• Ofsted and children’s services: what performance indicators and other factors are associated with better inspection results?

      Wilkins, David; Antonopoulou, Vivi; University of Bedfordshire; Cardiff University (Oxford University Press, 2018-11-26)
      ‘Failing’ an Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) inspection has severe consequences for a local authority. Senior managers may lose their jobs and the workforce as a whole can be destabilised. In extreme cases, central government can decide the authority is no longer capable of running children’s services. On the other hand, receiving positive Ofsted judgements often brings with it a national reputation for excellence. This study reports the findings of an analysis of key performance indicators, expenditure and deprivation in relation to Ofsted inspections for eighty-seven local authorities in England undertaken between 2014 and 2016. Our aim was to examine the association between these factors and Ofsted judgements. Our findings suggest that, for most of the factors we considered, there is no clear pattern of better or worse performance between local authorities with different Ofsted ratings. However, ‘good’ and ‘outstanding’ authorities tend to outperform other authorities in relation to some procedural variables. By itself, the level of local-authority deprivation was most clearly associated with the Ofsted rating and expenditure was associated with the authority’s deprivation level, but not their Ofsted judgement. Comparisons are made with the Department of Education’s concept of ‘value-added’ education in relation to schools.
    • The older adult

      Wadd, Sarah (CRC Press, 2017-05-02)
    • On (not) learning from self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021-07-09)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews (SARs) and accompanying thematic analysis. It also explores whether lessons are being learned from the findings and recommendations of an increasing number of reviews on self-neglect cases. Design/methodology/approach: Further published reviews are added to the core data set, mainly drawn from the websites of safeguarding adults boards (SABs). Thematic analysis is updated using the domains used previously. The domains and the thematic analysis are grounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Findings: Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent. Some SABs are having to return to further cases of self-neglect to review, inviting scrutiny of what is (not) being learned from earlier findings and recommendations. Research limitations/implications: The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. National Health Service Digital annual data sets do not enable the identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. However, the first national analysis of SARs has found self-neglect to be the most prominent type of abuse and/or neglect reviewed. Drawing together the findings builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications: Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for SARs. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question. Greater scrutiny is needed of the impact of the national legal, policy and financial context within which adult safeguarding is situated. Originality/value: The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on study with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. Propositions are explored, concerned with whether learning is being maximised from the process of case review.
    • On self-neglect and safeguarding adult reviews: diminishing returns or adding value?

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (2017-02-15)
      Purpose: One purpose is to update the core data set of self-neglect serious case reviews and safeguarding adult reviews, and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to respond to the critique in the Wood Report of serious case reviews commissioned by Local Safeguarding Children Boards by exploring the degree to which the reviews scrutinised here can transform and improve the quality of adult safeguarding practice. Design/Methodology/approach: Further published reviews are added to the core data set from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards and from contacts with SAB Independent Chairs and Business Managers. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The findings are then further used to respond to the critique in the Wood Report of serious case reviews commissioned by Local Safeguarding Children Boards, with implications discussed for Safeguarding Adult Boards. Findings: Thematic analysis within and recommendations from reviews have tended to focus on the micro context, namely what takes place between individual practitioners, their teams and adults who self-neglect. This level of analysis enables an understanding of local geography. However, there are other wider systems that impact on and influence this work. If review findings and recommendations are to fully answer the question “why”, systemic analysis should appreciate the influence of national geography. Review findings and recommendations may also be used to contest the critique of reviews, namely that they fail to engage practitioners, are insufficiently systemic and of variable quality, and generate repetitive findings from which lessons are not learned. Research limitations/implications: There is still no national database of reviews commissioned by SABs so the data set reported here might be incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. This makes learning for service improvement challenging. Reading the reviews reported here against the strands in the critique of serious case reviews enables conclusions to be reached about their potential to transform adult safeguarding policy and practice. Practical implications: Answering the question “why” is a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. Different approaches have been recommended, some rooted in systems theory. The critique of serious case reviews challenges those now engaged in safeguarding adult reviews to reflect on how transformational change can be achieved to improve the quality of adult safeguarding policy and practice. Social implications: Originality/value: The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further building on the evidence base for practice. The paper also contributes new perspectives to the process of conducting safeguarding adult reviews by using the analysis of themes and recommendations within this data set to evaluate the critique that reviews are insufficiently systemic, fail to engage those involved in reviewed cases and in their repetitive conclusions demonstrate that lessons are not being learned.
    • Opportunities for peer safeguarding intervention: a briefing following fieldwork with Safer London

      Latimer, Katie; Adams Elias, Carly; Firmin, Carlene Emma; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-09-30)
      Young people’s peer relationships are significant to their wellbeing and safety. Peers can be a source of both risk and protection, sometimes simultaneously. This briefing shares learning from a research project that explored the potential for peer interventions within Safer London, a voluntary sector support service for young Londoners affected by exploitation or violence. It is co-authored by Katie Latimer from the Contextual Safeguarding Research Project at the University of Bedfordshire and Carly Adams Elias, Organisational Lead for Exploitation at Safer London. The authors reflect the principal learning from the original study, which took place between August and December 2019 and was presented in an internal report to Safer London in January 2020. This briefing also shares additional detailed examples of work within Safer London as the organisation continues to develop safeguarding interventions that work with the significant social relationships in young people’s lives. The following findings are presented below: 1. Peer interventions take various forms: safeguarding work with peers can involve group work with connected young people, but this is not always the case. 2. Peer interventions are most appropriately used alongside other practice that understands and intervenes with the social conditions of abuse, including interventions with other extra-familial contexts. 3. Peer relationships can be protective and, for this reason, relevant to safeguarding 4. Practitioners can work with peer relationships without necessarily identifying all the connected young people concerned
    • Out of borough placements for London's looked after children

      Brodie, Isabelle; Christie, Christine; Cosis-Brown, Helen; Dance, Cherilyn; Prokop, Joan; University of Bedfordshire; Channon Consulting (London Councils, 2014-10-15)
      London Councils commissioned the University of Bedfordshire and Channon Consulting to undertake a research study to examine the use of and approaches to commissioning out-of-area placements for children in care in London. The study was undertaken between November 2013 and March 2014. The research took place in a policy and practice context where there is ongoing concern regarding how best to meet the complex needs of children in care, and the extent to which out of area placements are helpful. The study aims to provide a detailed picture of the current use of out-of-area placements in London boroughs; the challenges and opportunities associated with this and how policy and practice might be improved in respect to the use of out-of-area placements in London. The study found: * When viewed in terms of the proportion of looked after children placed within 20 miles of home, London is generally in line with other regions in England. * London’s proportion of LAC placed out of borough is not markedly different from other small or urban authorities. * There is an upward trend in terms of the levels of LAC placed within 20 miles of home across almost all regions of England, including London. * There is a need to avoid demonising out of area placements as invariably representing poor practice. Evidence gathered through this report suggests that LAC are placed out of area primarily to access more specialist provision that is better able to meet their needs. The assessment of placements should be, and is, driven by consideration of a range of factors, of which distance is one. * Data from all sources indicated the variability of use of out of area placements.  It is clear that there is no one picture for London as a whole.  The effective use of data in scoping and analysing the local picture within individual boroughs and neighbouring boroughs is therefore an important element in ensuring greater clarity about how effectively these placements are being used. * There are a number of trends affecting the availability of residential provision.  While commissioners are committed to using high quality provision, there are concerns that Ofsted ratings are not always helpful in supporting smaller providers. It was generally agreed that a mixed economy of provision, with a range of local providers as well as more specialist settings, was the preferred option for commissioners to meet the varied needs of their LAC cohorts. Good assessment and the ability to translate this into clear requirements for providers was viewed as essential to improving the matching of individual needs to placements. * While there was evidence of some good practice, the findings from the study emphasise the need for greater consistency in ensuring that children and young people placed out of area have access to good health and education services to improve longer term outcomes.  Specific difficulties were associated with access to CAMHS services and housing for care leavers.  These findings indicate the need for reconsideration of how responsibility for children and young people in care can be shared across authorities, regardless of their home local authority.
    • Outreach work : child sexual exploitation : a rapid evidence assessment

      Bovarnick, Silvie; McNeish, Di; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire; DSMS; Barnardo's (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-09-01)
      This briefing is based on a rapid review of the available literature on outreach work with children and young people. It is intended to provide the ReachOut project with an overview of different approaches to outreach; what it generally aims to achieve; what distinguishes it from centre--‐based work and how it is applicable to children and young people involved in, or at risk of, child sexual exploitation. We highlight what is known about ‘detached’ and other approaches that aim to reach vulnerable populations who are not accessing mainstream services. We hope it will be useful in informing ReachOut’s thinking about the role and value of its own outreach activities.
    • Overlooked husbands: the paradox of unfree marriage in the Carolingian world

      Stone, Rachel (Wiley, 2021-01-17)
      Unfree people in the Roman world could not legally marry, while they could in the Middle Ages. This paper explores the marriage of the unfree in the Carolingian empire (750–900 CE), a society with an intense moral concern about marriage. Carolingian churchmen wrote extensively about marriage, using a strongly gendered discourse focusing on how men should approach marriage and behave as husbands. However, these moral and legal texts rarely discussed unfree marriage, even though the practice was common. It is argued that this silence reflects the persistence of late antique class‐based gender models, in which masculinity was reserved for married property holders. Although legal prohibitions on unfree marriages had ended, Carolingian moralists continued to be influenced by patristic assumptions that these were not valid relationships. These assumptions, combined with Frankish social practices that largely excluded unfree men from other key male roles, such as arms‐bearing, meant that unfree husbands were not conceptualised as sufficiently ‘manly’ to have their marriages discussed. It is only from the tenth century onwards, when images of masculinity began to fragment more along lines of social status, that authors began explicitly to state that the Christian ideas of marriage applied to all, free and unfree.
    • The participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services: a scoping review of the literature

      Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01-10)
      This is a scoping review of the literature which focuses on the participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services.  The review is part of the Alexi Project, which involves an evaluation of the CSEFA Hub and Spoke services in England. The review aims to develop understanding of the concept of participation and the nature of effective participatory practice in the context of child sexual exploitation services. It has taken place between September 2015 and April 2016. The review focuses on the following questions: • How is ‘participation’ of young people in CSE services conceptualised in the research, policy and professional literature? • How explicit is the policy requirement for children and young people’s participation in the processes associated with assessment, planning and review and what evidence exists regarding the implementation and/or effectiveness of these processes? • What evidence exists regarding the nature of the experience of participation, and its impact, from the perspectives of young people, parents and carers, and professionals? • What evidence exists regarding the conditions that need to be in place to make participative working possible and effective for different groups of CSE affected young people? • What evidence exists regarding the replicability of participative models?
    • Participatory peer research methodology: an effective method for obtaining young people’s perspectives on transitions from care to adulthood?

      Lushey, Clare J.; Munro, Emily (SAGE, 2014-11-21)
      Peer research has the potential to empower young people to participate in research by minimising power imbalances between researchers and participants; this may reduce bias and promote improved understanding to inform policy and practice. However, these benefits are not automatic; the relative inexperience of peer researchers adds layers of complexity to the research process. Moreover, the validity of findings from research adopting less traditional methods may be questioned and policy makers may be cautious about accepting this evidence, thus limiting its contribution and impact. This paper explores the advancement of participatory peer researcher methodology in research with children in and leaving care and ethical, practical and data quality issues that arose in two studies exploring young people’s transitions from care to adulthood. It concludes that the peer research methodology can yield rich data but that adequate resources and effective research management are crucial. The authors also caution against a reductionist approach that privileges peer research methodology above other methods of inquiry in the study of transitions from care to adulthood.
    • Partners in practice: developing integrated learning opportunities on the Frontline child and family social work qualifying programme

      Domakin, Alison; Curry, Liz (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2017-08-23)
      The Frontline programme is a social work qualifying route, in England, featuring a different approach to curriculum design and delivery. Students are based in groups of 4, learning through practicing social work in a statutory child and family social work setting, alongside a Consultant Social Worker (in the role of practice educator). They are also supported by an Academic Tutor who works in partnership with the Consultant Social Worker to facilitate learning. A weekly “unit meeting” is a foundational aspect of the programme, providing opportunities for in-depth discussion, teaching, and reflection on practice with families. The authors worked together over the first 2 cohorts of the programme and undertook action research to explore the learning opportunities that arise when academic staff and practitioners work side by side to support student learning in this model. Three broad themes were identified which were considered to be significant in helping students to learn which are explored in the paper: Learning through engaging in joint dialogue about practice in a unit meeting The influence of relationships on learning in social work The importance of a connected model of learning which has practice with children and families at its heart.
    • Pathways into and out of organised crime

      Pitts, John; Hope, T.; Hurley, M.; McGibbon, I. (Greater Manchester Police, 2015-12-01)
    • Pathways of disadvantage: walking as a mode of transport among low-income mothers

      Bostock, Lisa (Wiley, 2000-09-09)
      Research shows that lack of car ownership is associated with poorer health. It is often assumed that the reason for this observed relationship is that access to a car ‹ or not ‹ reflects access to household assets. Consequently, lack of car ownership is used as a standard marker of low socio-economic status. However, little attention has been paid to the experience of carlessness in the context of disadvantaged lives. This paper argues that 'no access to a car' is not only an indicator of low socio-economic status but of walking as a mode of transport. These arguments are illustrated by data from a study of 30 low-income mothers with young children. Although walking is promoted as both an excellent and inexpensive form of exercise, these data suggest that reliance on walking can have negative effects on the welfare of families. The paper draws on qualitative data to describe the ways in which carlessness restricts access to health and social care resources such as food shops, health-care services and social networks. It also explores the impact of walking on the well being of mothers and their day-to-day relationships with children. This is compounded by walking through areas that are neglected and depressed. The paper concludes that strategies to reduce social exclusion must recognise the contradictory health effects of walking and aim to regenerate the physical fabric of social housing estates as well as improve public transport options.
    • Pedagogical love in Finland and Australia: a study of refugee children and their teachers

      Kaukko, Mervi; Wilkinson, Jane; Kohli, Ravi K.S. (Taylor and Francis, 2021-01-05)
      After claiming asylum, refugee children work to re-build their worlds across three dimensions: safety, belonging, and success. This article examines the pedagogical practices that support this work arguing that a key, but under-examined practice draws on what we have termed pedagogical love. Building on a qualitative Finnish-Australian study, we suggest that as refugee students enter schools in their host countries, pedagogical love can be created through teacher-student interactions in a range of ways despite limited shared language. Later, pedagogical practices that foster a nurturing classroom environment and help students to build a sense of belonging become increasingly important. As students settle in their schools and societies, teachers showing a belief both in the child and their contribution to their new society are crucial. We understand that these actions may be described as teachers’ professional duty of care. Yet our findings show that teachers went beyond this duty by opening their minds and hearts to the students’ lived conditions, engaging with their histories, and constantly shaping their pedagogy accordingly. These practices, we argue, are forms of pedagogical love.
    • Peer group mapping: practitioners briefing: Learning Project 2 summary of findings

      Atkinson, Ruth; Fritz, Danielle; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2017-07-31)
      The purpose of Learning Project 2 was to understand how practitioners develop and use peer-group maps and/or generate knowledge on a young person’s peer associations in order to assess their vulnerability and/or as a means of developing a plan to keep them safe. In this briefing we highlight benefits of peer group mapping ,pulling out examples of good practice and enablers for effective implementation, as well as outlining ethical considerations and practical barriers that practitioners are facing. The Learning Project was informed by practitioners operating in a range of sectors as well as insights and experience gathered from Ms Understood audits in 14 sites.
    • Peer support for young people who have experienced sexual violence - tensions, challenges and strategies: briefing paper four

      Cody, Claire; Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-04-30)
      This briefing is based on exploratory research into ‘peer support’ for young people who have experienced sexual violence . For the purposes of this briefing, ‘peer support’ is defined as a formalised supportive relationship between individuals who have lived experience of sexual violence in common. This briefing paper explores the perspectives of those designing peer support initiatives together with those in peer supporter roles for young people affected by sexual violence . This paper focusses on one area of the findings – the risks, tensions and challenges associated with peer support interventions. It explores four different themes: The target group involved in peer support interventions; Organisational systems, processes and culture; Recruitment of peer supporters and; Challenges experienced by peer supporters when in the job. For each theme tensions, challenges and potential strategies are outlined.
    • Peer support for young people who have experienced sexual violence - the value: research findings: briefing paper three

      Cody, Claire; Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-04-30)
      This briefing is based on exploratory research into ‘peer support’ for young people who have experienced sexual violence. For the purposes of this briefing, ‘peer support’ is defined as a formalised supportive relationship between individuals who have lived experience of sexual violence in common3 . This briefing paper explores the perspectives of those designing peer support initiatives together with those in peer supporter roles for young people affected by sexual violence. This paper focusses on one area of the findings related to the perceived value for those: receiving peer based support; giving support and; organisations supporting such initiatives. The paper also reflects on the implications of this for practice and future research.
    • Peer support for young people who have experienced sexual violence? the rationale and key themes from the literature: briefing paper two

      Cody, Claire; Peace, Delphine; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-04-30)
      This briefing is based on a review of the literature that was carried out in preparation for a scoping study that aimed to learn lessons from those engaged in peer support interventions for young people who had experienced sexual violence. This briefing paper: Provides a rationale outlining why there may be value in peer support interventions for young people who have experienced sexual violence. Considers the spectrum of activities that have elements of peer based work. Outlines key themes from the limited existing research on peer support for those impacted by sexual violence. Outlines relevant themes arising in the broader literature on peer support.
    • Peer support interventions for safeguarding: a scoping review

      Brodie, Isabelle; Latimer, Katie; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-09-22)
      This literature review presents five forms of peer (support) intervention, along with their key features, potential benefits and considerations for practice. This document summarises the research background to the review, and its methodology, before turning to the findings and conclusions. This review was conducted alongside a study with voluntary sector organisation Safer London, to consider the opportunities to develop safeguarding interventions based on peer support.
    • Peer-on-peer abuse and exploitation: the role of youth offending services in building a local response

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; MsUnderstood Partnership; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-07-19)
      Youth offending services throughout England and Wales are at the forefront of working with and supporting young people who have been abused by, and/or who abuse, their peers. This briefing paper highlights the role of youth offending services in building responses to peer-on-peer abuse, and is the third in the series published by the MsUnderstood Partnership1 (MSU) to assist the development of local practice. Following briefings on the nature of peer-on-peer abuse and ways to audit local practices, this document draws upon work underway in the eleven MSU sites, in addition to wider research, to explore: a) approaches being taken by youth offending services around the country to map and intervene with peer networks affected by peer-on-peer abuse b) ways in which the new assessment tool ‘AssetPlus’ can assist in the identification of young people affected by peer-on-peer abuse c) how intervention plans can adopt a contextual approach to safeguarding young people from peer-on-peer abuse