• The debate on flexibility of environmental regulations, innovation capabilities and financial performance - a novel use of DEA

      Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Ramanathan, Usha; Bentley, Yongmei; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier Ltd, 2017-03-27)
      Operational research models have been employed to understand development issues associated with environmental sustainability. This article describes a novel application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to help extend a specific debate in the literature on Porter’s hypothesis in environmental policy. The debate deals with the impact of flexibility of regulations on the relationship between innovation capabilities on financial performance in organisations. Using the resource based view of a firm, we hypothesise that relationship between innovation capabilities and financial performance in firms depends on how flexible or inflexible environmental regulations are. We apply DEA to capture the flexibility of environmental regulations. Our results indicate that innovation capabilities significantly influence financial performance of firms if firms feel that the environmental regulations they face are flexible and offer more freedom in meeting the requirements of regulations. On the other hand, corporations that feel that they face more inflexible regulations are not so effective in improving their financial performance with their innovation capabilities.
    • Environmental regulations, innovation and firm performance: a revisit of the Porter hypothesis

      Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; He, Qile; Black, Andrew; Ghobadian, Abby; Gallear, David; University of Bedfordshire; Coventry University; Nottingham University; University of Reading; Brunel University (Elsevier Ltd, 2016-08-24)
      This paper examines the relationships between environmental regulations, firms' innovation and private sustainability benefits using nine case studies of UK and Chinese firms. It aims to unravel the mechanisms by which a firm's environmental behaviour in improving its private benefits of sustainability is influenced by its relationship with the government, which primarily enacts regulations to maximise public sustainability benefits in the interests of society as a whole. The paper takes its cue from the Porter hypothesis to make some broad preliminary assumptions to inform the research design. A conceptual framework was developed through inductive case studies using template analysis. The results show that depending on firms' resources and capabilities, those that adopt a more dynamic approach to respond to environmental regulations innovatively and take a proactive approach to manage their environmental performance are generally better able to reap the private benefits of sustainability.
    • Environmentally conscious logistics planning for food grain industry considering wastages employing multi objective hybrid particle swarm optimization

      Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Thakkar, Jitesh J.; Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur; University of Sheffield (Elsevier Ltd, 2019-05-28)
      This paper develops a hub and spoke network based multi-objective green transportation model for evaluating optimal shipment quantity, modal choice, route selection, hub location, and vehicle velocity decisions considering wastages in Indian food grain context. A hybrid version of multi-objective meta-heuristic, Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization with Differential Evolution (MOPSODE) is proposed to tackle the resulting non-linear formulation. Benchmarking with NSGA-II confirms the dominance of MOPSODE over NSGAII pertaining to near optimal pareto fronts obtained for the tested cases. Finally, the study derives the economic and environmental impact of varying hub location level, food grain wastage threshold and intermodal hub capacity.
    • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on information management research and practice: transforming education, work and life

      Dwivedi, Yogesh Kumar; Hughes, D. Laurie; Coombs, Crispin; Constantiou, Ioanna; Duan, Yanqing; Edwards, John S.; Gupta, Babita; Lal, Banita; Misra, Santosh; Prashant, Prakhar; et al. (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-07-31)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many organisations to undergo significant transformation, rethinking key elements of their business processes and use of technology to maintain operations whilst adhering to a changing landscape of guidelines and new procedures. This study offers a collective insight to many of the key issues and underlying complexities affecting organisations and society from COVID-19, through an information systems and technological perspective. The views of 12 invited subject experts are collated and analysed where each articulate their individual perspectives relating to: online learning, digital strategy, artificial intelligence, information management, social interaction, cyber security, big data, blockchain, privacy, mobile technology and strategy through the lens of the current crisis and impact on these specific areas. The expert perspectives offer timely insight to the range of topics, identifying key issues and recommendations for theory and practice.
    • The implications of fossil fuel supply constraints on climate change projections: a supply-side analysis

      Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Tang, Xu; Bentley, Yongmei; Höök, Mikael; China University of Petroleum; University of Bedfordshire; Uppsala University (Elsevier Ltd, 2016-05-17)
      Climate projections are based on emission scenarios. The emission scenarios used by the IPCC and by mainstream climate scientists are largely derived from the predicted demand for fossil fuels, and in our view take insufficient consideration of the constrained emissions that are likely due to the depletion of these fuels. This paper, by contrast, takes a supply-side view of CO emission, and generates two supply-driven emission scenarios based on a comprehensive investigation of likely long-term pathways of fossil fuel production drawn from peer-reviewed literature published since 2000. The potential rapid increases in the supply of the non-conventional fossil fuels are also investigated. Climate projections calculated in this paper indicate that the future atmospheric CO concentration will not exceed 610ppm in this century; and that the increase in global surface temperature will be lower than 2.6°C compared to pre-industrial level even if there is a significant increase in the production of non-conventional fossil fuels. Our results indicate therefore that the IPCC's climate projections overestimate the upper-bound of climate change. Furthermore, this paper shows that different production pathways of fossil fuels use, and different climate models, are the two main reasons for the significant differences in current literature on the topic.
    • The influence of informal social media practices on knowledge sharing and work processes within organizations

      Kwayu, Shirumisha; Abubakre, Mumin; Lal, Banita; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-12-30)
      Contemporary information technologies such as social media have invigorated the way knowledge is shared within organizations to the extent that we have to rethink and reassess our understanding of the role and influence of technology in organizational processes and knowledge sharing. This paper uses the strategy as practice lens guided by the interpretivist philosophy to understand the influence of informal social media practices on knowledge sharing and work processes within an organization. The paper uses empirical evidence from the case study of a telecom organization in Tanzania to gain theoretical insight into informal social media practices and knowledge sharing. This research contributes to the Information Systems (IS) literature by asserting that organizational processes are achieved by mundane knowledge sharing mediated by informal social media use within the organization. Also, the study contributes to IS literature by highlighting how emerging informal practices are essential to daily processes within organizations.
    • A new rational IPA and application to cruise tourism

      Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Ramanathan, Usha; University of Bedfordshire; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier Ltd, 2016-10-19)
      At least two versions of IPA, namely the simple IPA and the asymmetric IPA, are available in tourism literature (Albayrak and Caber, 2015; Pritchard and Havitz, 2006). The simple IPA involves asking customers their perceptions relating to importance of various performance criteria and how the firm has performed in terms of these criteria. The simple IPA assumes a symmetric relationship between performance in terms of various criteria and customer satisfaction. The asymmetric IPA or AIPA (Albayrak and Caber, 2013; Caber et al., 2013) recognizes that these relationships could be asymmetric and uses the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction (Matzler and Sauerwein, 2002) to argue that criteria could be basic, excitement or performance criteria and uses regression analysis. While AIPA is an improvement over IPA, AIPA calculations take into account only the magnitude of regression coefficients but not their level of significance. Further, figure 3 of Albayrak and Caber (2015) uses performance in Xaxis but impact asymmetry, not importance, in Y-axis. It is not clear why impact asymmetry should be considered synonymous to importance. In this research note, we propose a variation of AIPA and call it Rational IPA (RIPA). RIPA involves the following steps. Step 1. Collect relevant data. Step 2. Run two sets of regressions with overall customer satisfaction as the dependent variable, and performance in terms of various service criteria as dependent variables. The first set of regressions is called low performance regressions where only ratings below median levels for each criterion are considered. In contrast, the second set of regressions is called high performance regressions. As highlighted in previous studies (Hartline et al., 2003; Ramanathan and Ramanathan, 2011; Silverman and Grover, 1995), the criteria are classified based on the results of the two sets of regressions. 1 a. A critical criterion remains significant in all regressions (except for low performance in terms of the criterion). b. A desirable criterion is significant both for high performance and low performance in terms of the criterion. c. A satisfier criterion is significant for high performance regression in terms of the criterion but not significant for low performance. d. A dissatisfier criterion is not significant for high performance regression but significant for low performance in terms of the criterion. e. All other criteria are neutral criteria. Step 3. Prepare IPA matrix with the importance of criteria on the X-axis and performance (mean ratings) in the Y-axis. Step 4. Conduct IPA based on the criterion classification (importance) and achievement (performance). We demonstrate RIPA in the following steps using publicly available online data on customer ratings of cruise operations.
    • Optimization of machining parameters for end milling of Inconel 718 super alloy using Taguchi based grey relational analysis

      Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Ramanujam, R.; Venkatesan, K.; Jerald, J.; VIT University; National Institute of Technology, India (Elsevier Ltd, 2013-11-13)
      This study investigated the parameter optimization of end milling operation for Inconel 718 super alloy with multi-response criteria based on the taguchi orthogonal array with the grey relational analysis. Nine experimental runs based on an L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method were performed. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are optimized with considerations of multiple performance characteristics namely surface roughness and material removal rate. A grey relational grade obtained from the grey relational analysis is used to solve the end milling process with the multiple performance characteristics. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor. Finally, confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the experimental results and developed model. Experimental results have shown that machining performance in the end milling process can be improved effectively through this approach.
    • Real-time four-dimensional trajectory generation based on gain-scheduling control and a high-fidelity aircraft model

      Obajemu, Olusayo; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Maiyar, Lohithaksha M.; Al-Hindi, Abrar; Weiszer, Michal; Chen, Jun; University of Sheffield; University of Bedfordshire; Queen Mary University of London (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-03-19)
      Aircraft ground movement plays a key role in improving airport efficiency, as it acts as a link to all other ground operations. Finding novel approaches to coordinate the movements of a fleet of aircraft at an airport in order to improve system resilience to disruptions with increasing autonomy is at the center of many key studies for airport airside operations. Moreover, autonomous taxiing is envisioned as a key component in future digitalized airports. However, state-of-the-art routing and scheduling algorithms for airport ground movements do not consider high-fidelity aircraft models at both the proactive and reactive planning phases. The majority of such algorithms do not actively seek to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a new approach for generating efficient four-dimensional trajectories (4DTs) on the basis of a high-fidelity aircraft model and gain-scheduling control strategy. Working in conjunction with a routing and scheduling algorithm that determines the taxi route, waypoints, and time deadlines, the proposed approach generates fuel-efficient 4DTs in real time, while respecting operational constraints. The proposed approach can be used in two contexts: ① as a reactive decision support tool to generate new trajectories that can resolve unprecedented events; and ② as an autopilot system for both partial and fully autonomous taxiing. The proposed methodology is realistic and simple to implement. Moreover, simulation studies show that the proposed approach is capable of providing an up to 11% reduction in the fuel consumed during the taxiing of a large Boeing 747-100 jumbo jet.
    • Stakeholders shaping experiences of self-funded international PhD students in UK business schools

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Adamu, Nenadi; Nguyen, Nguyen Phong; University of Greenwich; University of Bedfordshire; University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-07-22)
      Self-funded international PhD students bring substantial financial returns to universities, but they are often placed in a precarious position, caught between different identities and experiencing struggles that are peculiar to international students – liability for fees, which sometimes have to be raised during their study; visa restrictions that affect employability; and the solitary journey of their doctoral study. It is, therefore, important to recognise their unique positioning and understand how their experiences are being shaped and can be improved. Using qualitative data obtained through semi-structured interviews with 26 self-funded international PhD students in UK business schools, the analysis identified variations in experiences based on gender, marital status, and university group as significant to self-funded PhD students' experiences. The study also adopted the theory of student persistence and the multidimensional value-based approach to identify the role of university administrative systems, supervisors, fellow PhD students, social networks, families, and self-funded PhD students as key stakeholders shaping students’ learning experiences and maintaining their engagement, influencing completion rates, and affecting post-graduation outcomes. This study extended the existing knowledge on international student experiences and doctoral education, presenting vital implications for a range of stakeholders, including universities, post-graduate and business schools, academic and professional bodies, supervisors, and policymakers.