• Calling time: addressing ageism and age discrimination in alcohol policy, practice and research

      Wadd, Sarah; Holley-Moore, George; Riaz, Amna; Jones, Rebecca; Drink Wise, Age Well; University of Bedfordshire; International Longevity Centre (Drink Wise, Age Well, 2017-12-04)
      This report reveals evidence of age discrimination in alcohol policy, practice and research.  The findings are based on a survey of professionals, interviews and focus groups with older adults with alcohol problems and a summative review of relevant policy and published literature.
    • Can we reliably measure social work communication skills? development of a scale to measure child and family social work direct practice

      Whittaker, Charlotte E.; Forrester, Donald; Killian, Mike; Jones, Rebecca (European Scientific Association on Residential & Family Care for Children and Adolescents, 2017-01-01)
      Few attempts have been made to define and measure the effectiveness of social work communication skills. This paper describes a coding scheme for rating seven dimensions of skilled communication in child and family social work practice and presents an empirical evaluation of whether the dimensions can be coded for reliably. Four dimensions of skill were adapted from the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) code. A further three dimensions, primarily related to appropriate use of authority, were developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The seven dimensions were used to score 133 audio recordings of direct practice. Of these, 28 (21%) were scored by three independent raters in order to test inter-rater reliability (IRR). IRR was assessed using Krippendorff’s α and Intra-class correlation (ICC). Results indicate that it is possible to reliably measure key elements of skilled communication, with Krippendorff’s α scores ranging from .461 (good) to .937 (excellent) and ICC ranging from .731 (good) to .967 (excellent). Establishing reliability provides a foundation for exploring the validity of the measure and the relationship between these skills and outcomes, as well as for further research looking at the impact of training, supervision or other methods of professional development on skills in practice. The problems and potential contribution of using such an approach are discussed. 
    • The Care Act 2014: a new legal framework for safeguarding adults in civil society : Special edition editorial

      Penhale, Bridget; Brammer. Alison; Morgan, Pete; Kingston, Paul; Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017-06-20)
    • Carolingian Domesticities

      Stone, Rachel; Bennett, Judith; Karras, Ruth Mazo; University of Bedfordshire; University of Southern California; University of Minnesota (Oxford University Press, 2013-01-01)
      Carolingian ideas of "home" and "family" encompassed a wide range of meanings from physical buildings to kin and free and unfree dependents. Kinship ties played a vital role, both socially and politically, and marriage practices reflected that; Carolingian reforms respected parents' strategies concerning their children's marriages. The Frankish economy was structured around nuclear households, from peasant tenancies to the huge estates presided over by noble men and women. Male and female activities in both production and consumption were partially, but not completely gender-specific. Dowries provided some economic independence for women, but female wealth often depended on contingent factors such as family size and the attitudes of male relatives. The ordered conjugal household was an important image in Carolingian moral thought, with married women holding a subordinate, but honored position. Frankish ideology focused more on elite women's role in the management of dependents and social networks than on purely "housewifely" activities.
    • “Catching them young” – some reflections on the meaning of the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales

      Bateman, Tim (Emerald, 2014-06-30)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the tension between government protestations that youth justice policy is evidence-led and what the evidence implies in the context of the age of criminal responsibility. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of a conceptual analysis of government policy and the evidence base. Findings – The paper concludes that the current low age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales can be understood as a manifestation of the influence of underclass theory on successive governments. Research limitations/implications – The paper is not based on primary research. Practical implications – The arguments adduced help to explain the reluctance of government to countenance any increase in the age of criminal responsibility. Social implications – The analysis might help inform approaches adopted by youth justice policy makers, practitioners and academics with an interest in seeking a rise in the age of criminal responsibility. Originality/value – The paper offers an original analysis of government intransigence on an important social issue.
    • CCTC final report: care leavers' transitions to adulthood in the context of COVID-19

      Munro, Emily; Friel, Seana; Baker, Claire; Lynch, Amy; Walker, Kirsche; Williams, Jane; Cook, Erica Jane; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2022-05-24)
      The Care Leavers, COVID-19 and Transitions from Care (CCTC) study was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), as part of UK Research and Innovation’s rapid response to COVID-19 (ES/V016245/1). The research explored care leavers’ experience of the pandemic. Analysis of local authority management information system data on over 1300 young people from 10 local authorities and over 60 interviews with young people and professionals informed the study. As part of the study care experienced adults, leaving care workers and operational managers came together to form a Networked Learning Community (NLC). Over a series of sessions the NLC supported the research team to interpret the findings, develop recommendations and tools for practice
    • Child abuse: en evidence base for confident practice

      Corby, Brian; Shemmings, David; Wilkins, David (Open University Press, 2012-11-01)
      This best-selling text has been used by countless students, practitioners and researchers as a key reference on child protection issues. The book demystifies this complex and emotionally-charged area, outlining research, history, social policy and legislation, as well as the theory and practice underpinning child protection work.  Written by influential academics and practitioners, this updated edition looks at child protection practices in a global context and provides: * The latest research and thinking on the causes of child abuse, including new insights from the field of attachment theory * An updated overview of child protection practices, ranging from the 19th Century to the recent 'Baby P' tragedy * Detailed analysis and coverage of the Munro review of child protection in England and the work of the Social Work Reform Board * Insights into the difficulties in understanding risk and protective factors – and suggestions for new ways of approaching and assessing this area Using examples to highlight key discussions and points, this book will enhance the confidence, knowledge and skills of practitioners, supervisors and managers.
    • Child neglect: the research landscape

      Allnock, Debra (Jessica Kingsley, 2016-01-01)
    • Child protection and contexts of recognition

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; (Wiley, 2020-04-06)
      The papers in this edition of Child Abuse Review cover a broad range of topics relevant to the protection of children and the prevention of abuse. From child safety in sporting contexts, the identification of children with early adverse experiences, and supporting young children within foster care settings; through to routes for disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) and the educational experiences of young people living in domestic abuse refuges – the papers selected cover a diverse ground. Yet collectively they tell a shared story about the contexts of child abuse – and importantly the contexts in which child abuse can be recognised, and thereby prevented or disrupted.
    • Child protection in Islamic contexts: identifying cultural and religious appropriate mechanisms and processes using a roundtable methodology

      Hutchinson, Aisha; O'Leary, Patrick J.; Squire, Jason; Hope, Kristen (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2014-04-03)
      This paper reports on a piece of research which brought together eight Islamic scholars, four child protection academics and two international development agencies to identify mechanisms and processes which safeguard children from harm that are congruent with Islamic scholarship and practices. Roundtable methodology was used to share knowledge, build networks and increase engagement with child protection by bringing together different stakeholders to share experiences and encourage collaboration in a relatively cost-effective manner. Four key themes were identified following initial qualitative data analysis of the roundtable discussion: (1) The convergence and divergence in Islamic thought on issues of child protection; (2) knowledge sharing and partnership working; (3) individual and collective wellbeing; and (4) mechanisms and tools for intervention. Findings from the roundtable indicate that a reliance on solely Western-based models does not allow for the trust and credibility that enable intervention at a deeper level in Islamic communities. Critically, the roundtable highlighted a significant gap in how Islamic knowledge and principles are practically applied to child protection policy and practice in international development contexts. Next steps are identified for building a knowledge base that can be practised in Islamic communities.
    • Child protection with Muslim communities: considerations for non-Muslim-based orthodoxies/paradigms in child welfare and social work

      O’Leary, Patrick; Abdalla, Mohamad; Hutchinson, Aisha; Squire, Jason; Young, Amy; Griffith University; University of South Australia; University of Bedfordshire; King’s College London; University of Johannesburg; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-20)
      The care and protection of children are a concern that crosses ethnic, religious and national boundaries. How communities act on these concerns are informed by cultural and religious understandings of childhood and protection. Islam has specific teachings that relate to the care and guardianship of children and are interpreted in diverse ways across the Muslim world. Islamic teachings on child-care mostly overlap with Western understandings of child protection, but there can be some contested positions. This creates complexities for social workers intervening in Muslim communities where the basis of their intervention is primarily informed by a non-Muslim paradigm or occurs in secular legal contexts. The purpose of this article is to address at a broad level the issue of how overarching concepts of child protection and Islam influence social work practice with Muslim communities. It addresses a gap in practical applications of the synergy of  Islamic thinking with core social work practice in the field of child protection. For effective practice, it is argued that social work practitioners need to consider common ground in Islamic thinking on child protection rather than rely on Western frameworks. This requires further research to build evidence-based practice with Muslim families.
    • Child sexual abuse in custodial institutions: a rapid evidence assessment

      Mendez Sayer, Ellie; Rodger, Holly; Soares, Claire; Hurcombe, Rachel; IICSA Research Team (Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse, 2018-03-31)
      Child sexual abuse (CSA) involves forcing or enticing a child or young person under the age of 18 to take part in sexual activities. It includes contact and non-contact abuse, child sexual exploitation (CSE) and grooming a child in preparation for abuse. As part of its work the Inquiry is undertaking an investigation into the extent of any institutional failures to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation while in custodial institutions. The investigation will consider the nature and scale of child sexual abuse within the youth secure estate in addition to institutional responses to the sexual abuse of children in the youth secure estate. The rapid evidence assessment (REA) has been carried out to inform the investigation by reviewing the existing research evidence base. The REA explores the following: • Evidence related to the prevalence of child sexual abuse in custodial institutions; • Socio-demographic characteristics, both of victims and perpetrators; • The factors associated with failure to protect or act to protect children in the care of custodial institutions; • The nature of the safeguarding systems in place and how they have changed over the years; • Recommendations in the literature regarding how those systems may be improved to better protect children in custody from sexual abuse
    • Child sexual exploitation

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Beckett, Helen (Cambridge University Press, 2014-10-01)
      The issue of child sexual exploitation (CSE) has received increasing attention in recent years following a number of high-profile legal cases, a growing body of research evidence, and a series of policy imperatives clarifying agency responsibilities and expected responses to the issue. Acknowledging that awareness and understanding of CSE is, in many ways, still in its infancy – yet recognizing that there are clear expect-ations upon professionals in terms of their required responses to the issue – this chapter provides a synopsis of learning around CSE in terms of definition, identification and response. The chapter purposively does not consider issues specific to forensic gynaecology in terms of examination or aftercare, but instead refers the reader to Chapters 8 and 9 for a detailed expos-ition of these issues.
    • Child sexual exploitation : definition & guide for professionals: extended text

      Beckett, Helen; Holmes, D.; Walker, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-02-01)
      This work was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) and is the extended text from which the DfE document ‘Child Sexual Exploitation: Definition and a guide for practitioners, local leaders and decision makers working to protect children from child sexual exploitation’ has been drawn. This can be viewed at www.gov.uk. The document outlines the new civil definition of child sexual exploitation, developed by the Home Office and DfE, together with an overview of our current understanding of the issue and an evidence-informed set of principles for responding. This extended version of the ‘guide’ provides professionals1 with further background information about child sexual exploitation and offers additional commentary around some of the complexities of practically responding to the issue. The document should be read in conjunction with Working together to safeguard children: A guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children (hereafter referred to as Working Together), that provides the statutory framework for responding to child sexual exploitation and all other forms of abuse. The content of this document does not in any way supersede the statutory provisions of Working Together, but rather considers some of the nuances and challenges of applying its requirements and principles to this particular form of abuse. This extended version of the ‘guide’ draws on the existing evidence base to identify issues that have proved challenging to address in practice and to draw out lessons learnt in relation to this. It does not seek to provide readers with a ‘step-by-step’ approach to addressing child sexual exploitation, but instead provides a high-level framework for building a locally informed enhanced response that concurrently addresses prevention, and responses to victimhood and perpetration, and supports the exercise of ‘professional curiosity’ within this. Although the document focuses on child sexual exploitation, many of the principles outlined herein hold relevance for responding to other forms of exploitation, abuse and vulnerability in adolescence and readers are encouraged to consider the interconnectedness of these issues and the transferability of learning between them.
    • Child sexual exploitation and consent to sexual activity: a developmental and context-driven approach

      Pearce, Jenny J.; Coy, Maddy; IASR (Cambridge University Press, 2018-08-31)
    • Child sexual exploitation prevention education : a rapid evidence assessment

      Bovarnick, Silvie; Scott, Sara; University of Bedfordshire; DSMS; Barnardo's (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-06-01)
      With their ability to reach the largest number of children and young people, schools have the potential to play an invaluable role in preventative education (Beckett et al 2013; The Education and Training Inspectorate 2014). However, while UK safeguarding policies recognise the unique position of schools and other educational settings in delivering prevention programmes to a ‘captive audience’ (OFSTED 2012; The Education and Training Inspectorate 2014), relatively little is known about what makes such work effective (Topping and Barron 2009). This briefing is based on a rapid assessment of the available evidence relevant to CSE prevention education. It brings together key messages from research and evaluation about what works to prevent sexual exploitation and promote healthy relationships. As specific evidence is limited, it also incorporates some messages from other kinds of prevention work in educational settings. It explores what successful interventions might look like, how they should be delivered, and what impact such interventions might be expected to achieve.
    • Child sexual exploitation: definition and practitioner briefing paper

      Beckett, Helen; Walker, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Scottish Government, 2016-10-01)
      This paper outlines the new national definition of child sexual exploitation (CSE) for Scotland and some key contextual considerations that should inform all professionals’ and agencies’ interpretations of their child protection responsibilities in relation to this form of abuse. Readers should note that the term ‘child’ is used to refer to anyone under the age of 18 years.
    • Child sexual exploitation: why theory matters

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2019-11-30)
      This book explores the contribution that different theoretical perspectives make to our understanding of child sexual exploitation (CSE). It addresses the ways that these theories can influence our practice with children and young people affected by CSE and offers scope to identify when and why particular approaches are adopted.  Each chapter identifies a particular theoretical approach, explains its meaning and then offers an understanding of how this can enhance our practice. Covering topics such as how structuration theory offers us  a way to move beyond simplistic binary oppositions such as ‘victim’ and ‘perpetrator’;  how discourse  analysis can illustrate how and why our understanding of CSE as a form of abuse has changed over time; how contextual safeguarding helps us to explore the importance of relationships, places and spaces outside of the home environment; how laisse-faire approaches to internet providers impact on their engagement with managing abuse on line; how lifespan development theories place adolescence in context with emotional maturation and  brain development; how psychodynamic understandings and trauma informed understandings help us to address the impact of abuse; how we can enhance ‘empathy’ through understanding its relationship with ecology and social support structures;  and how our understanding of the impact of racism, gender and disability can help understand situations faced by children affected by CSE  as well as our role in advocating for change. This work aims to ‘bring theory home’ into our everyday practice and encourages individuals, teams and agencies to consider how their work with children affected by CSE is informed and developed.
    • Children at the centre of safety: challenging the false juxtaposition of protection and participation

      Warrington, Camille; Larkins, Cath; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire (Emerald, 2019-09-05)
      Guest editorial