• Made in Little India

      Dhaliwal, Sukhwant (Lawrence & Wishart, 2014-07-01)
    • Making any difference? conceptualising the impact of safeguarding adults boards

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2019-11-25)
      Purpose Criticisms of the effectiveness of Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs) led to legislative reform in the shape of the Children and Social Work Act 2017. Given parallels between the mandates for LSCBs and Safeguarding Adults Boards (SABs), the onus is on SABs to demonstrate their effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to explore how SABs might more effectively demonstrate their impact across the range of their mandated responsibilities. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on definitions of impact from social work education, healthcare and from university research, exploring their relevance for capturing different types of data regarding the outcomes and impact of SAB activity. The paper also draws on frameworks for the process of capturing data and for implementing strategies designed to change practice and develop adult safeguarding services. Findings The paper argues that SABs have struggled to identify their impact and need to consider what types of impact they are seeking to demonstrate before choosing methods of seeking to capture that information. The paper also argues that SABs may have given insufficient thought to the process of change management, to the components needed to ensure that desired outcomes are embedded in procedural and practice change. Research limitations/implications This paper explores the challenges for SABs of identifying their impact and offers some theoretical frameworks that have defined different types of impact. The paper also draws on frameworks that identify the different components that are necessary for achieving change. This paper offers a contribution to theory building and is a response to the challenge of demonstrating the value that SABs add to adult safeguarding policy and practice. Practical implications A case study reviews the findings of the longitudinal service development and practice change initiative to embed making safeguarding personal in adult safeguarding. The findings of that initiative are mapped against the frameworks for identifying impact. Experience of implementing the initiative is mapped against the frameworks for effective implementation of change. Originality/value The paper presents frameworks for identifying the different types of outcomes and impact that SABs may achieve through their strategic business plans and for ensuring that the different components are present for the successful implementation and maintenance of change. The paper argues that the legal, policy and financial context within which SABs are located presents challenges as well as opportunities with respect to achieving and demonstrating impactful change. However, it also suggests that a more informed understanding of different types of impact may generate different approaches to data collection in order to capture what has been achieved.
    • Making noise: children’s voices for positive change after sexual abuse

      Warrington, Camille; Ackerley, Elizabeth; Beckett, Helen; Walker, Megan; Allnock, Debra (University of Bedfordshire/ Office of Children’s Commissioner, 2016-12-01)
    • Making Safeguarding Personal and social work practice with older adults: findings from local-authority survey data in England

      Cooper, Adi; Cocker, Christine; Briggs, Mike (Oxford University Press, 2018-07-25)
      This article presents the results of a survey of English local authorities undertaken in 2016 about the implementation of Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) in adult social care services. MSP is an approach to adult safeguarding practice that prioritises the needs and outcomes identified by the person being supported. The key findings from a survey of local authorities are described, emphasising issues for safeguarding older adults, who are the largest group of people who experience adult safeguarding enquiries. The survey showed that social workers are enthusiastic about MSP and suggests that this approach results in a more efficient use of resources. However, implementation and culture change are affected by different factors, including: austerity; local authority systems and structures; the support of leaders, managers and partners in implementing MSP; service capacity; and input to develop skills and knowledge in local authorities and partner organisations. There are specific challenges for social workers in using MSP with older adults, particularly regarding mental capacity issues for service users, communication skills with older people, family and carers, and the need to combat ageism in service delivery. Organisational blocks affecting local authorities developing this 'risk enabling' approach to adult safeguarding are discussed.
    • Making Safeguarding Personal: progress of English local authorities

      Briggs, Mike; Cooper, Adi (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2018-02-12)
      Purpose – The paper reports on the findings of a survey of 115 (76 per cent) of English local authorities in 2016 which compared progress on the implementation of the Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) approach in local authorities through their Adult Social Care departments and in relation to their area Safeguarding Adults Boards (SABs) and partner organisations. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the survey in relation to personalised social care and its impact on organisations, their staff and service users, and conclude with wider implications and recommendations for further work. Design/methodology/approach – A series of guided interviews were conducted with safeguarding leads from a sample comprising of 115 (76 per cent) of English local authorities during May and June 2016. The sample was randomly picked and balanced to give a fair representation of the different types of councils. The interviews were conducted by a team of five people. All interviewers had in-depth experience of adult safeguarding and were currently practicing independent chairs of SABs. The interviewers followed a prepared schedule consisting of a mixture of open and closed questions. All interviews were held over the phone and averaged one-hour duration. Findings – The results pointed to the impression that the majority of local authorities had completed the first step of introducing MSP, i.e. they had trained their workers and modified their systems. Most local authorities were moving into the next phase of embedding user-focussed work into their practice and culture, and were at various points along that journey. However, most had still to engage partner organisations beyond a mere acceptance of MSP as “a good thing”. Research limitations/implications – The research has wide ranging implications for organisations and their workers in the field of adult safeguarding based on its findings. Its limitations are that only organisational leaders and managers were interviewed, although reference is extensively made to initiatives that engage service users. The authors acknowledged the possible bias of interviewees when judging the performance of their own service and attempted to moderate their views in the final report. Practical implications – The report references many practical implications to improve the practice of adult safeguarding in an attempt to make it more person-centred. Examples of good practice are given and recommendations are made to organisations. Social implications – It is recognised that there are many people who may be at risk of harm through their environmental, personal, age or disability-related situations. In improving the way that services respond to their needs, they will be made to feel safer and their lives enhanced. Originality/value – This original research follows up previous research in the preceding year. It is the widest ranging in its coverage of 76 per cent of English local authorities. Its value is that it measures progress towards full implementation of MSP; reports information and views from safeguarding leaders; and makes 20 recommendations to improve the implementation of MSP within local authorities, SABs and their partners.
    • The management of time and waiting by unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in Finland

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Kaukko, Mervi (Oxford University Press, 2017-12-07)
      This article considers how asylum-seeking girls in residential care in Finland construct their everyday lives while waiting for asylum outcomes. These girls, from various African countries, are shown to experience waiting as both debilitating and productive. First, our findings confirm the established picture of asylum-seeking young people being in limbo, unable to influence the resolution of their claims. Second, we explore more hopeful ways in which they wait. We emphasize the complex responses and relationships they build in waiting times with each other and their carers. We suggest that waiting is not just ‘dead’ time, but is also lively in periods of uncertainty.
    • Managing and normalising emotions and behaviour: a conversation analytic study of ADHD coaching

      Bradley, Louise; Butler, Carly W. (Palgrave, 2015-11-20)
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed disorder in childhood with worldwide prevalence estimated around 5% (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman, & Rohde, 2007). Those that are given a diagnosis of ADHD often present with emotional and social difficulties, including poor emotional regulation and a greater excessive emotional expression, especially for anger and aggression (Wehmeier, Schacht, & Barkley, 2010). Such difficulties impact on self-esteem and self-concept, although this impact has rarely been addressed in research (Ryan & McDougall, 2009; Wehmeier et al., 2010). Instead, research has focused on assessment, diagnosis, and treatment (Barkley, 2006), or behaviour management for parents or carers to reduce and manage undesirable behaviour (Gavita & Joyce, 2008).
    • Mapping therapeutic services for sexual abuse in the UK in 2015

      Allnock, Debra; Sneddon, Helga; Ackerley, Elizabeth; University of Bedfordshire; NSPCC (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-01-01)
      The International Centre: Researching Child Sexual Exploitation, Trafficking and Violence at the University of Bedfordshire was commissioned by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) to undertake a mapping exercise – across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland - of therapeutic services for children and young people who have experienced any form of child sexual abuse (CSA), including child sexual exploitation (CSE). This mapping exercise was intended to be an update, and facilitate a comparative analysis with the 2007 audit. However, different samples and the more limited nature of the exercise means that it is inadvisable to make direct comparisons. However, the current mapping exercise has revealed new insights about a broader range of services than were included in the previous 2007 audit. The current mapping exercise consisted of: 1) identification of generalist and specialist services in the four nations providing therapeutic support for any form of child sexual abuse, including child sexual exploitation (n=750); 2) an online questionnaire distributed to all identified services; 3) a small number of follow-up telephone interviews with service providers and 4) a small number of telephone interviews with service commissioners. A total of 130 respondents provided data in the questionnaire on 149 services, giving a service response rate of 20%.
    • Masculinity without conflict: noblemen in eighth- and ninth-Century Francia

      Stone, Rachel; Arnold, John H.; Brady, Sean; University of Bedfordshire; Birkbeck College (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011-01-01)
    • Meaning in hoarding: perspectives of people who hoard on clutter, culture and agency

      Orr, David; Preston-Shoot, Michael; Braye, Suzy; University of Sussex; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2017-12-12)
      Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of ‘hoarding disorder’ and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with ‘hoarders’ themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with ten individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services. Their narratives drew on the cultural repertoire of values and discourses around waste and worth, the mediation of sociality and relationships through material objects, physical constraints on keeping order, and the role played by mental health. Analysing these perspectives anthropologically shows how dominant models of hoarding, such as the DSM-5 paradigm, potentially lend themselves to reductionist understandings that efface the meaning ‘hoarding’ may have and thereby deny agency to the person labelled as ‘hoarder’. More culturally informed analysis, by contrast, affords insights into the complex landscape of value, waste, social critique, emotion, interpersonal relationships and practical difficulties that may underlie hoarding cases, and points the way to more person-centred practice and analysis.
    • Measurement properties of the suicidal behaviour questionnaire - revised in autistic adults

      Cassidy, Sarah; Bradley, Louise; Cogger-Ward, Heather; Shaw, Rebecca; Bowen, Erica; Glod, Magdalena; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rodgers, Jacqui; University of Nottingham; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2020-03-03)
      We explored the appropriateness and measurement properties of a suicidality assessment tool (SBQ-R) developed for the general population, in autistic adults-a high risk group for suicide. 188 autistic adults and 183 general population adults completed the tool online, and a sub-sample (n = 15) were interviewed while completing the tool. Multi-group factorial invariance analysis of the online survey data found evidence for metric non-invariance of the SBQ-R, particularly for items three (communication of suicidal intent) and four (likelihood of suicide attempt in the future). Cognitive interviews revealed that autistic adults did not interpret these items as intended by the tool designers. Results suggest autistic adults interpret key questions regarding suicide risk differently to the general population. Future research must adapt tools to better capture suicidality in autistic adults.
    • The medicalisation of disabled children and young people in child sexual abuse: impacts on prevention, identification, response and recovery in the United Kingdom

      Franklin, Anita; Brady, Geraldine; Bradley, Louise; University of Portsmouth; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-02-28)
      Understandings of disability are situated within social, political and economic circumstances. Internationally, medical conceptualisations of disability prevail, influencing policy and practice, creating a discourse which encourages categorisation, diagnosis and prescribed ways of understanding behaviour. This body of knowledge has a profound influence, providing powerful explanatory models of disability. Such discourse excludes other ways of knowing, with little attention paid to competences and the construction of worlds especially from the perspectives of disabled children themselves. This article draws upon a small number of UK qualitative studies which have examined disabled child abuse and included the experiences of disabled children. These studies have highlighted how medicalised notions of disability have led to both medicalised and psychiatrised responses to abuse, which have ill-served disabled children. It could be argued that medicalisation has led to disabled children being labelled as either ‘too disabled’ to be abused or ‘not disabled enough’ to receive an appropriate response which meets their needs; they are also sometimes regarded as showing signs of mental ill health when such signs are more likely to be an understandable manifestation of the trauma of abuse. Evidence collected indicate that much can be learnt from understanding the construction of disabled childhoods and how our current limited exploration of this affects how society prevents, identifies and responds to disabled child abuse and associated trauma. Drawing upon disabled children’s recommendations to ‘see me, hear me and understand me’, this article will argue that in order to protect disabled children and support them to recover from abuse, we need to move away from a tick-box culture of medicalising, categorising, psychiatrising and ‘othering’ to a greater understanding of disabled children’s worlds, and to a rights-based model of disabled child protection whereby we challenge the increased barriers to support faced by disabled children who have experienced abuse.
    • Memorable life events and disclosure of child sexual abuse: possibilities and challenges across diverse contexts

      Allnock, Debra (Policy Press, 2017-02-09)
      This article examines the relationship between memorable life events (MLEs) and disclosure of sexual abuse in childhood. The findings derive from a larger thematic and phenomenological analysis of MLEs across the life course of 12 adults with self-reported histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Participants were recruited from the UK, but represent a diverse group in terms of age, gender, country of origin, sexuality and disability. In-depth interviews and Life History Calendars (LHCs) were used to collect a range of contextual and event-based data. Varied and unique MLEs were found to promote disclosure of sexual abuse in childhood, although this was highly contingent on context. A conceptual framework is offered as a way of navigating this relationship and contexts that can inhibit, alter or reverse decisions to disclose abuse. This research is the first known in-depth analysis of MLEs and CSA, and therefore makes an original contribution to the field.
    • Missing adults: asylum seekers and human trafficking

      Hynes, Patricia (Routledge, 2016-10-14)
    • Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire

      Stone, Rachel; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2011-11-01)
    • Moving beyond discourses of agency, gain and blame: reconceptualising young people’s experiences of sexual exploitation

      Beckett, Helen (Policy Press, 2019-01-01)
      This chapter explores the relationship between victimhood and agency, and the unhelpful binary ways in which it has often been conceptualised within child sexual exploitation (CSE) discourse and practice to date. It observes how adherence to dichotomous conceptualisations of those experiencing CSE, and associated narrow understandings of CSE victimhood, have served to diminish our responses to particular populations and particular manifestations of harm; namely those typified by any degree of observable agency on the part of the child. Here, reframing young people's experiences of CSE through the lens of structuration theory offers a much-needed way to move us beyond the observable simplistic binary conceptualisations of victimhood versus agency. It helps us to better understand and respond to the widely variable and complex dynamics and contexts of CSE. Specifically, reconceptualising young people as ‘reflexive agents’ operating within a ‘structure of constraint’ offers us a means of concurrently recognising the range of biographical and contextual factors at play in any given situation, and allows us to move beyond exclusionary ‘idealised’ victim-based patterns of identification and response.
    • Moving on with Munro: sexual exploitation within a child protection framework’

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2014-04-02)
      Looking at the impact of the Munro review of child protection, this chapter addresses the changes that have occurred in understanding of child sexual exploitation. It looks at questions of the impact of government guidance on child protection work with CSE affected children and argues for a stronger understanding of consent and children's agency. 
    • "My head was like a washing machine on spin": (improving) women’s experiences of accessing support

      Neale, Jo; Hodges, Kathryn; University of Bedfordshire; St. Mary’s University (DigitalCommons@URI, 2021-02-01)
      This paper draws on data collected as part of two larger studies to set out the differences, according to women seeking support, between the feminist responses of the specialist women’s sector and the issues-led responses of other agencies. The first study examined the processes by which women enter, endure, and exit relationships with abusive men. The second study explored the barriers to help-seeking for those accessing a service for women involved in prostitution. Taking a feminist poststructuralist approach, the authors point to the gendered nature, both of the experiences that propel women toward help-seeking and of the responses they receive from agencies. They note the current socio-economic context within which those experiences and responses are set and the importance, for women, of the specialist women’s sector. Data were collected via narrative-style interviews with twenty-five women with lived experience of the issues being explored. Many women noted that, when initially seeking support from agencies, they had either been offered no service or inappropriate services. They spoke of being required to engage with multiple services, constantly retelling their stories, and the competing and conflicting demands made of them by professionals. These accounts were contrasted with the service they received from the specialist women’s sector. The findings are presented in terms of their meaning for and impact upon women accessing professional support. The implications for practice are discussed: the case for professionals’ proactive sourcing/using information about women’s services operating in their locality; the importance of effective communication, both within and between agencies; and the shared benefits of working alongside the specialist women’s sector.