• ‘The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: the cyberharassment of disabled people

      Alhaboby, Zhraa Azhr; al-Khateeb, Haider; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; ; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-10-05)
      Disabled people face hostility and harassment in their socio-cultural environment. The use of electronic communications creates an online context that further reshapes this discrimination. We explored the experiences of 19 disabled victims of cyberharassment. Five themes emerged from the study: disability and health consequences, family involvement, misrepresentation of self, perceived complexity, and lack of awareness and expertise. Cyberharassment incidents against disabled people were influenced by the pre-existing impairment, perceived hate-targeting, and perpetrators faking disability to get closer to victims online. Our findings highlight a growing issue requiring action and proper support.
    • Language, trust and transformation: exploring theatre as a research method with migrant youth

      Opfermann, Lena S.; Durham University (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-29)
      This article explores the challenges and benefits of using theatre as a research method. It questions certain claims and assumptions underlying Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and more recent literature on theatre-based research. In particular, it investigates the notion that theatre enables participants to address issues of oppression and create socio-political change. Based on a case study with migrant youth in South Africa, the article firstly argues that certain challenges specific to working with migrants such as differing language skills and a lack of trust may impede genuine dialogic exchange as envisioned by Boal. Secondly, it shows how these challenges can be overcome by incorporating writing exercises, video recordings and embodied communication. Finally, the article argues that theatre-based research can indeed create individual transformations in the form of increased displays of ownership, confidence and hope. These insights contribute to the growing literature on theatre-based research and will be useful for others using similar arts-based approaches.
    • Learning about online sexual harm

      Beckett, Helen; Warrington, Camille; Devlin, Jacqui Montgomery; Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2019-11-14)
      This research was commissioned by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (the Inquiry), as part of its investigation into institutional responses to child sexual abuse and exploitation facilitated by the internet. It was a small-scale, mixed-methods study which aimed to explore children’s and young people’s perspectives on: being online; risks of online sexual harm; education received about online sexual harm within state school settings; how such education could be improved; and what else should be done to better protect children and young people from online sexual harm.
    • Learning from safeguarding adult reviews on self-neglect: addressing the challenge of change

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2018-02-20)
      Abstract   Purpose – One purpose is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to address the challenge of change, exploring the necessary components beyond an action plan to ensure that findings and recommendations are embedded in policy and practice.   Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core data set from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The repetitive nature of the findings prompts questions about how to embed policy and practice change, to ensure impactful use of learning from SARs. A framework for taking forward an action plan derived from SAR findings and recommendations is presented.   Findings – Familiar, even repetitive findings emerge once again from the thematic analysis. This level of analysis enables an understanding of both local geography and the national legal, policy and financial climate within which it sits. Such learning is valuable in itself, contributing to the evidence-base of what good practice with adults who self-neglect looks like. However, to avoid the accusation that lessons are not learned, something more than a straightforward action plan to implement the recommendations is necessary. A framework is conceptualised for a strategic and longer-term approach to embedding policy and practice change.   Research limitations/implications – There is still no national database of reviews commissioned by SABs so the data set reported here might be incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. This makes learning for service improvement challenging. Reading the reviews reported here enables conclusions to be reached about issues to address locally and nationally to transform adult safeguarding policy and practice.   Practical implications – Answering the question “how to create sustainable change” is a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. A framework is presented here, drawn from research on change management and learning from the review process itself. The critique of serious case reviews challenges those now engaged in safeguarding adult reviews to reflect on how transformational change can be achieved to improve the quality of adult safeguarding policy and practice.   Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further building on the evidence base for practice. The paper also contributes new perspectives to the process of following up safeguarding adult reviews by using the findings and recommendations systematically within a framework designed to embed change in policy and practice.     Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, change, self-neglect, action plans   Paper type: Research paper
    • Leaving care in the UK and Scandinavia: is it all that different in contrasting welfare regimes?

      Munro, Emily; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine; Hollingworth, Katie (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2016-12-01)
    • Leeds Partners in Practice: reimagining child welfare services for the 21st century: final evaluation report

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Tinarwo, Moreblessing; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; University of Bedfordshire (Department for Education, 2020-04-30)
      Leeds introduced restorative practice in Round 1 of the Department for Education’s (DfE) Children’s Social Care Innovation Programme through ‘Family Valued’ (March 2015 to December 2016): a workforce development programme amongst children’s services, partners and Family Group Conferencing (FGC) as an approach to working with families through FGC. Restorative practice recognises the strengths and resources that families have available to them. It aims to engage individuals as active participants in identifying problems and finding solutions. In so doing, it underlines the importance of doing ‘with’ families rather than ‘for’ or ‘to’, thus achieving greater collaboration between families and services towards common goals. In 2010, a city-wide locality model introduced 25 geographical ‘clusters’ based on the ‘Extended Schools’ service model. Cluster services provide parenting support and early help, and other targeted support services, alongside education. Children’s services were re-configured to align with these areas with the aim of improving multi-agency working and co-ordination. The Family Valued programme identified six clusters that collectively receive 50 per cent of referrals for children’s services in Leeds, indicating high levels of need and high demand for services. A seventh geographical area of high need and demand for services was identified and incorporated into the programme.
    • Legacies of indenture: identity and belonging in post-colonial Jamaica

      Zacharias, Thomas A.; Mullings-Lawrence, Sireita; Goldsmiths, University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2020-01-27)
      This article examines narratives of identity and belonging among descendants of white German indentured labourers in Jamaica and the local community in which they live. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews the research shows the ways in which members of the community in the village of Seaford Town make sense of and articulate elements of their German cultural heritage. This paper argues that while ideas about whiteness suffuse many of the identity-narratives, whiteness can variously be muted or amplified as a marker of identity. Similarly, notions of German-ness are not consistently articulated as embodied cultural forms. Here, culture is not conceptualized as static or embodied, but can be claimed and shared. In sum, the paper speaks to the ways in which whiteness read through a historical lens becomes remade in a contemporary context.
    • Levels of stress and anxiety in child and family social work: workers' perceptions of organizational structure, professional support and workplace opportunities in Children's Services in the UK

      Antonopoulou, Vivi; Killian, Mike; Forrester, Donald; University of Bedfordshire; University of Texas at Arlington; University of Cardiff (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      Child and family social workers are consistently found to have high levels of stress, and this has often been linked to burnout and retention problems in the profession. Local authorities in the UK have recently been under pressure to reform services, and one focus has been exploring how different organizational structures might reduce stress and increase well-being of workers. This paper presents data on 193 social workers from five local authorities in England. We examine the effects of different ways of organizing Children's Services on workers' wellbeing, with particular focus on the underlying relationship between organizational elements, workplace opportunities,and practitioners' work satisfaction. The primary outcome measure is the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1978), a widely validated measure of stress. This data is presented alongside information exploring aspects of organizational structure and functioning. Results indicated significantly different levels of reported stress and general well-being in practitioners working in different local authorities. Implications for how local authorities might support staff to work productively in the stressful and challenging environment of child and family social work are discussed.
    • Listening to grandparents from a range of ethnic communities: the methodological implications

      Schild, L.; Ali, Nasreen (British Society of Gerontology, 1997-01-01)
    • Living in gang affected neighbourhoods

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Pearce, Jenny J. (Jessica Kingsley, 2016-01-01)
    • Living in gang-affected neighbourhoods

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Pearce, Jenny J.; Bernard, Claudia; Harris, Perlita; University of Bedfordshire; Goldsmiths (Jessica Kingsley, 2016-05-05)
      This chapter addresses the problems facing black children living in gang affected neighborhoods. It argues for a 'social model' for understanding and responding to children's capacity to consent to sexual activity when forced and coerced within gang affected neighborhoods and for a contextual framework to child protection issues facing these young people, their neighborhood and environment. 
    • Looked after children and custody: a brief review of the relationship between care status and child incarceration and the implications for service provision

      Bateman, Tim; Day, Anne-Marie; Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire; Nuffield Foundation (University of Bedfordshire, Nuffield Foundation, 2018-01-01)
      Although there are some important limitations with the data, the available evidence demonstrates conclusively that children who are in the care of the local authority are consistently over-represented among those who come to the attention of the youth justice system. A similar disproportionality is also evident within the children’s custodial estate. While it appears that the relationship is long-standing, it has only recently become the focus of policy attention which has begun to explore some of the reasons for the patterns discernible in the figures (see, for example, Schofield et al, 2012: Laming, 2016). In particular, an independent review of the relationship between the care system and the criminal justice system, led by Lord Laming, commissioned an extensive exploration of the available literature that provides a useful baseline for future research (Staines, 2016). The current review aims to provide a context for research, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, that aims to identity the particular pathways of looked after children into, through and leaving custody and to establish in what ways, and to what extent, these might differ from those of children who do not have care experience. It does not accordingly aim to replicate the earlier work identified in the previous paragraph; instead the intention is to draw on previous reviews, and relevant additional material, through a lens that focuses on the existing evidence base as it relates specifically to the likelihood of children being incarcerated, to their subsequent custodial experience and to the provision of effective resettlement once they have been released.
    • The Lucy Faithfull Foundation: twenty-five years of child protection and preventing child sexual abuse

      Bailey, Alexandra; Squire, Tom; Thornhill, Lisa Marie; Lucy Faithfull Foundation (Springer, 2018-12-07)
      The Lucy Faithfull Foundation (LFF) is the only UK-wide child protection charity dedicated solely to preventing child sexual abuse (CSA). This chapter provides an overview of LFF’s projects over the last 25 years, including the Wolvercote Clinic, and work with young people and women. The authors give attention to the major CSA prevention initiatives developed by LFF, including the development of the Stop it Now! campaign and Helpline. The chapter considers the growing problem of indecent images of children and the importance of strategies to encourage deterrence and desistance. LFF’s recent Deterrence Campaign and Get Help website are offered as prevention strategies for deterring online offending at the outset, along with considering LFF’s ongoing service developments.
    • Made in Little India

      Dhaliwal, Sukhwant (Lawrence & Wishart, 2014-07-01)
    • Making any difference? conceptualising the impact of safeguarding adults boards

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2019-11-25)
      Purpose Criticisms of the effectiveness of Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs) led to legislative reform in the shape of the Children and Social Work Act 2017. Given parallels between the mandates for LSCBs and Safeguarding Adults Boards (SABs), the onus is on SABs to demonstrate their effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to explore how SABs might more effectively demonstrate their impact across the range of their mandated responsibilities. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on definitions of impact from social work education, healthcare and from university research, exploring their relevance for capturing different types of data regarding the outcomes and impact of SAB activity. The paper also draws on frameworks for the process of capturing data and for implementing strategies designed to change practice and develop adult safeguarding services. Findings The paper argues that SABs have struggled to identify their impact and need to consider what types of impact they are seeking to demonstrate before choosing methods of seeking to capture that information. The paper also argues that SABs may have given insufficient thought to the process of change management, to the components needed to ensure that desired outcomes are embedded in procedural and practice change. Research limitations/implications This paper explores the challenges for SABs of identifying their impact and offers some theoretical frameworks that have defined different types of impact. The paper also draws on frameworks that identify the different components that are necessary for achieving change. This paper offers a contribution to theory building and is a response to the challenge of demonstrating the value that SABs add to adult safeguarding policy and practice. Practical implications A case study reviews the findings of the longitudinal service development and practice change initiative to embed making safeguarding personal in adult safeguarding. The findings of that initiative are mapped against the frameworks for identifying impact. Experience of implementing the initiative is mapped against the frameworks for effective implementation of change. Originality/value The paper presents frameworks for identifying the different types of outcomes and impact that SABs may achieve through their strategic business plans and for ensuring that the different components are present for the successful implementation and maintenance of change. The paper argues that the legal, policy and financial context within which SABs are located presents challenges as well as opportunities with respect to achieving and demonstrating impactful change. However, it also suggests that a more informed understanding of different types of impact may generate different approaches to data collection in order to capture what has been achieved.
    • Making noise: children’s voices for positive change after sexual abuse

      Warrington, Camille; Ackerley, Elizabeth; Beckett, Helen; Walker, Megan; Allnock, Debra (University of Bedfordshire/ Office of Children’s Commissioner, 2016-12-01)
    • Making Safeguarding Personal and social work practice with older adults: findings from local-authority survey data in England

      Cooper, Adi; Cocker, Christine; Briggs, Mike (Oxford University Press, 2018-07-25)
      This article presents the results of a survey of English local authorities undertaken in 2016 about the implementation of Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) in adult social care services. MSP is an approach to adult safeguarding practice that prioritises the needs and outcomes identified by the person being supported. The key findings from a survey of local authorities are described, emphasising issues for safeguarding older adults, who are the largest group of people who experience adult safeguarding enquiries. The survey showed that social workers are enthusiastic about MSP and suggests that this approach results in a more efficient use of resources. However, implementation and culture change are affected by different factors, including: austerity; local authority systems and structures; the support of leaders, managers and partners in implementing MSP; service capacity; and input to develop skills and knowledge in local authorities and partner organisations. There are specific challenges for social workers in using MSP with older adults, particularly regarding mental capacity issues for service users, communication skills with older people, family and carers, and the need to combat ageism in service delivery. Organisational blocks affecting local authorities developing this 'risk enabling' approach to adult safeguarding are discussed.
    • Making Safeguarding Personal: progress of English local authorities

      Briggs, Mike; Cooper, Adi (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2018-02-12)
      Purpose – The paper reports on the findings of a survey of 115 (76 per cent) of English local authorities in 2016 which compared progress on the implementation of the Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) approach in local authorities through their Adult Social Care departments and in relation to their area Safeguarding Adults Boards (SABs) and partner organisations. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the survey in relation to personalised social care and its impact on organisations, their staff and service users, and conclude with wider implications and recommendations for further work. Design/methodology/approach – A series of guided interviews were conducted with safeguarding leads from a sample comprising of 115 (76 per cent) of English local authorities during May and June 2016. The sample was randomly picked and balanced to give a fair representation of the different types of councils. The interviews were conducted by a team of five people. All interviewers had in-depth experience of adult safeguarding and were currently practicing independent chairs of SABs. The interviewers followed a prepared schedule consisting of a mixture of open and closed questions. All interviews were held over the phone and averaged one-hour duration. Findings – The results pointed to the impression that the majority of local authorities had completed the first step of introducing MSP, i.e. they had trained their workers and modified their systems. Most local authorities were moving into the next phase of embedding user-focussed work into their practice and culture, and were at various points along that journey. However, most had still to engage partner organisations beyond a mere acceptance of MSP as “a good thing”. Research limitations/implications – The research has wide ranging implications for organisations and their workers in the field of adult safeguarding based on its findings. Its limitations are that only organisational leaders and managers were interviewed, although reference is extensively made to initiatives that engage service users. The authors acknowledged the possible bias of interviewees when judging the performance of their own service and attempted to moderate their views in the final report. Practical implications – The report references many practical implications to improve the practice of adult safeguarding in an attempt to make it more person-centred. Examples of good practice are given and recommendations are made to organisations. Social implications – It is recognised that there are many people who may be at risk of harm through their environmental, personal, age or disability-related situations. In improving the way that services respond to their needs, they will be made to feel safer and their lives enhanced. Originality/value – This original research follows up previous research in the preceding year. It is the widest ranging in its coverage of 76 per cent of English local authorities. Its value is that it measures progress towards full implementation of MSP; reports information and views from safeguarding leaders; and makes 20 recommendations to improve the implementation of MSP within local authorities, SABs and their partners.
    • The management of time and waiting by unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in Finland

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Kaukko, Mervi (Oxford University Press, 2017-12-07)
      This article considers how asylum-seeking girls in residential care in Finland construct their everyday lives while waiting for asylum outcomes. These girls, from various African countries, are shown to experience waiting as both debilitating and productive. First, our findings confirm the established picture of asylum-seeking young people being in limbo, unable to influence the resolution of their claims. Second, we explore more hopeful ways in which they wait. We emphasize the complex responses and relationships they build in waiting times with each other and their carers. We suggest that waiting is not just ‘dead’ time, but is also lively in periods of uncertainty.