• Book review: Death, the dead and popular culture

      Miles, Philip (SAGE, 2019-08-26)
      Book review of Penforld-Mounce, R. "Death, the dead and popular culture" Emerald:, 2018 9781787430549
    • From the ground up: young research advisors' perspectives on relationships between participation and protection

      Hamilton, CJ; Rodgers, Abbie; Howard, Keeley; Warrington, Camille; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2019-09-05)
      Purpose This contribution is co-authored by three members of the Young Researchers' Advisory Panel (YRAP) at the International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, violence and trafficking (IC) at the University of Bedfordshire, and supported by an academic researcher (Camille). The purpose of this paper is to reflect the group's discussions about the relationship between children's participation and protection, considered within the context of the group's role and work. Design/methodology/approach A collaborative reflection piece co-produced through discussions between young research advisors and academic colleagues. Findings This paper shows the young researchers' perspectives on the relationship between and interdependencies of child protection and child participation. Originality/value A unique contribution capturing children and young people's perspectives on the journal's theme and other contributions to it.
    • Children at the centre of safety: challenging the false juxtaposition of protection and participation

      Warrington, Camille; Larkins, Cath; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire (Emerald, 2019-09-05)
      Guest editorial
    • Promoting learning on reintegration of children into family-based care: implications for monitoring approaches and tools. Experiences from the RISE learning network

      Cardoso, Isabel De Bruin; Bhattacharjee, Lopa; Cody, Claire; Wakia, Joanna; Menson, Jade Tachie; Tabbia, Maricruz; RISE Learning Network; University of Bedfordshire; Retrak (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2019-10-02)
      Between 2015 and 2018, the RISE Learning Network facilitated learning on approaches, practices, methods, and tools that promote recovery and reintegration of children affected by sexual exploitation. Spanning three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean), the RISE Learning Network implemented two learning projects. The first project focused on monitoring (M&E Learning Project) and aimed to generate understanding of approaches and tools that could effectively monitor children and families? reintegration outcomes. The specific purpose of RISE is to promote learning on reintegration of children affected by sexual exploitation; however, the remit of this Learning Project was to generate evidence on the reintegration of children who have been separated from their families for a range of reasons. This is to ensure that learning from different, but often related, areas of work can be included and compared to strengthen understanding of what successful reintegration of children could look like. The mid- and end-term reviews of the M&E Learning Project have captured lessons learned on how practitioners can approach monitoring of reintegration to mainstream it into their programme cycle. Key lessons learned include the importance of focusing on monitoring outcomes through participatory tools and the benefit of flexible, peer-to-peer learning approaches between practitioners using a variety of monitoring tools. This learning contributes to the nascent evidence base on what effective and efficient capturing of reintegration outcomes on children can look like, in addition to strengthening understanding of what successful reintegration for children and families means. The learnings can inform programming; monitoring, evaluation and learning frameworks; and other interventions around reintegration to ensure the holistic wellbeing of children and families.
    • Making any difference? conceptualising the impact of safeguarding adults boards

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2019-11-25)
      Purpose Criticisms of the effectiveness of Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs) led to legislative reform in the shape of the Children and Social Work Act 2017. Given parallels between the mandates for LSCBs and Safeguarding Adults Boards (SABs), the onus is on SABs to demonstrate their effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to explore how SABs might more effectively demonstrate their impact across the range of their mandated responsibilities. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on definitions of impact from social work education, healthcare and from university research, exploring their relevance for capturing different types of data regarding the outcomes and impact of SAB activity. The paper also draws on frameworks for the process of capturing data and for implementing strategies designed to change practice and develop adult safeguarding services. Findings The paper argues that SABs have struggled to identify their impact and need to consider what types of impact they are seeking to demonstrate before choosing methods of seeking to capture that information. The paper also argues that SABs may have given insufficient thought to the process of change management, to the components needed to ensure that desired outcomes are embedded in procedural and practice change. Research limitations/implications This paper explores the challenges for SABs of identifying their impact and offers some theoretical frameworks that have defined different types of impact. The paper also draws on frameworks that identify the different components that are necessary for achieving change. This paper offers a contribution to theory building and is a response to the challenge of demonstrating the value that SABs add to adult safeguarding policy and practice. Practical implications A case study reviews the findings of the longitudinal service development and practice change initiative to embed making safeguarding personal in adult safeguarding. The findings of that initiative are mapped against the frameworks for identifying impact. Experience of implementing the initiative is mapped against the frameworks for effective implementation of change. Originality/value The paper presents frameworks for identifying the different types of outcomes and impact that SABs may achieve through their strategic business plans and for ensuring that the different components are present for the successful implementation and maintenance of change. The paper argues that the legal, policy and financial context within which SABs are located presents challenges as well as opportunities with respect to achieving and demonstrating impactful change. However, it also suggests that a more informed understanding of different types of impact may generate different approaches to data collection in order to capture what has been achieved.
    • Job demands, resources and work-related well-being in UK firefighters

      Payne, N.; Kinman, Gail; (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-11)
      Background: There is evidence that firefighters are at risk of work-related stress and mental health problems, but little is known about the organizational hazards they experience. Insight is needed into the work-related factors that are most likely to threaten or protect their work-related well-being. Aims: To identify levels of job demands and resources (including demands relating to workload, work patterns and the working environment, relationship conflicts, control, support, role clarity and change management) among firefighters, and to use a job demands-resources framework to examine their impacts on work-related well-being. The role played by recovery strategies in predicting work-related well-being was also considered. Methods: Job demands and resources were assessed by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards Indicator Tool. Validated scales measured recovery strategies (detachment, affective rumination and problem-solving pondering) and work-related well-being (anxiety-contentment and depression-enthusiasm). The impact of job demands, resources and recovery strategies was tested by multiple linear regression. Results: The sample comprised 909 firefighters across seven Fire and Rescue Services in the UK (85% male). Levels of job demands and resources did not meet HSE benchmarks. The main risk factors for poor work-related well-being were relationship conflicts and affective rumination, but resources such as role clarity and job control and the use of problem-solving pondering and detachment were beneficial. Conclusions: Interventions that aim to reduce relationship conflicts at work and promote problem-solving rather than affective rumination, and detachment from work when off-duty, are likely to improve work-related well-being. Attention to enhancing job resources may also be beneficial.
    • Coming to terms with the market: accounts of neoliberal failure and rehabilitation on the British Right

      Hoctor, Tom (Springer, 2020-06-19)
      Critique of “neoliberalism” is generally thought of as a preoccupation of the political Left. Here it will be argued that the British Right has also been developing a distinctive critique of neoliberalism and its failure, whether they thought about it in these precise terms or not. This represented an attempt by Conservative intellectuals to grapple with the enduring legacy of Thatcherism in the party. The objectives of this paper are threefold. Firstly, it will examine the contours of a distinctively Conservative description of neoliberal society by drawing on the work of Jesse Norman. Secondly, it will explain and contextualise their account of neoliberal economic failure and a possible avenue to its rehabilitation. And, thirdly, it will explain why this rehabilitation was itself a failure through a critique of Norman’s attempts to read Hayek through Burke. It concludes by observing that what civic forms of conservatism fail to offer is a thoroughgoing examination of functions that markets are unable to perform.
    • Cyberharassment Awareness Course (Cybac): influences from domestic abuse perpetrator programmes for its design and function

      Conradie, Liesl; Pitchford, Melanie; Myers, Ellie; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; Open University; University of Bedfordshire; Fatima College of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi (International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2020-06-30)
      Cyberharassment as a crime has increased significantly in recent years and is covered by legislation in the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. Cyberharassment can be targeted towards individuals or groups of people. Perpetrators can be unknown or known to their victims and the methods of harassment are diverse. The use of domestic abuse (DA) programmes for first time or low risk offenders are employed to reduce recidivism and to safeguard victims. A first step in creating a cyberharassment awareness course identified the aspects that appear to contribute to the effectiveness of these DA programmes. Various aspects contributed to the success of domestic abuse programmes and they were influential in the development of the cyberharassment awareness course. The main aspects considered and included or recommended are the need for treatment readiness, excluding some perpetrators, multi-agency working, and the location and intensity of the programme. The programmes that proved successful made use of a group contract and included individual and group work aspects, all of which were mandatory. Cognitive behaviour therapy formed the backbone of programmes and empathy awareness training was considered. The needs of individual perpetrators were to be catered to and victims included where possible.
    • Measurement properties of the suicidal behaviour questionnaire - revised in autistic adults

      Cassidy, Sarah; Bradley, Louise; Cogger-Ward, Heather; Shaw, Rebecca; Bowen, Erica; Glod, Magdalena; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rodgers, Jacqui; University of Nottingham; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2020-03-03)
      We explored the appropriateness and measurement properties of a suicidality assessment tool (SBQ-R) developed for the general population, in autistic adults-a high risk group for suicide. 188 autistic adults and 183 general population adults completed the tool online, and a sub-sample (n = 15) were interviewed while completing the tool. Multi-group factorial invariance analysis of the online survey data found evidence for metric non-invariance of the SBQ-R, particularly for items three (communication of suicidal intent) and four (likelihood of suicide attempt in the future). Cognitive interviews revealed that autistic adults did not interpret these items as intended by the tool designers. Results suggest autistic adults interpret key questions regarding suicide risk differently to the general population. Future research must adapt tools to better capture suicidality in autistic adults.
    • What and how: doing good research with young people, digital intimacies, and relationships and sex education

      Scott, Rachel H.; Smith, Clarissa; Formby, Eleanor; Hadley, Alison; Hallgarten, Lisa; Hoyle, Alice; Marston, Cicely; McKee, Alan; Tourountsis, Dimitrios (Taylor & Francis, 2020-03-17)
      As part of a project funded by the Wellcome Trust, we held a one-day symposium, bringing together researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, to discuss priorities for research on relationships and sex education (RSE) in a world where young people increasingly live, experience, and augment their relationships (whether sexual or not) within digital spaces. The introduction of statutory RSE in schools in England highlights the need to focus on improving understandings of young people and digital intimacies for its own sake, and to inform the development of learning resources. We call for more research that puts young people at its centre; foregrounds inclusivity; and allows a nuanced discussion of pleasures, harms, risks, and rewards, which can be used by those working with young people and those developing policy. Generating such research is likely to be facilitated by participation, collaboration, and communication with beneficiaries, between disciplines and across sectors. Taking such an approach, academic researchers, practitioners, and policymakers agree that we need a better understanding of RSE’s place in lifelong learning, which seeks to understand the needs of particular groups, is concerned with non-sexual relationships, and does not see digital intimacies as disconnected from offline everyday ‘reality’.
    • Hapless, helpless, hopeless: an analysis of stepmothers' talk about their (male) partners

      Roper, Sandra; Capdevila, Rose; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (SAGE, 2020-03-31)
      The identity of stepmother is, in many ways, a troubled one – constructed as “other” and often associated with notions of “wickedness” in literature and everyday talk. This paper reports findings from a study on the difficulties faced by stepmothers and how they use talk about their (male) partners, often constructing men as hapless, helpless or hopeless, to repair their “troubled” identities. The data were collected from a web forum for stepmothers based in the UK and 13 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stepmothers. The analysis took a synthetic narrative-discursive methodological approach, underpinned by feminist theory with particular attention to the discourses that were drawn on by participants and the constraints that these imposed. This paper presents these findings in relation to three constructions of their partners through which repair work was attempted: men as in need of rescue; men as flawed fathers; and men as damaged. The paper concludes with some suggestions for supporting stepmothers by challenging dominant narratives around families in talk, in the media and in government and institutional policies.
    • Black young people and gang involvement in London

      Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE, 2020-04-06)
      Drawing upon research undertaken by the present author in East, North West and South London and the work of other UK social scientists, this article considers the evidence concerning the involvement of young people of African-Caribbean origin and Mixed Heritage in street gangs and gang crime in London (For the sake of brevity, I will simply refer to these young people as Black, not least because this is how they usually define themselves). It outlines the sometimes acrimonious debate about the relationship between race, crime and street gangs in the United Kingdom in the past three decades, concluding that while many of the claims made about this relationship may be exaggerated or simply untrue, the evidence for the over-representation of Black young people in street gangs in London is compelling. The article then turns to the changing social and economic predicament of some Black young people in the capital since the 1980s and its relationship with their involvement in gang crime. Finally, it considers the role of drugs business in the proliferation of the gang form and ‘gangsta’ culture and the involvement of growing numbers of younger Black people in County Lines drug dealing.
    • The end of the line? the impact of county lines drug distribution on youth crime in a target destination

      Andell, Paul; Pitts, John (2018-01-01)
      Paul Andell and John Pitts explore, through local research, young people's gang involvement and subsequent engagement with the national and international drugs trade.
    • Supporting children’s resettlement (‘reentry’) after custody: beyond the risk paradigm

      Hazel, Neal; Bateman, Tim; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-06-07)
      In response to policy concerns in England and Wales and internationally, a considerable knowledge base has identified factors statistically associated with reduced recidivism for children leaving custodial institutions. However, despite resulting guidance on how to support resettlement (‘reentry’), practice and outcomes remain disappointing. We argue that this failure reflects weaknesses in the dominant ‘risk paradigm’, which lacks a theory of change and undermines children’s agency. We conceptualise resettlement as a pro-social identity shift. A new practice model reinterprets existing risk-based messages accordingly, and crucially adds principles to guide a child’s desistance journey. However, successful implementation may require the model to inform culture change more broadly across youth justice.
    • Tough girls: gender performance and safety within schools

      Walker, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-01-29)
      This paper explores the association between the gender rules operating within schools, harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) between pupils and the ways safety is created in these spaces. The ability and responsibility of school institutions to inform gender rules within schools is of particular focus. The paper draws on data from a mixed-methods study exploring HSB in seven secondary schools in England. Findings indicate that gendered rules not only play a role in explaining HSB in schools, they also inform discourses of safety and influence pupils’ attempts to subvert gendered harm. Drawing on research on local space, it is suggested that school institutions can work to maintain or challenge the gendered rules between pupils, and subsequently, limit or provide effective options to create pupil safety. The paper argues that schools have a responsibility to construct safe spaces for pupils by challenging harmful gender norms and behaviour.
    • The medicalisation of disabled children and young people in child sexual abuse: impacts on prevention, identification, response and recovery in the United Kingdom

      Franklin, Anita; Brady, Geraldine; Bradley, Louise; University of Portsmouth; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-02-28)
      Understandings of disability are situated within social, political and economic circumstances. Internationally, medical conceptualisations of disability prevail, influencing policy and practice, creating a discourse which encourages categorisation, diagnosis and prescribed ways of understanding behaviour. This body of knowledge has a profound influence, providing powerful explanatory models of disability. Such discourse excludes other ways of knowing, with little attention paid to competences and the construction of worlds especially from the perspectives of disabled children themselves. This article draws upon a small number of UK qualitative studies which have examined disabled child abuse and included the experiences of disabled children. These studies have highlighted how medicalised notions of disability have led to both medicalised and psychiatrised responses to abuse, which have ill-served disabled children. It could be argued that medicalisation has led to disabled children being labelled as either ‘too disabled’ to be abused or ‘not disabled enough’ to receive an appropriate response which meets their needs; they are also sometimes regarded as showing signs of mental ill health when such signs are more likely to be an understandable manifestation of the trauma of abuse. Evidence collected indicate that much can be learnt from understanding the construction of disabled childhoods and how our current limited exploration of this affects how society prevents, identifies and responds to disabled child abuse and associated trauma. Drawing upon disabled children’s recommendations to ‘see me, hear me and understand me’, this article will argue that in order to protect disabled children and support them to recover from abuse, we need to move away from a tick-box culture of medicalising, categorising, psychiatrising and ‘othering’ to a greater understanding of disabled children’s worlds, and to a rights-based model of disabled child protection whereby we challenge the increased barriers to support faced by disabled children who have experienced abuse.