• Validity of the Working Alliance Inventory within child protection services

      Killian, Mike; Forrester, Donald; Westlake, David; Antonopoulou, Vivi (SAGE, 2015-07-27)
      The Working Alliance Inventory remains a widely studied measure of quality of therapeutic relationships between the practitioner and client. No prior study has examined the psychometrics and validity of the Working Alliance Inventory–Short (WAI-S) in a sample of families, social workers, and trained observers within child protection services. Surveys were completed by 130 families, social workers concerning 274 cases, and observers following 165 home visits during the first wave of data collected from a randomized controlled trial of child protection services. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on three versions of the WAI-S and demonstrated moderate to good model fit. Convergent construct validity was found with other standardized measures. Results support the use of the WAI-S during in child protection services practice and research. Future research into family engagement in child protection social work services should focus on the working relationship.
    • Valuing families' preferences for drug treatment: a discrete choice experiment

      Shanahan, Marian; Seddon, Jennifer L.; Ritter, Alison; De Abreu Lourenco, Richard; University of New South Wales; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2019-09-10)
      The burden on family members of those who are dependent on illicit drugs is largely unidentified despite the presence of significant negative financial, health and social impacts. This makes it difficult to provide appropriate services and support. This study aimed to assess the preferences for treatment attributes for heroin dependence among family members affected by the drug use of a relative and to obtain a measure of the intangible economic benefit. Discrete choice experiment. Data were analysed using mixed logit which accounted for repeated responses. Australia PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were Australian residents of 18+ years of age with a relative with problematic drug use. Complete data on 237 respondents were analysed; 21 invalid responses were deleted. Participant preference for likelihood of staying in treatment, family conflict, own health status, contact with police and monetary contribution to a charitable organisation providing treatment. All attributes were significant, and the results suggest there was a preference for longer time in treatment, less family discord, better own health status, less likelihood of their relative encountering police, and while they were willing to contribute to a charity for treatment to be available, they prefer to pay less not more. In order of relative importance, participants were willing to pay an additional $4.46 (95% CI 3.33-5.60) for treatment which resulted in an additional 1% of heroin users staying in treatment for longer than 3 months, $42.00 (95% CI 28.30-55.69) to avoid 5 days per week of family discord, $87.94 (95% CI 64.41-111.48) for treatment options that led to an improvement in their own health status, and $129.66 (95% CI 53.50-205.87) for each 1% decline in the chance of police contact. Drug treatment in Australia appears to have intangible benefits for affected family members. Families are willing to pay for treatment which reduces family discord, improves their own health, increases time in treatment and reduces contact with police. BACKGROUND AND AIMS DESIGN SETTING MEASUREMENTS FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS
    • Ventriloquation and ghostwriting as responses to oppression in therapy

      Simon, Gail (Wiley, 2016-07-02)
      Background People coming to therapy as part of their recovery from torture may choose not to speak or write about their experiences, yet the process of seeking asylum requires that they must hand over their life stories for a true–false adjudication with potentially life and death consequences. When people have been silenced and speaking has become dangerous, there are major ethical challenges for the activist practitioner who, along with the person who has experienced torture, sees the importance of stories not only being understood and shared in ways which are factual but which contain truth. Methods I share my experiments with writing as a form of inquiry, specifically ghostwriting and ventriloquation. Findings These have the effects of (1) moving the therapeutic process into a collaborative inquiry between the client, an asylum seeker, and me as both counsellor and expert witness; (2) letting fictionalised tellings of ‘real life’ reveal the hidden and complex life stories of clients and counsellors and (3) sharing stories which would otherwise remain hidden and risk perpetuating oppressive practices. Implications for practice Ghostwriting and ventriloquation offer the practitioner-researcher ways of speaking from a first-person position, from ‘within’ experience rather than a distanced ‘about-ness’ position. In this dialogical writing, I use actual and imagined inner and outer voices to enable the sound of talk and thought to be reflexively and empathically heard and felt by readers. Relational ethics are considered in how to imagine the other and manage ownership of stories without reproducing oppressive practices.
    • Victim Support's Adult survivors of child sexual abuse project: an evaluation of a co-created service delivery model

      Allnock, Debra; Wager, Nadia; Victim Support; University of Bedfordshire (Victim Support, 2016-06-13)
      Victim Support (VS), in partnership with the National Association for People Abused in Childhood (NAPAC), was successful in obtaining funding from the Child Abuse Inquiry Fund to develop a strengthened service response to adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The original aim of this work, as cited by Victim Support, was to: Create a robust and evidenced model for wrap-around support, based on existing proven frameworks, academic review and input from other expert services and survivors of CSA. The model that was developed, and which constitutes the subject of this report, is known  as the Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse  (or See website for details of funding pots: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/child-sexual-abuse-inquiry-2m-funding-boost-for-victims ASCSA, for short) project. The project was informed by an evidence review carried out by the University of Bedfordshire prior to the start of the project. It was then fully developed through a process of ‘co-creation’, involving Victim Support staff and adult survivors of CSA (hereafter referred to as ‘consultants’. The University of Bedfordshire has evaluated the experiences of co-creation and this report presents these findings and recommendations for future service development using a co-creation model.
    • Victims’ voices: understanding the emotional impact of cyberstalking and individuals’ coping responses

      Worsley, Joanne D.; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; Short, Emma; Corcoran, Rhiannon (SAGE, 2017-05-23)
      Recent quantitative research has identified similar detrimental effects on victims of cyberstalking as those that arise from traditional stalking. The current study thematically analyzed one hundred victim narratives gathered by means of an online survey with a view to assessing the mental health and well-being implications of the experience of cyberstalking. Coping strategies employed by victims and the perceived effectiveness of each strategy were also explored. The findings suggest that the emotional impact of cyberstalking predominantly includes comorbid anxiety and depression. Common coping strategies adopted by victims in our sample include avoidant coping, ignoring the perpetrator, confrontational coping, support seeking, and cognitive reframing. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the ramifications of cyberstalking are widespread, affecting psychological, social, interpersonal, and economic aspects of life. To adapt, some victims made major changes to both their work and social life, with some ceasing employment and others modifying their usual daily activities. The widespread negative effects of cyberstalking identified in this study highlight that this phenomenon should be a concern to both legal and mental health professionals, particularly as the comments made by our sample illustrate the current inadequacy of response and provision. Recommendations are discussed and provided for law enforcement and mental health professionals.
    • Violence and alternative care: a rapid review of the evidence

      Brodie, Isabelle; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor Francis, 2017-02-06)
      This paper focuses on the mechanisms through which international policy and practice relating to the safeguarding of children and young people living in alternative care is being implemented in national policy and practice. It is based on a rapid review of the evidence regarding the violence experienced by children and young people living in different forms of alternative care internationally. The evidence base indicates that children living in alternative care are especially vulnerable to violence and abuse, prior to and during their care experience and also in the longer term. The introduction of the UN Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children has encouraged greater attention to this issue. The paper concludes that progress is variable according to a range of political, economic and social factors, and that greater attention to practice at national and community levels is required if more effective safeguarding practice is required. A more sophisticated evidence base is required to support this.
    • Violence and alternative care: a rapid review of the evidence

      Brodie, Isabelle; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2017-02-06)
      This article gives an overview of the international literature pertaining to the nature and impact of violence against children who are accommodated within alternative care provision 
    • Virtuous circles : theorising the impact of Parents Against Child Sexual Exploitation (Pace) : discussion paper

      Shuker, Lucie; Parents Against Child Sexual Exploitation; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-09-01)
      ‘Parents against child sexual exploitation’ (Pace) is a charity that supports the parents and carers of children who are, or are at risk of being, sexually exploited by perpetrators external to the family. Between 2014-17 Pace delivered the grant-funded project ‘Parents as partners in safeguarding children and young people in Lancashire’, which centred around the work of a Parent Liaison Officer (PLO) placed in the multiagency ‘Engage’ child sexual exploitation (CSE) team in East Lancashire.1 The project was evaluated by the ‘International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, violence and trafficking’ (IC) at the University of Bedfordshire.2 Our evaluation (Shuker and Ackerley, 2017) confirmed the findings of other evaluations of the work of Pace in demonstrating that the PLO contributed to positive outcomes for both parents and professional partners. The evaluation also highlighted the scope for the ‘relational safeguarding model’ used in the project to be developed further through a clearer articulation of the links between the PLO’s activities and the outcomes they achieved. This discussion paper aims to support that process by reviewing three of the key outcomes achieved by the PLO (increased parental understanding, empowerment and resilience) and suggesting that together they create a virtuous circle. In the model of a virtuous circle, the PLO’s support for parents improves outcomes, which in turn can have a positive impact on professionals’ interactions with the family and relationships within the home – both of which continue to reinforce positive outcomes for parents and their children. At its simplest, this theory of change asserts that when the family unit is strengthened, parents and other family members are empowered to work alongside statutory agencies to safeguard the child.
    • Visible but invisible: people living with disability in Nigeria

      Sango, Precious Nonye (2013-11-14)
      Nigeria is estimated to have a population of 169 million; although it is argued that the country had not had any credible census since 1816. Based on the World Report on Disability approximately 25 million Nigerians have a disability, with 3.5 million of these having very significant difficulties in social and physical functioning. These disabilities include physical and intellectual developmental conditions. Regardless of the large number of people with disabilities in Nigeria, little support, if any is given to individuals living with disabilities. These individuals are often excluded from social, economic and political affairs in the society. The most common avenue of social aid for people with disabilities is usually through families. non-governmental organisations and religious organisations.
    • 'Vulnerability' to human trafficking : a study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: report of a shared learning event held in Hanoi, Viet Nam 6-7 December 2017

      Hynes, Patricia; Burland, Patrick; Dew, Jenniffer; Tran, Hong Thi; Priest, Paul; Thurnham, Angela; Brodie, Isabelle; Spring, Deborah; Murray, Fraser; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2018-09-01)
      Report describes the first stages of an ethically-led, two year research study into understanding the causes, dynamics, 'vulnerabilities' to and capabilities against human trafficking in three source countries - Viet Nam, Albania and Nigeria. The focus of this report is on Viet Nam, detailing emergent themese following a two-day Shared Learning Event held in Hanoi, Viet Nam, between 6-7 December 2017.
    • 'Vulnerability' to human trafficking : a study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: report of a shared learning event in Lagos, Nigeria, 17-18 January 2018

      Hynes, Patricia; Gani-Yusuf, Lola; Burland, Patrick; Dew, Jenniffer; Olatunde, Aye; Thurnham, Angela; Brodie, Isabelle; Spring, Deborah; Murray, Fraser; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2018-10-01)
      Report describes the first stages of an ethically-led, two year research study into understanding the causes, dynamics, 'vulnerabilities' to and capabilities against human trafficking in three source countries - Viet Nam, Albania and Nigeria. The focus of this report is on Viet Nam, detailing emergent themese following a two-day Shared Learning Event held in Lagos, Nigeria, between 17-18 January 2018. 
    • 'Vulnerability' to human trafficking : a study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK: report of a shared learning event in Tirana, Albania, 24-26 October 2017

      Hynes, Patricia; Burland, Patrick; Dew, Jenniffer; Lenja, Valbona; Gaxha, Alketa; Thurnham, Angela; Brodie, Isabelle; Spring, Deborah; Murray, Fraser; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2018-07-01)
      Report describes the first stages of an ethically-led, two year research study into understanding the causes, dynamics, 'vulnerabilities' to and capabilities against human trafficking in three source countries - Albania, Viet Nam and Nigeria. The focus of this report is on Viet Nam, detailing emergent themese following a two-day Shared Learning Event held in Tirana, Albania between 24-26 October 2017.
    • 'Vulnerability' to human trafficking: a study of Viet Nam, Albania, Nigeria and the UK : literature review

      Brodie, Isabelle; Spring, Deborah; Hynes, Patricia; Burland, Patrick; Dew, Jenniffer; Gani-Yusuf, Lola; Tran, Hong Thi; Lenja, Valbona; Thurnham, Angela; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2018-11-01)
      Literature Review 
    • Waltharius and Carolingian morality: satire and lay values

      Stone, Rachel; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2013-01-07)
    • Watching over or working with? understanding social work innovation in response to extra-familial harm

      Wroe, Lauren; Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Social Sciences, 2020-04-01)
      This paper critically reflects on the role of surveillance and trusted relationships in social work in England and Wales. It explores the characteristics of relationships of trust and relationships of surveillance and asks how these approaches apply to emerging policy and practices responses to extra-familial forms of harm (EFH). Five bodies of research that explore safeguarding responses across a range of public bodies are drawn on to present an analytical framework that explores elements of safeguarding responses, constituting relationships of trust or relationships of surveillance and control. This analytic framework is applied to two case studies, each of which detail a recent practice innovation in response to EFH studied by the authors, as part of a larger body of work under the Contextual Safeguarding programme. The application of this framework signals a number of critical issues related to the focus/rationale, methods and impact of interventions into EFH that should be considered in future work to address EFH, to ensure young people’s rights to privacy and participation are upheld.
    • ‘We are not objects, we are not things’: ethnic minority women’s views of the UK home office immigration campaigns

      Dhaliwal, Sukhwant (Springer, 2016-05-01)
      The lead-up to the 2015 general election in the United Kingdom included considerable discussion about how to encourage women to vote (Grice, 2015). A poll conducted by TNS BMRB for BBC Radio Four ‘Woman’s Hour’ found that immigration was one of the top five concerns for the women who they polled (What do women think about the general election?, 2015). The same survey drew additional insights from a focus group session with six women from Bexleyheath in Southeast London. It seems that these six women viewed immigration as a problem, but, other than a passing reference to border controls and the impact of global elites on London’s house prices, there is little detail about what their specific concerns centred upon or stemmed from. This can be contrasted with interviewees on the Mapping Immigration Controversy (MIC) project1 who suggested that references to immigration can act as a proxy for other grievances, particularly concerns about the economy, access to housing, health care and education. Furthermore, the MIC surveys found that it is difficult to capture, statistically, the multiple factors that are encompassed when individuals say they are concerned about immigration (Jones et al., 2014; Bhattacharyya, 2013). In this short note, I will reflect on some of the key findings from two focus group sessions with ethnic minority women, and on the possibility that anti-immigration campaigns have the effect of making them think that their vote is far less important than the white majority vote. Renewed debates about intersectionality within the United Kingdom, and beyond, should remind us that women do not speak with one voice; Home Office messages on immigration could be received differently by women depending on the way that they experience multiple axes of power. The women who feel the impact of the Home Office’s immigration campaigns most acutely may be from ethnic minorities and particularly (but not only) those subject to immigration controls. It is not clear how many of the Bexleyheath focus group participants were from minority communities. In contrast, the MIC project held two focus groups to specifically gauge the views of ethnic minority women.
    • ‘We have personal experience to share, it makes it real’: young people's views on their role in sexual violence prevention efforts

      Cody, Claire (Elsevier Ltd, 2017-06-07)
      Young people, particularly those affected by sexual violence, are rarely asked about their views on sexual violence prevention initiatives. Forty seven children and young people (aged between 11 and 25) from Albania, Bulgaria and England took part in a series of consultation workshops exploring sexual violence. This article outlines their views and recommendations in relation to the role of young people in prevention work. Young people are clear that they have a role to play when it comes to reaching and informing their peers. They are also aware of the risks of engagement and cognisant of the need for support and training. The consultation findings contribute to the limited evidence base surrounding young people's views on sexual violence prevention. The article illustrates the valuable insights and contributions that children and young people, particularly those affected by the issues, can make to the field. This calls for a shift in how we view and engage children and young people in shaping future sexual violence prevention strategies and projects.
    • 'Wet' care homes for older people with refractory alcohol problems: a qualitative study

      McCann, Michelle; Wadd, Sarah; Crofts, Gill; University of Bedfordshire (Alcohol Research UK, 2017-08-04)
      Background This study describes a registered care home in England and a registered nursing home in Norway which provide permanent care for alcohol-dependent older people who are unable or unwilling to stop drinking and cannot maintain an adequate standard of self-care and/or live independently. Prior to admission, most residents have been living unsafely in their own home or were homeless. They have high levels of contact with health, social and criminal justice services and complex needs as a result of mental illness, poor physical health and physical disabilities. Most have lost contact with their families. The aim is to stabilise drinking, physical and mental health and improve quality of life. The homes are based on a harm reduction philosophy, that is, they focus on strategies to reduce harm from high-risk alcohol use, rather than insisting on abstinence. Residents can drink as much alcohol as they want on the premises but staff encourage them to drink less and in a less harmful way (e.g. spreading drinking throughout the day and having ‘dry’ days). Method We carried out interviews and focus groups with staff and residents, observed verbal exchanges, experiences and routines in communal areas, took field notes during staff rounds and analysed documents such as care plans for individual residents. Key findings • Most residents’ drinking, physical and mental health stabilises and their use of health, social and criminal justice services reduces following admission. • This is achieved by encouraging less harmful drinking, providing on-site health care, assistance with medication and self-care and provision of nutritious meals and social activities. • Wet care homes are viewed by some residents as a safe refuge which has improved their quality of life. • Other residents are frustrated by a lack of personal autonomy. • Suitable outcomes include improved hygiene and nutrition, increased self-esteem, better compliance with healthcare, healthier living which is not entirely alcohol focused and more hope for the future. • Homes should have processes in place to collect quantitative measures which provide clear evidence of impact.