impacts of ERs on TVE and TTE in different sub-processes are heterogeneous or not. Our results have brought out the benefits of decomposing TI; while technology transformation in China closely follows the trend of TI, the trend of technology investment is somewhat different. The estimation results further indicate that the impacts of ERs on TIE are non-linear. Besides, ERs have heterogeneous impacts on the decomposed components of TI. The impacts of ERs on TVE are non-linear, whereas the impacts of ERs on TTE become insignificant.