• IoT sensors in aquaculture-barriers and facilitators for sustainability in Brazilian context

      Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Duan, Yanqing; Ajmal, Tahmina; Dong, Feng; Van Ransbeeck, Samuel; Valverde, Joaquim Manoel Monteiro; Valverde, Silma Battezzati; University of Bedfordshire; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense (IEOM Society, 2019-12-31)
      The UNEP has identified Artisanal Fisheries (AF) as the most important sector for meeting the twin needs of economic development and environmental sustainability. During 2004-14, fish exports from Brazil declined from 107,000 tons to 34,000 tons while fish imports grew from 158,000 tons to 403,000 tons due to low productivity of Brazilian AFs. Hence it is important to understand opportunities for productivity improvement of these fisheries. With productivity improvement and further expansion, sustainability issues should be considered carefully. In a project funded by the Newton Fund in the UK and FAPESC in Brazil, we explored drivers of sustainable development of AFs in Santa Catarina via a stakeholder workshop and field visits. We also interacted with officials at the EPAGRI, the research and agricultural extension organization of the State of Santa Catarina. Findings of the workshop and field visits are briefly summarized below but will be elaborated during the presentation at the conference. • The level of technology use in aquafarms in Brazil is basic. There were one or two instances of old mechanical technology but there is no integration with the latest electronic, IoT technologies. • There is general lack of awareness of sustainability issues among most AFs. Since water supply is abundant, they tend to think pollution is not an issue. Without adequate efforts in treating the waste water before they leave aquafarms, pollution issues could be the most significant limiting factor for future expansion of AFs. • There is a lack of awareness of the fish supply chains as most AFs do not directly deal with supermarkets or final consumers. • Lack of financing and access to banks is also a serious bottleneck for future expansion. • The AFs tend to work with traditional models of fishing. More training on new business models (e.g., (i) linking directly to market, (ii) using cooperative structures to ensure large supplying power and consequently winning bargaining power, and (iii) developing future contracts for supply of fish to the market to ensure all fish produced are sold on time) will help the entire AF industry. • New Internet of Things (IoT) technologies should be developed with local culture in mind. It can be automatic resulting in fewer labour requirements but should be supplemented with proper guidance documents (e.g., user manuals or online provision). Working with local knowledge centres such as EPAGRI is crucial for continued diffusion of these technologies to all eligible AFs and for regular advice on maintenance. •Lack of supporting infrastructure for aquaculture development, e.g. analytic systems, ERP, e-learning, regulations, government support, legal frameworks, etc. On the basis of the study, three areas can be recommended for future IoT and Big Data applications: (i) improving the monitoring and control of water quality, such as oxygen and temperature, by using sensors and remote control digital technologies; (ii) optimising and managing the fish feed to improve resource efficiency; (iii)-enabling fish farmers to have better access to information (e.g. suppliers information, weather, market demand and prices, costs, etc), knowledge and technical support and expert advice via mobile Apps.