• Self-neglect and hoarding: a guide to safeguarding and support

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2019-03-07)
    • Self-neglect and safeguarding adult reviews: towards a model of understanding facilitators and barriers to best practice

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald, 2019-08-01)
      Purpose – One purpose is to update the core dataset of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to draw together the learning available from this dataset of reviews to propose a model of good practice that can be used as the basis for subsequent safeguarding adult reviews. Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core dataset from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. A sufficient number of reviews have been done from which to construct an evidence-based model of good practice. A framework is presented with the proposition that this can be used as a proportional methodology for further safeguarding adult reviews where self-neglect is in focus. Findings – Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis. This level of analysis, constructed over time and across reviews, enables a framework to be developed that pulls together the findings into a model of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners involved in such cases. This framework can then be used as an evidence-based model with which to review new cases where safeguarding adult reviews are commissioned.   Research limitations/implications – The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs is incomplete and does not contain many of the safeguarding adult reviews reported in this evolving dataset. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. It is possible, therefore, that this dataset is also incomplete. Drawing together the findings from the reviews nonetheless enables conclusions to be proposed about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Future reviews can then explore what enables such effective to be achieved and what barriers obstruct the realisation of effective practice. Practical implications – Answering the question “why” is a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. A framework is presented here, drawn from research on safeguarding adult reviews featuring self-neglect, that enables those involved in reviews to explore the enablers and barriers with respect to an evidence-based model of effective practice. The framework introduces explicitly research and review evidence into the review process. Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further building on the evidence base for practice. The paper also proposes a new approach to safeguarding adult reviews by using the findings and recommendations systematically within a framework designed to answer “why” questions – what promotes and what obstructs effective practice.   Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, evidence, self-neglect, proportionality Paper type: Research paper
    • Sentencing in a rational society

      Crabbe, M. James C.; University of Bedfordshire (2018-07-26)
      “The reduction of prohibited conduct must be the main aim of any penal system, but must be tempered by both economic considerations and humanity if the system is to be practicable and tolerable”. So argued Nigel Walker in his book Sentencing in a Rational Society 50 years ago. James Crabbe FRSA asks how far we have really moved since.
    • Sexual exploitation and its impact on developing sexualities and sexual relationships: the need for contextual social work interventions

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Warrington, Camille; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (Oxford University Press, 2016-10-25)
      This article considers how young people’s developing sexualities are influenced by extra-familial social and cultural contexts, particularly in relation to experiences of sexual violence. It draws upon young people’s voices to illustrate the choices they make when they encounter, or engage with, exploitative contexts. Utilising the cumulative evidence base of our studies into sexual exploitation, trafficking and violence over the past ten years, we employ Bourdieu’s theory of the interplay between structure and agency to elucidate the relationship between young people’s choices and abusive social environments. When navigating or engaging with exploitative contexts, young people’s sexualities can be distorted through abusive normalising processes; coercive practices; professional attitudes which condone abuse; and/or structural inequalities that call for survivalist behaviours amongst young people. In exploring this social model of consent, we highlight the need to move beyond one to one (1:1) social work practices to engage with situations, contexts and relationships that disrupt young people’s developing sexualities. Such an adaptation of social work practice would adopt principles of ‘contextual safeguarding’ and we conclude by offering illustrations of interventions that have begun to explore this developmental pathway.
    • Sexual exploitation within a child protection framework

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2014-04-02)
    • Sexual violence and exploitation in adolescence

      Beckett, Helen (Russell House Publishing Ltd, 2014-02-01)
    • Sharenting: pride, affect and the day-to-day politics of digital mothering

      Lazard, Lisa; Capdevila, Rose; Dann, Charlotte; Locke, Abigail; Roper, Sandra (Wiley, 2019-03-06)
      The coming together of parenting and routine posting on social networking sites has become a visible and recognisable theme, and the term “sharenting” has found a place in everyday talk to describe some forms of parental digital sharing practices. However, while social media has undoubtedly provided a space for parents to share experiences and receive support around parenting, sharenting remains a contestable issue. Thus, one reading of sharenting would be as a display of good parenting as mothers “show off” their children as a marker of success. However, the term also can be used pejoratively to describe parental oversharing of child‐focused images and content. In this paper, we explore the practice of sharenting in terms of pride, affect and the politics of digital mothering in a neoliberal context to conclude that sharenting can be best understood as a complex affective and intersectional accomplishment that produces motherhood and family as communicative activities within digital social practices.
    • A sigh of relief: a summary of the phase one results from the Securing Safety study

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Wroe, Lauren; Skidmore, Paula; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-05-31)
      When practitioners are faced with young people who are being sexually exploited, coerced to traffic drugs around the country, or who have experienced serious violence in their communities, they sometimes move them a significant distance from their homes and communities. How often, for what purpose, and to what effect are such relocations used? While there may always be situations where it is necessary to move a young person, and sometimes their entire family, in order to keep them safe, anecdotal unease about the practice of relocations means there is far more we need to understand to ensure that such a disruptive, and costly, intervention is used to best effect. This research briefing presents the findings from the first phase of the Securing Safety study, which seeks to understand the rate, cost and impact of relocations of young people in response to extra-familial harm. It builds on studies into the use of fostering, residential care and secure settings during interventions for young people affected by sexual exploitation (Beckett, 2011; Ellis, 2018; Firmin, 2018; Shuker, 2013; Sturrock and Holmes, 2015) to focus specifically on how such interventions are used for broader forms of extra-familial harm and what their effective and ethical use might entail in the future. Engaging 15 local authorities in England and Wales, we begin to build a national picture of how often, why and in what circumstances this form of intervention is used to protect children and young people. The data collected in year one builds a rich picture of the complex and contested use of relocation. It highlights that moves are sometimes used as the only means of keeping a young person physically safe, that they can both disrupt and repair relationships, and that while they can be used to enable young people to access therapeutic support, consideration of the emotional impact of a relocation may be de-prioritised against other risks. Relocation can create a moment of relative safety for a young person, with one practitioner sharing that ’everyone breathes a sigh of relief’ when a move is complete. Considering the findings from the first year of our study we propose an interim set of recommendations and ask, if relocations offer a sigh of relief, who for?
    • Signs of safety and contextual safeguarding: key messages for practice

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Hill, Tracey; Hill, Wendy; Turnell, Andrew; Turnell, Penelope; Walker, Joanne (University of Bedfordshire, 2021-02-28)
      Contextual Safeguarding is an approach to safeguarding young people from harm they experience in extra-familial contexts. As such it is compatible with, and supports the development of, a range of practice frameworks and models that are being used to improve child protection responses and systems. In this briefing document we explore the relationship between Contextual Safeguarding and Signs of Safety – and ways that these two approaches can work together when safeguarding young people affected by extra-familial harm, as well as assessing and intervening with extra-familial contexts and groups. The briefing is divided into three sections. In section one we summarise the two approaches. In the second section we reflect on what the two approaches share and where they may diverge. In the final section we present how they could work together by use of two case studies – one focused on a young person, and another on contexts – to make recommendations for how to explore this potential in the future.
    • Simulating supervision: how do managers respond to a crisis?

      Wilkins, David; Jones, Rebecca (Taylor & Francis, 2017-08-28)
      Supervision is fundamental to child and family social work practice, in England as elsewhere, yet there is little research regarding what managers and social workers do when they meet to discuss the families they are working with. Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of simulated clients and Objective Structured Clinical Exams to help develop and evaluate the abilities of social workers and students. This paper describes a study of 30 simulated supervision sessions between English social work managers and an actor playing the role of a student social worker in need of support. The simulation concerns a referral regarding an incident of domestic abuse. During the simulations, managers typically asked closed questions to obtain more information before providing solutions for the supervisee in the form of advice and direction. There was little evidence of emotional support for the social worker, nor empathy with the family. Managers typically acted as expert problem-solvers. The implications of this are discussed in relation to current theoretical models of supervision for child and family social work and in relation to how Children’s Services responds to domestic abuse.
    • Six steps for independent scrutiny: safeguarding children partnership arrangements

      Pearce, Jenny J.; Institute of Applied Social Research (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-11-15)
      Section 1: Introduction This paper emerges from the author’s independent consideration of scrutiny of safeguarding children partnerships under the new arrangements for safeguarding children as outlined in 'Working Together to Safeguard Children’ (DfE, 2018). The author holds sole responsibility for the contents of the paper. The Six Steps model (Section 4, page 6) can be adapted in any way needed, extending or reducing the number of steps and extending or reducing the number of questions in each step.
    • ‘Snitches get stitches’: school-specific barriers to victim disclosure and peer reporting of sexual harm committed by young people in school contexts

      Allnock, Debra; Atkinson, Ruth; University of Bedfordshire; AVA - Against Violence & Abuse (Elsevier, 2019-01-03)
      Background: School based, peer-to-peer sexual harm is under-researched despite its prevalence and adverse effects on young people across the globe. Understanding barriers to victim disclosure and peer reporting might help towards the prevention and protection of young people. Objective: This study explores dual perspectives of young people and educational staff about school-specific environmental barriers to 1) young people’s disclosure of sexual harm experienced, and 2) young people’s reporting of sexual harm on behalf of others. Participants and setting: Participants include 59 young people aged 13–21 and 58 educational staff, drawn from seven schools across four local authorities in England whom formed part of a wider study on harmful sexual behavior and safety in schools. Methods: Focus groups were carried out with young people and education staff. The sessions were thematically analysed and focused on barriers to disclosure within the school context. Results: Peer groups set powerful ‘rules’ that influence the ability and willingness of young people to report sexual harm. Some school responses for addressing sexual harm are sub-optimal and sexual harm is not adequately prioritised. Some schools appear to struggle to manage more subtle forms of sexual harm compared with more recognized forms of violence and abuse. A significant proportion of sexual harm is so prevalent that it is ‘normalised’, and therefore underreported.  This resigned acceptance to sexual harm consequently shapes young people’s disclosures. Conclusions: School systems of responding to sexual harm require strengthening to increase feelings of safety and empowerment of young people.
    • The social effects of travel to learn patterns : a case study of 16-19 year olds in London

      Watson, Judith; Church, Andrew (SAGE Publications/Local Economy Policy Unit (LEPU), 2009-08-01)
      Previous research into education and student geographies has usually focussed on either compulsory schooling or university education. This paper, using London as a case study, is an innovative attempt to understand the geographies of non-compulsory, non-university education (‘further education’, FE) which plays a crucial role in a world city labour market that requires a wide range of skills. Original analysis is provided using findings from a questionnaire, interviews with students and senior college managers and the analysis of individual student records, the Individualised Student Record (ISR) and Pupil-Level School Census (PLASC). The education geography of 16-19 year olds in FE involves selection by institutions alongside choice by learners resulting in complex patterns of social segregation and travel to learn. The division between post 16 colleges and sixth forms attached to schools is crucial with the latter, wherever they are located, taking a less deprived section of the cohort.
    • The social model and contextual safeguarding - key messages for practice

      Featherstone, Brid; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Gupta, Anna; Morris, Kate; Wroe, Lauren; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-07-31)
      Contextual Safeguarding is an approach to safeguarding young people from harm they experience in extra-familial contexts. As such it is compatible with, and supports the development of, a range of practice frameworks and models that are being used to improve child protection responses and systems. In this briefing we explore the relationship between Contextual Safeguarding and the Social Model of Child Protection – and the potential that may exist in bringing these two ideas together to create child protection practices that target the social conditions in which abuse occurs. The briefing is divided into three sections. In section one we summarise the two approaches. In the second section we reflect on what the two approaches share and where they may diverge. In the final section we present how they could work together by use of a case study, and make recommendations for how to explore this potential in the future.
    • The social model and contextual safeguarding - key messages for practice

      Featherstone, Brid; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Gupta, Anna; Morris, Kate; Wroe, Lauren; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Huddersfield; University of Sheffield; University of Bedfordshire; Royal Holloway University (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-07-31)
      In this briefing we explore the relationship between Contextual Safeguarding and the Social Model of Child Protection – and the potential that may exist in bringing these two ideas together to create child protection practices that target the social conditions in which abuse occurs. The briefing is divided into three sections. In section one we summarise the two approaches. In the second section we reflect on what the two approaches share and where they may diverge. In the final section we present how they could work together by use of a case study, and make recommendations for how to explore this potential in the future.
    • Social work and the two cultures: the art and science of practice

      Cornish, Sally (SAGE, 2016-05-19)
      - - Summary Recent explorations of the nature of contemporary social work, tending to differentiate managerial and techno-rational practices from ‘real’ relationship-based interventions, are suggestive of there being an art and a science of social work, echoing Snow’s argument in his ‘Two Cultures’ lecture of 1959 about the especially English tendency to damaging divisions in academia. The concept, and the dangers Snow identified, are revisited and applied to social work in this theoretical article, with the science of practice being located in evidence-informed approaches and its art in relationship-based work. - Findings Social work has long incorporated approaches which draw on the strengths of the humanities and science ‘cultures’ respectively, and recognises what each has to offer; it may also be considered to some extent as belonging to a ‘Third Culture’, along with other applied fields. Common to any culture, however, as applied within the profession, must be its ethical base. - Applications As Snow noted, polarity between art and science can lead to common ground being lost which in social work may ultimately disadvantage service users. The professional value base provides the basis for a ‘social work culture’ as long as this is not itself divided by unconstructive schisms.
    • Social work with refugees, asylum seekers and migrants: theory and skills for practice

      Wroe, Lauren; Larkin, Rachel; Maglajlic, Reima Ana (Jessica Kingsley, 2019-08-21)
      Mass-migration, conflict and poverty are now persistent features of our globalised world. This reference book for social workers and service providers offers constructive ideas for practice within an inter-disciplinary framework. Each chapter speaks to a skill and knowledge area that is key to this work, bringing together myriad voices from across disciplines, interspersed with the vital perspectives of asylum seekers, refugees and migrants themselves. The book discusses the specific challenges faced when working in the community, and in immigration detention, in the context of social work practiced from an ethical value-base. Staying up to date with the latest developments in policy; and addressing key specific skills needed to work with people affected by borders, this book is a valuable resource for both practitioners and students.
    • Social working without borders: challenging privatisation and complicity with the hostile environment

      Wroe, Lauren; University of Bedfordshire (Policy Press, 2019-08-19)
      Social Workers Without Borders is a UK social work charity established in early 2016 to provide direct support to migrant children and families, and to scaffold this through the development of social work education and activism reflecting the principles of human rights and social justice. Reflecting on Social Workers Without Borders’ model of practice, Lauren Wroe, co-founder and trustee of Social Workers Without Borders, discusses the charity’s recent campaign against Capita and the implications of privatisation for asylum-seeking and migrant families, as well as for the ethical value base of the profession. Positioning Social Workers Without Borders as a voluntary network that ‘fills the gap’ in state services, the author discusses campaign strategies to defend the profession, and the families it supports, from the rolling back of state welfare and the rolling out of state hostility through the deregulated outsourcing of social care services.