• Job demands, resources and work-related well-being in UK firefighters

      Payne, N.; Kinman, Gail; (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-11)
      Background: There is evidence that firefighters are at risk of work-related stress and mental health problems, but little is known about the organizational hazards they experience. Insight is needed into the work-related factors that are most likely to threaten or protect their work-related well-being. Aims: To identify levels of job demands and resources (including demands relating to workload, work patterns and the working environment, relationship conflicts, control, support, role clarity and change management) among firefighters, and to use a job demands-resources framework to examine their impacts on work-related well-being. The role played by recovery strategies in predicting work-related well-being was also considered. Methods: Job demands and resources were assessed by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards Indicator Tool. Validated scales measured recovery strategies (detachment, affective rumination and problem-solving pondering) and work-related well-being (anxiety-contentment and depression-enthusiasm). The impact of job demands, resources and recovery strategies was tested by multiple linear regression. Results: The sample comprised 909 firefighters across seven Fire and Rescue Services in the UK (85% male). Levels of job demands and resources did not meet HSE benchmarks. The main risk factors for poor work-related well-being were relationship conflicts and affective rumination, but resources such as role clarity and job control and the use of problem-solving pondering and detachment were beneficial. Conclusions: Interventions that aim to reduce relationship conflicts at work and promote problem-solving rather than affective rumination, and detachment from work when off-duty, are likely to improve work-related well-being. Attention to enhancing job resources may also be beneficial.
    • Joining the dots? Tackling child exploitation during Covid 19

      Racher, Anna; Brodie, Isabelle; Research in Practice for Adults; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Publishing, 2020-10-20)
      Purpose – This paper aims to report on findings from action research undertaken in response to the Covid-19 pandemic by the Tackling Child Exploitation Support Programme (TCESP), a Department for Education funded programme that provides support to local areas in improving their strategic approach to child exploitation and extra-familial harm. Design/methodology/approach – The research included a scoping review of the literature, and focus groups with programme staff, strategic leaders and professionals from different services across England. To provide a strategic lens, findings were then considered in relation to TCE’s ‘‘Joining the dots’’ framework, which encourages examination of the relationships between different forms of child exploitation. Findings – The action research highlighted the emerging and tentative nature of the knowledge base relating to child exploitation and extra-familial harm in the context of Covid-19. Findings revealed that there had been innovation in the use of digital methods and direct working, integration of practical support with other forms of service delivery and in partnership working, and also considerable variation in approach across different local areas. Practical implications – Strategic leaders need to use the evidence emerging from lockdown as a basis for further interrogation of emerging data alongside the views of young people, families and communities and their wider workforce. This includes new information about changing patterns of exploitation. Digital delivery and innovation need to be supported by clear strategic guidance, based on review of the evidence regarding increased digital communication and its impact. New partnerships developed between services, data sharing and innovative ways of working that have taken place during lockdown need to be monitored and evaluated for quality and impact. Originality/value – The action research findings offer a snapshot of practice regarding child exploitation and extra-familial harm at a mid-point in the Covid-19 lockdown in England and Wales.
    • 'Just another person in the room’: young people’s views on their participation in Child in Care Reviews

      Diaz, Clive; Pert, Hayley; Thomas, Nigel (SAGE, 2018-12-11)
      This article discusses a key meeting for children in care – the Child in Care Review – and examines the extent to which children and young people are able to participate and exert a level of control over their lives. The research, conducted in England, formed part of a wider exploration of the views and experiences of all those involved in such reviews, namely Independent Reviewing Officers (IROs), social workers, senior managers and – the focus of this article – the young people concerned. Most of the children interviewed said that they found their reviews frustrating and stressful, often attributing this to poor relationships with social workers and scepticism about the value of the review process. However, they recognised the workload pressures facing social workers and the bureaucratic constraints affecting the service they received. The article argues for the continuing importance of the IRO role, given the consistency it provides for children in care. It also shows that while it provides an opportunity for children’s participation in discussions about their future, the Child in Care Review is underperforming. The developing practice of children chairing their own reviews offers one way forward and the article calls for this to be developed and for other creative methods to be introduced to enable young people to play a meaningful part in meetings that affect them.
    • Kashmiri nationalism beyond the nation state

      Ali, Nasreen (SAGE, 2002-01-01)
      Fifty years on the Kashmir conflict rumbles on. The various parties to the dispute engage in highly polemical exchanges in a variety of media, artillery shells cross the line of control and the region remains a potential nuclear flashpaint. Given the geopolitical aspects of the conflict, it is not surprising that the Kashmiri dispute continues to be studied primarily in terms of relations between India and Pakistan, or as a threat to regional stability. At the heart of the Kashmir conflict is the issue of identity, and the rival claims of India, Pakistan and Kashmiris all depend on what the exact nature of Kashmir (an intrinsic part of the Mahabharata, Muslim, indigenous or secular) is. The plethora of terms that designate the various political and territorial configurations in the dispute (Indian-occupied Kashmir, Pakistanioccupied Kashmir, Indian-administered Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir) point to the absence of even a rudimentary consensus about the identity of Kashmir and Kashmiris. While the study of the dispute has produced a copious literature in terms of international relations, there has been much less work done on the relationship between the articulation of a distinct Kashmiri identity and the existence of a large diasporic population. It is this relationship that I want to explore in this article. While I concede the salience of many other factors contributing to the Kashmiri dispute (the rival claims of Pakistan and India, and the role of the various armed forces in the region) my purpose is to examine the way a particular representation of Kashmir has become increasingly prominent, one that is not reducible to the machinations of the Pakistani or Indian governments or their clients. It is sometimes suggested that Kashmiris have failed to establish themselves as a nation and Kashmiri identity continues to be a rather fragile affair. This view that Kashmiris do not constitute a genuine distinct nationality was dominant until very recently, and to some extent is still dominant amongst Pakistanis and Indians. I suggest that this is only the case if we continue to see the formations of nations and ethnic identity through the prism of nineteenth-century notions of collective identity.’ In this article I want to show how developments in globalisation have produced a new matrix through which it is possible to configure Kashmiri identity as a diasporic form. I will do this in two ways. Using research from ethnographic work carried out in Luton, I will first show the way in which the contemporary articulation of Kashmiris-ness as a distinct ethnicity has been made possible by the settlement of Kashmiris outside historical ideas of what constituted Kashmir. I want to show that the creation of a Kashmiri identity is heavily dependant on the displacement and resettlement of Kashmiris outside of their imagined homeland. In other words, the discourse of Kashmiriyat emerges in a diasporic space. Second, I will show how this discourse recruits its subjects and projects its collective identity in a de-terntorialised diasporic context. In other words, this article has two major themes to it. The first theme examines the way Kashmiri identity is narrated and focuses on the variety of agents responsible for the construction of this Kashmiri-ness. The second theme examines the way in which a group of people (who constitute most of my respondents) express their Kashmiri-ness in both a global and local context.
    • Kashmiris: between ethnicity and nationality: will the ‘real’ Kashmiris please stand up?

      Ali, Nasreen (British Association for South Asian Studies, 2002-01-01)
    • Keeping children safe? Advancing social care assessments to address harmful sexual behaviour in schools

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Firmin, Carlene Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2020-03-05)
      International evidence suggests that schools are locations where systems, practices and cultures can enable harmful sexual behaviours. However, in England, welfare assessments primarily used by statutory social services largely target young people and their families, with limited capacity to assess environments beyond the home. Where young people display harmful sexual behaviours within educational settings, social care systems are yet to assess the factors within schools which may accelerate risks associated with harmful sexual behaviours. This exploratory article presents evidence on the opportunities for school assessment using cumulative learning from two studies. The first investigated enablers and barriers to addressing harmful sexual behaviour in schools. The second employed the learning from the first through an action research study to develop school context assessments within a child protection system. Both studies employed a mixed-methods approach including observations, case review, focus groups, surveys and policy reviews to access data. Synthesised findings highlight: the value of exploring school contexts when assessing the nature of extra-familial abuse; the opportunities and challenges of utilising research methods for assessing school environments; and the role new assessment frameworks could play in supporting the inclusion of school contexts, and research methods, into welfare assessments of extra-familial abuse.
    • Kings are different: Carolingian mirrors for princes and lay morality

      Stone, Rachel; Lachaud, F.; Scordia, L. (Publications des universités de Rouen et du Havre, 2007-01-01)
    • Knowledge exchange as a dynamic dissemination tool

      Hutchinson, Aisha; Dance, Cherilyn (Jessica Kingsley, 2015-12-01)
    • ‘The language is disgusting and they refer to my disability’: the cyberharassment of disabled people

      Alhaboby, Zhraa Azhr; al-Khateeb, Haider; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; ; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-10-05)
      Disabled people face hostility and harassment in their socio-cultural environment. The use of electronic communications creates an online context that further reshapes this discrimination. We explored the experiences of 19 disabled victims of cyberharassment. Five themes emerged from the study: disability and health consequences, family involvement, misrepresentation of self, perceived complexity, and lack of awareness and expertise. Cyberharassment incidents against disabled people were influenced by the pre-existing impairment, perceived hate-targeting, and perpetrators faking disability to get closer to victims online. Our findings highlight a growing issue requiring action and proper support.
    • Language, trust and transformation: exploring theatre as a research method with migrant youth

      Opfermann, Lena S.; Durham University (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-29)
      This article explores the challenges and benefits of using theatre as a research method. It questions certain claims and assumptions underlying Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and more recent literature on theatre-based research. In particular, it investigates the notion that theatre enables participants to address issues of oppression and create socio-political change. Based on a case study with migrant youth in South Africa, the article firstly argues that certain challenges specific to working with migrants such as differing language skills and a lack of trust may impede genuine dialogic exchange as envisioned by Boal. Secondly, it shows how these challenges can be overcome by incorporating writing exercises, video recordings and embodied communication. Finally, the article argues that theatre-based research can indeed create individual transformations in the form of increased displays of ownership, confidence and hope. These insights contribute to the growing literature on theatre-based research and will be useful for others using similar arts-based approaches.
    • Last resort or best interest? exploring risk and safety factors that inform rates of relocation for young people abused in extra-familial settings

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Wroe, Lauren; Bernard, D.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-05-06)
      When young people are harmed in extra-familial settings children’s services may place them into care at a distance from their home authority to remove them from contexts in which they are considered ‘at risk’. Guidance and regulation suggest such intervention be used as a last resort and only in a child’s best interests. Using survey and interview data, this paper examines how relocations are used in response to extra-familial harm in 13 children’s services departments in England and Wales – exploring the extent to which they are intended to mitigate risk, or build safety, for young people. Findings demonstrate that rates at which relocations were used varied across participating services. Interview data suggests that variation may be informed by the strategic position a service takes on the use of relocation, the goal(s) of interventions used in cases of extra-familial harm, and the target of these interventions. In considering each of these factors the authors recommend further study into the national (varying) rates of relocation and the role of those who review care-plans for relocated young people; both intending to create conditions in which young people can safely return to their communities should they choose to do so
    • Learning about online sexual harm

      Beckett, Helen; Warrington, Camille; Devlin, Jacqui Montgomery; Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2019-11-14)
      This research was commissioned by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse (the Inquiry), as part of its investigation into institutional responses to child sexual abuse and exploitation facilitated by the internet. It was a small-scale, mixed-methods study which aimed to explore children’s and young people’s perspectives on: being online; risks of online sexual harm; education received about online sexual harm within state school settings; how such education could be improved; and what else should be done to better protect children and young people from online sexual harm.
    • Learning from safeguarding adult reviews on self-neglect: addressing the challenge of change

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2018-02-20)
      Abstract   Purpose – One purpose is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to address the challenge of change, exploring the necessary components beyond an action plan to ensure that findings and recommendations are embedded in policy and practice.   Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core data set from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The repetitive nature of the findings prompts questions about how to embed policy and practice change, to ensure impactful use of learning from SARs. A framework for taking forward an action plan derived from SAR findings and recommendations is presented.   Findings – Familiar, even repetitive findings emerge once again from the thematic analysis. This level of analysis enables an understanding of both local geography and the national legal, policy and financial climate within which it sits. Such learning is valuable in itself, contributing to the evidence-base of what good practice with adults who self-neglect looks like. However, to avoid the accusation that lessons are not learned, something more than a straightforward action plan to implement the recommendations is necessary. A framework is conceptualised for a strategic and longer-term approach to embedding policy and practice change.   Research limitations/implications – There is still no national database of reviews commissioned by SABs so the data set reported here might be incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. This makes learning for service improvement challenging. Reading the reviews reported here enables conclusions to be reached about issues to address locally and nationally to transform adult safeguarding policy and practice.   Practical implications – Answering the question “how to create sustainable change” is a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. A framework is presented here, drawn from research on change management and learning from the review process itself. The critique of serious case reviews challenges those now engaged in safeguarding adult reviews to reflect on how transformational change can be achieved to improve the quality of adult safeguarding policy and practice.   Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further building on the evidence base for practice. The paper also contributes new perspectives to the process of following up safeguarding adult reviews by using the findings and recommendations systematically within a framework designed to embed change in policy and practice.     Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, change, self-neglect, action plans   Paper type: Research paper
    • Leaving care in the UK and Scandinavia: is it all that different in contrasting welfare regimes?

      Munro, Emily; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine; Hollingworth, Katie (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2016-12-01)
    • Leeds Partners in Practice: reimagining child welfare services for the 21st century: final evaluation report

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Tinarwo, Moreblessing; Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; University of Bedfordshire (Department for Education, 2020-04-30)
      Leeds introduced restorative practice in Round 1 of the Department for Education’s (DfE) Children’s Social Care Innovation Programme through ‘Family Valued’ (March 2015 to December 2016): a workforce development programme amongst children’s services, partners and Family Group Conferencing (FGC) as an approach to working with families through FGC. Restorative practice recognises the strengths and resources that families have available to them. It aims to engage individuals as active participants in identifying problems and finding solutions. In so doing, it underlines the importance of doing ‘with’ families rather than ‘for’ or ‘to’, thus achieving greater collaboration between families and services towards common goals. In 2010, a city-wide locality model introduced 25 geographical ‘clusters’ based on the ‘Extended Schools’ service model. Cluster services provide parenting support and early help, and other targeted support services, alongside education. Children’s services were re-configured to align with these areas with the aim of improving multi-agency working and co-ordination. The Family Valued programme identified six clusters that collectively receive 50 per cent of referrals for children’s services in Leeds, indicating high levels of need and high demand for services. A seventh geographical area of high need and demand for services was identified and incorporated into the programme.
    • Legacies of indenture: identity and belonging in post-colonial Jamaica

      Zacharias, Thomas A.; Mullings-Lawrence, Sireita; Goldsmiths, University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2020-01-27)
      This article examines narratives of identity and belonging among descendants of white German indentured labourers in Jamaica and the local community in which they live. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews the research shows the ways in which members of the community in the village of Seaford Town make sense of and articulate elements of their German cultural heritage. This paper argues that while ideas about whiteness suffuse many of the identity-narratives, whiteness can variously be muted or amplified as a marker of identity. Similarly, notions of German-ness are not consistently articulated as embodied cultural forms. Here, culture is not conceptualized as static or embodied, but can be claimed and shared. In sum, the paper speaks to the ways in which whiteness read through a historical lens becomes remade in a contemporary context.
    • The legal and policy framework for contextual safeguarding approaches: a 2020 update on the 2018 legal briefing

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Knowles, Rachel; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2020-10-31)
      This briefing considers the extent to which changes made to Working Together to Safeguard Children in 2018, and the existing legislative underpinning that guidance, provide a sufficient policy and practice framework for adopting a Contextual Safeguarding approach. It presents the key messages that emerged from a legal roundtable held in 2020, alongside emergent data from the Contextual Safeguarding programme.
    • Levels of stress and anxiety in child and family social work: workers' perceptions of organizational structure, professional support and workplace opportunities in Children's Services in the UK

      Antonopoulou, Vivi; Killian, Mike; Forrester, Donald; University of Bedfordshire; University of Texas at Arlington; University of Cardiff (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      Child and family social workers are consistently found to have high levels of stress, and this has often been linked to burnout and retention problems in the profession. Local authorities in the UK have recently been under pressure to reform services, and one focus has been exploring how different organizational structures might reduce stress and increase well-being of workers. This paper presents data on 193 social workers from five local authorities in England. We examine the effects of different ways of organizing Children's Services on workers' wellbeing, with particular focus on the underlying relationship between organizational elements, workplace opportunities,and practitioners' work satisfaction. The primary outcome measure is the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1978), a widely validated measure of stress. This data is presented alongside information exploring aspects of organizational structure and functioning. Results indicated significantly different levels of reported stress and general well-being in practitioners working in different local authorities. Implications for how local authorities might support staff to work productively in the stressful and challenging environment of child and family social work are discussed.
    • Life in a lanyard: developing an ethics of embedded research methods in children’s social care

      Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2021-07-05)
      Purpose: To consider the opportunities for embedded methodologies for research into children’s social care and the ethics of this method. Design: The study draws upon embedded research from a two year study into developing children’s social work approaches to extra-familial risk. Findings draw upon personal reflections from field notes, case reviews, practice observations and reflections. Findings: Two findings are presented. Firstly, that Embedded Research provides numerous opportunities to develop child protection systems and practice. Secondly, a number of ethical questions and challenges of the methodology are presented. Limitations: the article draws upon personal reflections from one study and is not intended to be representative of all approaches to embedded research methods. Practical implications: Two practical recommendations are presented. Firstly I outline a number of recommendations to university researchers and host organisations on the facilitative attributes for embedded researchers. Secondly, questions are raised to support university ethics boards to assist ethical frameworks for embedded research. Originality: the article contributes original empirical data to the limited literature on embedded research in children’s services.