• Impacts of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering strategy on Caribbean coral reefs

      Zhang, Z; Jones, A.; Crabbe, M. James C. (Emerald, 2017-07-24)
      Purpose: Currently, negotiation on global carbon emissions reduction is very difficult due to lack of international willingness. In response, geoengineering (climate engineering) strategy is proposed to artificially cool the planet. Meanwhile, as the harbor around one-third of all described marine species, coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystem on the planet to climate change. However, until now, there is no any quantitative assessment on impacts of geoengineering on coral reefs. In this study, we model impacts of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on coral reefs. Design/methodology/approach: We will use the HadGEM2-ES climate model to model and evaluate impacts of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on coral reefs. Findings: This study shows that a) stratospheric aerosol geoengineering could significantly mitigate future coral bleaching throughout the Caribbean Sea; b) Changes in downward solar irradiation, sea level rise and sea surface temperature caused by geoengineering implementation should have very little impacts on coral reefs; c) although geoengineering would prolong the return period of future hurricanes, this may still be too short to ensure coral recruitment and survival after hurricane damage.
    • Isolation of an arsenate-respiring bacterium from a redox front in an arsenic-polluted aquifer in West Bengal, Bengal Basin

      Osborne, Thomas H.; McArthur, John H.; Sikdar, Pradip K.; Santini, Joanne M.; University College London; Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (American Chemical Society, 2015-03-03)
      Natural pollution of groundwater by arsenic adversely affects the health of tens of millions of people worldwide, with the deltaic aquifers of SE Asia being particularly polluted. The pollution is caused primarily by, or as a side reaction of, the microbial reduction of sedimentary Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides, but the organism(s) responsible for As release have not been isolated. Here we report the first isolation of a dissimilatory arsenate reducer from sediments of the Bengal Basin in West Bengal. The bacterium, here designated WB3, respires soluble arsenate and couples its reduction to the oxidation of acetate; WB3 is therefore implicated in the process of arsenic pollution of groundwater, which is largely by arsenite. The bacterium WB3 is also capable of reducing dissolved Fe(III) citrate, solid Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, and elemental sulfur, using acetate as the electron donor. It is a member of the Desulfuromonas genus and possesses a dissimilatory arsenate reductase that was identified using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers. The sediment from which WB3 was isolated was brown, Pleistocene sand at a depth of 35.2 m below ground level (mbgl). This level was some 3 cm below the boundary between the brown sands and overlying reduced, gray, Holocene aquifer sands. The color boundary is interpreted to be a reduction front that releases As for resorption downflow, yielding a high load of labile As sorbed to the sediment at a depth of 35.8 mbgl and concentrations of As in groundwater that reach >1000 μg/L.
    • Microbial oxidation of arsenite in a subarctic environment: diversity of arsenite oxidase genes and identification of a psychrotolerant arsenite oxidiser

      Osborne, Thomas H.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Walker, Stephen R.; Ward, Seamus A.; Santini, Joanne M. (Biomed Central, 2010-07-30)
      Arsenic is toxic to most living cells. The two soluble inorganic forms of arsenic are arsenite (+3) and arsenate (+5), with arsenite the more toxic. Prokaryotic metabolism of arsenic has been reported in both thermal and moderate environments and has been shown to be involved in the redox cycling of arsenic. No arsenic metabolism (either dissimilatory arsenate reduction or arsenite oxidation) has ever been reported in cold environments (i.e. < 10°C).