• Ealing Brighter Futures Intensive Engagement Model: working with adolescents in and on the edge of care

      Munro, Emily; Holingworth, Katie; Meetoo, Veena; Simon, Antonia; Department for Education; University of Bedfordshire; University College London (Department for Education, 2017-01-23)
      Ealing’s Brighter Futures Intensive Engagement Model is a complex, whole system intervention that was launched in June 2015. Its implementation was intended to support and enable the children’s social care workforce to build effective, consistent relationships with adolescents, families, communities and carers, and to use those successful relationships to bring about positive change.
    • Eight criteria for quality in systemic practitioner research

      Simon, Gail (Everything is Connected Press, 2018-10-20)
      This paper describes the rationale and context for eight key markers of quality in qualitative systemic practitioner research. The criteria are designed for systemic practitioner researchers who are researching from the position of practitioner-at-work. The criteria include Systemic Practice, Methodology, Situatedness, Relational Ethics, Relational Aesthetics, Reflexivity, Coherence, and Contributions. They build on existing criteria for quality developed within the fields of post-positivist qualitative research and professional practice research by embedding them in systemic practice theory, activity and values. Distinctions are made between practitioner research and research about practice, and between positivist and post-positivist research. This eight-point framework brings together existing systemic methods of inquiry which recognise theimportance of understanding context, movement and relational know-how. The paper proposes that systemic or relationally reflexive practice is already a form of collaborative inquiry or action research in which any action, research included, inevitably contains intention and acts as an intervention. While working with people in small and immediate systems, systemic practitioner researchers are critically reflexive in understanding how local issues are connected to wider socio-political systems and discourses.
    • Empowering parents : evaluation of parents as partners in safeguarding children and young people in Lancashire project 2014 – 2017

      Shuker, Lucie; Ackerley, Elizabeth; Parents Against Child Sexual Exploitation; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-05-01)
      This report presents the findings of an evaluation of the project ‘Parents as partners in safeguarding children and young people in Lancashire, June 2014 to May 2017’. The project was delivered by Parents against child sexual exploitation (Pace) and centred around the work of a Parent Liaison Officer (PLO) placed in the multi-agency ‘Engage’ team in Blackburn with Darwen, Lancashire.
    • The end of the line? the impact of county lines drug distribution on youth crime in a target destination

      Andell, Paul; Pitts, John (2018-01-01)
      Paul Andell and John Pitts explore, through local research, young people's gang involvement and subsequent engagement with the national and international drugs trade.
    • Engagement of community, specialist and voluntary organisations: extract #4

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Curtis, George; Fritz, Danielle; Olaitan, Paul; Latchford, Lia; Lloyd, Jenny; Larasi, Ikamara; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-06-17)
      This extract from the report 'Towards a Contextual Response to Peer-on-Peer Abuse: Research and Resources from MsUnderstood local site work 2013-2016' highlights researchers' work with community, voluntary and specialist organisations in the response to peer-on-peer abuse. The extract discusses a train-the-trainer programme, a study on detached youth work provision and building awareness and partnerships amongst community sector provision.
    • England and Wales

      Bateman, Tim (Springer, 2016-12-21)
    • Enhancing empathy in the helping professions

      Kinman, Gail; Grant, Louise Jane (Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016-04-01)
      Human empathy is generally considered to be an extension of more ancient mammalian emotional contagion which enables one person to perceive, understand and share some of the emotional and mental states of another person (Watt, 2007). The demonstration of empathy is a pre-requisite for “helping” professionals, such as nurses, social workers, psychotherapists and physicians, as it underpins authentic person-centred care. Nonetheless, the negative implications of “uncontrolled” empathy have been highlighted. This chapter explores the empathy construct in helping contexts and discusses the implications of over- or under-identification with patients and clients for the well-being and performance of helping professionals. Particular focus is placed on the concept of “accurate” empathy which refers to the requirement for helping professionals to forge empathic and authentic connections with patients and clients whilst maintaining clear personal and emotional boundaries. The advantages of utilising extended models of empathy that encompass competencies such as reflective ability, emotional literacy and social competence are discussed. Also considered are ways in which empathic skills can be developed in order to manage the emotional demands inherent in helping professions more effectively.
    • Ethics as a moral duty: proposing an integrated ethics framework for migration research

      Opfermann, Lena S. (Oxford University Press, 2022-07-19)
      This article interrogates the assumptions and moral values underlying social research ethics frameworks and practices applicable to migration studies. Based on a review of forced migration literature and on empirical observations I identify three tiers of research ethics that generally guide ethical conduct in this field: Procedural, relational and reciprocal ethics. I suggest that these tiers are traditionally conceptualised as a hierarchy in which certain ethical demands are considered morally superior to others. Looking at each of the three tiers the article shows that procedural and relational ethics demands are often based on unclear moral values and problematic notions of migrants’ vulnerability. To address this shortcoming, I draw on deontological ethics and on Levinas’ notion of unconditional responsibility to argue that our duty as researchers is based on our particular relationship with our research subjects rather than on their status as migrants. Moving away from a hierarchical understanding of research ethics I then propose an integrated ethics framework that allows researchers to conceptualise and address the various ethical demands in an interconnected and holistic way. This framework presents an original contribution to research ethics discourses and practice in migration studies and other fields of social inquiry with a political and moral ambition such as human rights, social work and childhood studies.
    • Evaluating the quality of social work supervision in UK children's services: comparing self-report and independent observations

      Wilkins, David; Khan, Munira; Stabler, Lorna; Newlands, Fiona; Mcdonnell, John; Cardiff University; University of Bedfordshire; London Borough of Islington (Springer, 2018-12-31)
      Understanding how different forms of supervision support good social work practice and improve outcomes for people who use services is nearly impossible without reliable and valid evaluative measures. Yet the question of how best to evaluate the quality of supervision in different contexts is a complicated and as-yet-unsolved challenge. In this study, we observed 12 social work supervisors in a simulated supervision session offering support and guidance to an actor playing the part of an inexperienced social worker facing a casework-related crisis. A team of researchers analyzed these sessions using a customized skills-based coding framework. In addition, 19 social workers completed a questionnaire about their supervision experiences as provided by the same 12 supervisors. According to the coding framework, the supervisors demonstrated relatively modest skill levels, and we found low correlations among different skills. In contrast, according to the questionnaire data, supervisors had relatively high skill levels, and we found high correlations among different skills. The findings imply that although self-report remains the simplest way to evaluate supervision quality, other approaches are possible and may provide a different perspective. However, developing a reliable independent measure of supervision quality remains a noteworthy challenge.
    • Evaluation of independent child trafficking advocates trial: final report

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Hynes, Patricia; Connolly, Helen; Thurnham, Angela; Westlake, David; D'Arcy, Kate (Home Office, 2015-12-17)
      This report presents the findings from an evaluation of a 1 year trial of the independent child trafficking advocates.
    • An evaluation of Independent Child Trafficking Guardians – early adopter sites

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Connolly, Helen; Stott, Hannah; Roe, Stephen; Prince, Stuart; Long, James; Gordon-Ramsey, Samuel (Home Office, 2019-07-23)
      This evaluation, conducted by the Home Office and the University of Bedfordshire has assessed the ICTG service in the three original early adopter sites (Greater Manchester, Hampshire, and Wales). The evaluation, conducted across a two-year period from February 2017 – January 2019, considers the original model for the ICTG service which provided one-to-one ICTG support for all children. The overall aim of the evaluation is to answer the question: What is the ‘added value’ of the ICTG service, and is this different for different groups of children and in different early adopter sites?
    • Evaluation of the Alexi Project ‘Hub and Spoke’ programme of CSE service development. Final report.

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-11-01)
      This report details the evaluation of a programme of service development as it was rolled out through 16 new services, which were designed to extend the coverage and reach of child sexual exploitation (CSE) services in England. They were funded by the Child Sexual Exploitation Funders’ Alliance (CSEFA). The 16 services were all established by voluntary sector organisations, and specialised in working with young people affected by CSE. Each service adopted a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of service development, which involved an established voluntary sector CSE service (known as the ‘hub’), locating experienced project workers (known as ‘spokes’) in new service delivery areas. These spoke workers undertook a range of activities to improve CSE work locally, including individual casework and awareness-raising with children and young people, and consultancy, training and awareness-raising with professionals locally. The evaluation adopted a realist approach. This focusses not just on whether programmes or interventions work, but on how or why they might do so (Pawson and Tilley, 1997 ). It takes a theory-driven approach to evaluation rather than concentrating on particular types of evidence or focussing on ‘before’ and ‘after’ type data. It starts from the principle that interventions in themselves do not either ‘work’ or ‘not work’ – rather it is the people involved in them and the skills, attitudes, knowledge and approach they bring, together with the influence of context and resources, that determine the outcomes generated. The evaluation was undertaken between September 2013 and January 2017, exploring how the 16 services developed during a phased roll out. The evaluation team undertook extensive fieldwork at each site on two occasions (one visit for the final eight sites), including 276 interviews with Hub and Spoke staff, professionals locally from children’s services, police, and health, and with children and young people and parents/carers. In addition, quantitative data were collected (about numbers of young people and professionals reached), and spoke workers produced case studies about their work with young people.
    • Evaluation of the Alexi Project ‘Hub and Spoke’ programme of CSE service development: key messages

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Brodie, Isabelle; D’Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-11-30)
      The Alexi Hub and Spoke programme was an £8m service development programme, funded by the Child Sexual Exploitation Funders’ Alliance (CSEFA). It was designed to rapidly increase the capacity and coverage of specialist, voluntary sector child sexual exploitation (CSE) services within England. Sixteen CSE services were funded for three years each,1 over a five year period,2 with the aims of: 1. Making specialist support available to children and young people in a series of new locations. 2. Improving the co-ordination, delivery and practice of local services responding to CSE – including the police, children’s services and other partner agencies. The model known as ‘Hub and Spoke’ was used to achieve this, whereby a voluntary sector organisation (the ‘hub’) placed experienced CSE workers (‘spokes’) either within its own or into new neighbouring local authority areas, in order to extend its coverage and reach. These spoke workers undertook a variety of activities, including individual casework with children and young people, consultancy, and training and awareness-raising with children and young people and practitioners. In total, 53 spoke workers were placed out in 35 new local authority areas and supported by the 16 hub services.
    • Evaluation of the National Female Genital Mutilation Centre

      Munro, Emily; Tinarwo, Moreblessing; Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care; University of Bedfordshire (Department for Education, 2020-11-05)
      The National Female Genital Mutilation Centre (NFGMC) aims to achieve a system change in the provision of services for children and families who are affected by Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Harmful Practices (HPs), including breast ironing and flattening, and child abuse linked to faith or belief. The NFGMC project was funded as part of the Department for Education’s Children’s Social Care Innovation Programme to develop a system change in how local authorities respond to cases of FGM. The Tilda Goldberg Centre for Social Work and Social Care undertook the Round 2 mixed methods evaluation.
    • Evaluation of the sleep project for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in Kent

      Carr, Helen; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Sango, Precious Nonye; Canterbury Christ Church University (Canterbury Christ Church University, 2017-12-01)
      It has been a privilege to evaluate the Sleep Project intervention for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC). The opportunity to evaluate this project arose through discussions between the authors and Dr. Ana Draper, exploring the work of Ana, her team and colleagues across the various agencies in supporting newly-arrived migrant children in Kent. From 2015, there was a rapid increase in the number of UASC arriving into the region and services were quickly adapted to meet the specific and immediate needs of these vulnerable children and young people, the Sleep Project being just one of the innovative interventions put in place. Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and young people have usually experienced harrowing journeys to the United Kingdom (UK) in seeking safety and refuge. Once in the UK, adapting to life within reception centres, foster families or supported housing, brings further challenges and within this context, practitioners and the young people identified sleep as a key problematic issue for which they required extra support. Through conversations with practitioners and young people, sleep difficulties were a recurring issue. Lack of sleep and disturbed sleep was preventing the young people from engaging in planned activities such as language classes. Tiredness was having negative health and social/educational impacts. This evaluation studies the benefits and challenges of the creative support mechanisms that were developed to address the sleep issues. This report presents our findings from the evaluation study of the Sleep Project intervention. The study comprised of 18 interviews with practitioners either working directly or indirectly with UASC, in paid and voluntary capacities. From the interviews, the qualitative data was thematically analysed to develop themes under which the benefits and challenges of the intervention could be explored. Throughout the interviews with practitioners working either directly with UASC or indirectly in managerial roles, it became apparent that there was a high level of commitment from individuals to develop their understanding of UASCs’ needs and to develop appropriate social care practice and support. The interviews highlighted that practitioners were prepared to think and act creatively to improve and to tailor support for this group of children and young people. The findings of the evaluation suggest that the Sleep Project was very well-received by young people and practitioners alike. It provided practical resources and support for good sleep, and it encouraged conversations to develop between the practitioners and the young people, and between the young people themselves, normalising the sleep issues that they were experiencing, and, according to interviewees, the young people were found to be encouraging other young people to use the good sleep packs. The intervention helped the practitioners feel more confident and equipped with skills to talk to the young people about sleep and, possibly, this led to deeper discussions about individual journeys and experiences, allowing care to become more empathetic, specific and person-centred. Significantly, interviewees reported that the project allowed them to ‘look at the basics’, that is, practical help such as providing night lights and educating young people about factors that hamper a good night’s sleep, whilst practitioners gained a greater understanding and responsiveness as to why the young people could struggle with sleep. This greater understanding has been important for shifting the perceptions of practitioners, particularly those in educational roles, helping them to be more patient and supportive to young people struggling to get to lessons on time and to concentrate. Key messages from the findings of this evaluation study are encapsulated in the following quotes from interviewees: • ‘I think it’s thinking a bit more innovatively about the care we can provide’ • ‘A confidence to look at the basics’ • ‘Context switched concepts’. Proposed recommendations involve: sustaining the work so far, looking at how the project could/should have a legacy, and building on the developed knowledge and networks. At the time of the publication of this report, young people are being transferred to other receiving local authorities outside Kent – a national dispersal scheme that was agreed by the Home Office in June 2016 to ease the pressure on Kent - therefore good practice from this project should be widely disseminated to service providers and policy makers at regional and national levels.
    • Evidence based approaches to violence reduction: a discussion paper

      Davey, Peter; Bath, Rachel; Staniforth, Rachel; Firmin, Carlene Emma; MacFarlane, Colin; Sebire, Jackie; Cestaro, David; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2021-03-30)
      This document helps practitioners to understand Public Health, Problem-solving and Contextual Safeguarding approaches as three complementary evidence-based approaches to violence reduction.
    • Evidence-based models of policing to protect children from sexual exploitation

      Allnock, Debra; Lloyd, Jenny; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-12-01)
      This research, carried out between 2015 and 2017 was undertaken by a team at the International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, trafficking and violence at the University of Bedfordshire. The International Centre has an established reputation for child-centred research and recently completed an initiative joint funded by the Home Office, Higher Education Funding Council for England and College of Policing to improve and share learning on policing child sexual exploitation (CSE) (see website https://www.uobcsepolicinghub.org.uk/). The original overarching aim of this research project was “to improve multi-agency work with police to prevent child sexual exploitation”. It was funded by KPMG Foundation and Norfolk Constabulary, supported by The National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC) Lead for Child Protection and Abuse Investigation. This research is the first study of its kind. It is the first to document examples of current operating models of police responses to CSE in England and Wales; the first to attempt to draw out summaries of how features of policing improve disruption and prosecution of offenders; and the first study to assess the features of CSE policing responses in relation to the outcomes for victims. The research involved interviewing police officers and civilian staff including researchers and analysts from CSE teams across eight selected study forces in England.
    • Evidencing peer-on-peer abuse in educational settings

      Fritz, Danielle; Firmin, Carlene Emma; Contextual Safeguarding Network; University of Bedfordshire (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2016-12-31)
      The purpose of this learning project was to understand how professionals capture, share and use information about peer-on-peer abuse that occurs within schools and alternative education settings. We highlight examples of promising practice and identify challenges professionals face in recording, sharing and/or using this information. Sixteen practitioners participated in this Learning Project, including professionals working within education, youth justice, children and young people’s services and the voluntary sector.