• Balancing risk and protective factors: how do social workers and managers analyse referrals that may indicate children are at risk of significant harm?

      Wilkins, David (Oxford University Press, 2013-09-07)
      This paper is based upon the findings of a qualitative study of how child protection social workers and social work managers analyse referrals. The study involved interviews with eighteen participants based on four vignettes of children potentially at risk of emotional, physical or sexual abuse or neglect. Three themes in particular are discussed—the balancing of risk, protective and resilience factors; the use of family history and the child's wider circumstances; and ‘known’ and ‘unknown’ unknowns (‘missing information’). These findings are considered in relation to the potential use of actuarial risk assessment tools or Structured Decisions Making tools in child protection social work. The first of two conclusions is that when given adequate space and time the participants tended to be to be reflective and analytical, but that difficulties remained in their ability to analyse the referrals, in particular with the identification of protective or resilience factors and in the balancing of risk and protective or resilience factors in relation to individual children. The second conclusion is that social workers and managers may benefit from assistance in identifying protective and resilience factors (and distinguishing between protective factors and resilience factors) in particular and this may offer a focus for the introduction of structured tools as a way to support current practice rather than to replace it.
    • Barnardo’s ReachOut: final evaluation report March 2019

      McNeish, Di; Scott, Sara; Lloyd, Sarah; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire; DMSS Research (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-03-01)
      ReachOut is a preventative child sexual exploitation (CSE) project established in 2016 under a partnership funding agreement between Barnardo’s, the KPMG Foundation, Department for Education, Communities and Local Government and Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council (RMBC). An independent evaluation was commissioned from the University of Bedfordshire with DMSS Research both to evaluate the impact of the project and to provide ongoing learning and feedback. A diverse staff team was recruited from a range of professional backgrounds including criminal justice, social work and youth work. There have been three main strands of work undertaken by ReachOut in order to achieve its aims: •Outreach work to raise awareness and provide support to children and young people in their communities  •Healthy relationship education in schools and other settings •Direct support for children and young people identified as at risk of CSE. These have operated at three levels of prevention: universal, including outreach at community events across Rotherham, helping to convey the message  that CSE is relevant to everyone; primary prevention, including education work in schools reaching over 2000 children and young people; targeted prevention with groups and communities identified as potentially more vulnerable to CSE as well as direct work with around 300 individual children and young people. Over the course of the three years, evaluators have carried out interviews with ReachOut staff and managers and representatives from external agencies; observed sessions of delivery; interviewed samples of young people and parents; analysed feedback questionnaires from school students and staff; reviewed project monitoring and samples of case records.
    • Barriers children face complaining about social work practice: a study in one English local authority

      Diaz, Clive; Pert, Hayley; Hill, Lauren; Aylward, Tricia; Neill, Donna (Wiley, 2019-09-04)
      Despite the introduction of guidelines and procedures aimed at encouraging and supporting children and young people to complain about the services they receive, children in care still face barriers to doing so in practice. This paper explores what happens when children in care are dissatisfied with the services they receive. Specifically, this study examines the complaints procedure for children in care. The findings are based on semistructured interviews with children in care, social workers, senior managers, and independent reviewing officers from one English local authority. Thematic analysis of these data identified five emergent themes: (a) complaints by children in care are managed at the lowest possible level, (b) senior managers have an overly optimistic view about children in care being informed of complaint procedures and being encouraged to do so, (c) children in care are worried about complaining, which is recognized by professionals, (d) children's voices are often not heard, and (e) when issues are clearly defined, independent reviewing officers have some degree of success in resolving complaints from children in care.
    • The beam and shadow of the spotlight: visibility and invisibility in women’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse

      Neale, Jo; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-29)
      Although it has received greater policy attention in recent years, domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a global problem that, at a national level, remains under-reported, under-prosecuted and under-convicted. The apparent ineffectiveness of policy approaches in reducing the incidence of DVA, or mitigating its social and economic costs, not least upon those directly experiencing DVA, forms the backcloth of this enquiry. The aim of the study presented in this thesis was to explore, from a feminist poststructuralist perspective, the processes by which heterosexual women enter, endure and leave abusive relationships. Using semi-structured narrative style interviews, I worked with fourteen women with a wide range of characteristics in terms of age, ethnicity, physicality, socio-economic status and the length of time elapsed since their experiences of abuse. Using Nicola Gavey’s (2005) concept of cultural scaffolding (the discourses and [hetero]normative practices that make it so difficult to identify a relationship as abusive), I examined the space between normalised heterosexual relationships and abuse and, in the process, provided a better understanding of women’s routes into DVA. I have shone a spotlight on the full range of perpetrators’ behaviours that entrap and oppress their female partners and have identified four key domains in which the tactics of the abuser work to: ensnare his victim; dismantle her previous identities; prevent her from leaving the relationship; and punish her for leaving. These include behaviours used to manipulate women’s social and support networks in order to prolong or sabotage their attempts to escape the abuse. From a feminist poststructuralist perspective, participants’ experiences of entering, enduring and leaving abusive relationships can be read as part of the wider cultural scaffolding of heteropatriarchy, which left them exposed to ensnarement and exploitation. Using Dark Triad (Paulhus 2002) as a model for conceptualising perpetrators’ manipulation of their ex-partners, their children, and professionals, I offer an alternative way of understanding men’s abuse of their female partners.
    • Being heard: promoting children and young people’s involvement in participatory research on sexual violence: findings from an international scoping review

      Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; Warrington, Camille; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (The International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, violence and trafficking, University of Bedfordshire, 2018-08-01)
      This report shares findings from an international scoping review conducted on the engagement of children and young people in participatory research on sexual violence. The report discusses a range of ethical and practical challenges of involving vulnerable children and young people in participatory research on sensitive issues and draws out key considerations for research practice.
    • Between the stone and the mirror: Tlatelolco 1968 massacre and poetic debates on the history of violence

      Carpenter, Victoria (Centro Internacional de Estudios Superiores de Comunicación para América Latina (CIESPAL), 2018-11-01)
      On 2 October 1968, ten days before the Olympic Games began in Mexico, a student demonstration in the Plaza of Three Cultures in the Tlatelolco district of the capital was attacked by the army, paramilitary squads and police. Many were killed, including residents of the apartment blocks in the square. The massacre soon became the subject of many debates, studies, and literary works, whose aim is to keep the event alive in the collective memory and to tell “the truth” about what happened that night. The first poetic responses to the massacre told the story of the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec empire as a metaphor or the Tlatelolco massacre. We shall explore these texts to determine whether the parallels drawn between the Tlatelolco 1968 massacre and the pivotal events in Mexican history reveal the habitual or affective nature of “2 de octubre.” The analysis is based on the theory of posthegemony with a particular focus on the notions of affect and habit, exploring these in the context of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of collective memory. The essay focuses on the hitherto unexplored theoretical perspective of the posthegemonic nature of a violent event’s symbolic value.
    • 'Between two fires' : understanding vulnerabilities and the support needs of people from Albania, Viet Nam and Nigeria who have experienced human trafficking into the UK

      Hynes, Patricia; Burland, Patrick; Thurnham, Angela; Dew, Jenniffer; Gani-Yusuf, Lola; Lenja, Valbona; Tran, Hong Thi; Olatunde, Aye; Gaxha, Alketa; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (University of Bedfordshire and International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2019-08-01)
      Final report of a two-year research study into understanding the causes, dynamics and 'vulnerabilities' to human trafficking in three source countries - Albania, Viet Nam and Nigeria - plus the support needs of people from these countries who have experienced trafficking to the UK. The study was carried out as a partnership between the University of Bedfordshire and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). 
    • Beyond David and Solomon: Biblical models for Carolingian laymen

      Stone, Rachel; Patzold, Steffen; Bock, Florian; University of Bedfordshire; University of Tubingen (de Gruyter, 2016-10-01)
    • Beyond referrals: levers for addressing harmful sexual behaviour in schools: a self-assessment resource for schools

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Bradbury, Vanessa; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-12-31)
      The Beyond Referrals self-assessment toolkit is intended to support schools to identify and assess the factors that contribute to addressing HSB in schools. The Beyond Referrals project launched the toolkit in 2018, following research in schools. This new updated version includes new levers and guidance on carrying out the self-assessment. The toolkit is supported by online tutorials available on the Contextual Safeguarding Network.
    • Beyond referrals: levers for addressing harmful sexual behaviours between students at school in England

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-18)
      From sexist comments and harassment through to contact offences, schools are locations where young people experience sexual abuse from peers. This paper reports findings of a multi-site study into levers for preventing peer-sexual abuse in educational settings in England. Data gathered through practice observations, case and policy reviews and focus groups with professionals and students were analysed through the lens of both a whole school approach and Contextual Safeguarding with a particular focus on gender to identify four levers of peer-sexual abuse prevention. This paper reports how these four levers interact to create social conditions which prevent, or reduce the risk of, peer-sexual abuse in schools. Opportunities for schools, regulators and child protective services to use these levers, and the methodologies employed to identify them, are also outlined, as well as implications for policy
    • Black young people and gang involvement in London

      Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE, 2020-04-06)
      Drawing upon research undertaken by the present author in East, North West and South London and the work of other UK social scientists, this article considers the evidence concerning the involvement of young people of African-Caribbean origin and Mixed Heritage in street gangs and gang crime in London (For the sake of brevity, I will simply refer to these young people as Black, not least because this is how they usually define themselves). It outlines the sometimes acrimonious debate about the relationship between race, crime and street gangs in the United Kingdom in the past three decades, concluding that while many of the claims made about this relationship may be exaggerated or simply untrue, the evidence for the over-representation of Black young people in street gangs in London is compelling. The article then turns to the changing social and economic predicament of some Black young people in the capital since the 1980s and its relationship with their involvement in gang crime. Finally, it considers the role of drugs business in the proliferation of the gang form and ‘gangsta’ culture and the involvement of growing numbers of younger Black people in County Lines drug dealing.
    • Bodies over borders: the sized body and geographies of transnationalism

      Lloyd, Jenny; Newcastle University (Taylor & Francis, 2013-06-03)
      This article connects the study of transnationalism with the growing area of fat studies. It proposes that a ‘trans-sizing’ approach to the body has the potential to illuminate both accounts of transnational migration and the body. I conclude by outlining two research agendas with the aim of expanding the focus of work on fatness and transnationalism; first, through focusing on (anti)obesity discourse in China, and second, on the relational experiences of migrant encounters in global cities.
    • Book review: Children, young people and the press in a transitioning society: representations, reactions and criminalisation

      Bateman, Tim (Wiley, 2018-08-25)
      Review of Children, Young People and the Press in a Transitioning Society: Representations, Reactions and Criminalisation By Faith Gordon, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018 ISBN 9781137606822, 293 pp, £88 (hb)
    • Book review: Death, the dead and popular culture

      Miles, Philip (SAGE, 2019-08-26)
      Book review of Penforld-Mounce, R. "Death, the dead and popular culture" Emerald:, 2018 9781787430549
    • Book review: Passionate and pious: religious media and black women's sexuality

      Maylor, Uvanney (Taylor and Francis, 2018-10-22)
      Book review of Passionate and Pious: Religious Media and Black Women's Sexuality by Monique Moultrie Duke University Press, 2017 (ISBN: 9780822370048)
    • 'Bound from either side': The limits of power in Carolingian marriage disputes, 840-870

      Stone, Rachel; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007-10-10)
    • Breaking down language barriers: a practice-near study of social work using interpreters

      Westlake, David; Jones, Rebecca (Oxford University Press, 2017-08-16)
      This paper explores how social workers can communicate effectively using an interpreter. It examines how child and family practitioners describe their experiences of working with interpreters and uses audio recordings of home visits to analyse how the challenges they describe manifest in practice. The analysis is based on audio recordings of nineteen interpreter-mediated meetings between workers and families, and two focus groups with practitioners. Recordings were categorised using quantitative coding, and data were analysed thematically. Although workers find using an interpreter challenging, in practice, skilled practitioners are able to work effectively providing they adopt an assertive approach. This is characterised by clarifying misunderstandings, involving the client in ‘chit-chat’ to build rapport and, where clients have differing levels of language proficiency, conducting the conversation entirely in the native language. The study demonstrates the centrality of social worker skills in managing interpreter-mediated sessions and improving practice for non-native-speaking families. This has implications for social work practice internationally.
    • Bursting the bubble: spatialising safety for privileged migrant women in Singapore

      Cranston, Sophie; Lloyd, Jenny (Wiley, 2018-08-13)
      This paper develops geographical work that is attentive to, and critical of, how safety is lived and narrated. In contrast to previous work on safety that focuses on fear, the paper looks at safety as something more than aspiration for women. To do so, the paper utilises the metaphor of the ‘expatriate bubble’ to explore how safety is constructed and experienced by privileged migrants within Singapore. Utilising research from two projects, we argue that we need to think about how gender and Othering intersect to construct safety. In doing so, we think about how we can use conceptualisations of privileged migrants to research how safety can be understood and therefore practised more widely.