• CCTC final report: care leavers' transitions to adulthood in the context of COVID-19

      Munro, Emily; Friel, Seana; Baker, Claire; Lynch, Amy; Walker, Kirsche; Williams, Jane; Cook, Erica Jane; Chater, Angel M.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2022-05-24)
      The Care Leavers, COVID-19 and Transitions from Care (CCTC) study was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), as part of UK Research and Innovation’s rapid response to COVID-19 (ES/V016245/1). The research explored care leavers’ experience of the pandemic. Analysis of local authority management information system data on over 1300 young people from 10 local authorities and over 60 interviews with young people and professionals informed the study. As part of the study care experienced adults, leaving care workers and operational managers came together to form a Networked Learning Community (NLC). Over a series of sessions the NLC supported the research team to interpret the findings, develop recommendations and tools for practice
    • How the signified went missing in twentieth-century economic theory: Mises, Hayek and Schumpeter and the abolition of value

      Hoctor, Tom (Taylor & Francis, 2022-04-29)
      This article contributes to a growing literature on economic epistemologies by arguing that so-called ‘neoliberal’ ways of thinking are characteristic of a trend in wider social theory to privilege epistemological problematics over ontological ones. It will approach the shared nature of these epistemological precepts through an interrogation of the formal approaches to economic value used in the work of Schumpeter, Mises and Hayek and compare this with Derrida and Saussure’s understanding of linguistic value. Using a Marxian understanding of use-value, it will be argued that the movement to abolish the transcendental signified in post-structural philosophy is homologous to the abolition of objective value in economics. It will be claimed that the impulse to abolish the Thing shared by economic theorists and post- structuralists follows from a shared, though necessarily differently constituted, anti- socialism. In both cases, undermining the Thing is seen as a means of undermining organised socialist politics. I will conclude by arguing that these similarities demonstrate the need for neoliberalism and critique of neoliberalism to be historicised as part of a wider account of the relationship between contemporary capitalism, politics and the production of knowledge.
    • The consumer, the market and the universal aristocracy: the ideology of academisation in England

      Hoctor, Tom; (Sage, 2022-04-20)
      In 2018, academies accounted for 72% of all English secondary schools, compared to 6% in 2009 (National Audit Office, 2018). English academy schooling conforms to marketizing trends in international education reform, but Conservative politicians have also attempted to promote particular moral values. This article analyses the tensions between neoliberalism and neoconservatism and applies this analysis to a concrete debate taking place within the Conservative Party in the 2000s and 2010s. It uses arguments made by an illustrative group of Conservative politicians to explore and analyse the tension between these two reform trends. The aim of this article is twofold. Firstly, it will present the key arguments which were marshalled by a selection of thinkers affiliated with the Conservative Party in favour of educational reform. It will do this by analysing Conservative articulations of the failure of state education; the role of the consumer and the relationship between democracy and the market. Secondly, it will explore the degree to which marketizing and traditionalist impulses in education reform should be considered complimentary or contradictory. I will conclude by arguing that the parent-consumer functions as a vanishing mediator between neoliberal and neoconservative ideological positions.
    • Nothing about me without me

      Hill, N.; Warrington, Camille (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2022-04-19)
      This chapter aims to provide an overview of how participation and empowerment-focused approaches can promote improved relational practice and outcomes for young people in safeguarding . It builds on learning from emerging practice in interrelated disciplines such as youth and community work, social work, youth justice and adult safeguarding.
    • Learning from safeguarding adult reviews about Transitional Safeguarding: building an evidence base

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; Cocker, Christine; Cooper, Adi; University of Bedfordshire; University of East Anglia; Adult Social Care and Safeguarding (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2022-04-12)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out the evidence base to date for Transitional Safeguarding to support authors of Safeguarding Adult Reviews (SARs) where Transitional Safeguarding is a key theme in the review. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on key evidence from several published sources about Transitional Safeguarding in England. This evidence is presented in this paper as a framework for analysis to support SAR authors. It follows the same four domains framework used in other adult safeguarding reviews: direct work with individuals; team around the person; organisational support for team members; and governance. This framework was then applied to two SARs written by two of the article’s authors. Findings: The framework for analysis for Transitional Safeguarding SARs was applied as part of the methodology of two separate SARs regarding three young people. Key reflections from applying the framework to both SARs are identified and discussed. These included: providing an effective framework for analysis which all participants could use and a contribution for developing knowledge. Whilst many issues arising for safeguarding young people are similar to those for other adults, there are some unique features. The ways in which the gaps between children and adults systems play out through inter-agency and multi-professional working, as well as how “lifestyle choices” of young people are understood and interpreted are key issues. Practical implications: This paper presents an evidence base regarding Transitional Safeguarding for SAR authors who are tasked with completing a SAR where Transitional Safeguarding is a key theme. Originality/value: This paper draws together key literature and evidence about Transitional Safeguarding practice with young people. This paper argues that this framework for analysis provides SAR authors with a useful tool to support their analysis in this complex area of practice.
    • Young people negotiating intra-and extra familial harm and safety: social and holistic approaches

      Wroe, Lauren; Pearce, Jenny J. (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2022-03-21)
      This chapter provides a holistic and structurally informed framework for understanding the intersections between intra-familial and extra-familial harm in adolescence. It proposes this contextual, social and structural understanding of child harm as a way to interpret and respond to young peoples’ experiences of multiple forms of harms in their families and beyond. Building upon poverty aware, contextual and 'social models' of social work, it considers the need for holistic service responses that acknowledge and alleviate the structural pressures on families and young people. It challenges individualised social work approaches that ask individuals to change as opposed to social work approaches that embrace the impact of social and structural inequalities. Rather than understanding this focus on ‘context’ as a new voice in the room, the chapter draws on Black feminist scholarship that outlines how context might be used in social work.
    • ‘Keeping the informal safe’: strategies for developing peer support initiatives for young people who have experienced sexual violence

      Cody, Claire; Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; Warrington, Camille; University of Bedfordshire; Durham University (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022-02-27)
      There is increasing recognition of the value of trauma-informed approaches when working with young people affected by sexual violence. Peer support is a key principle of a trauma-informed approach; however, there are limited examples of peer support programmes for this group. This paper draws on interviews with 25 respondents with knowledge and experience of peer support initiatives with young people impacted by sexual violence. The article outlines their perspectives on how peer support initiatives – that may be viewed as more ‘risky’ than traditional casework – can be kept ‘safe’. Six strategies are identified together with implications for practice.
    • Autism and autistic traits in those who died by suicide in England

      Cassidy, Sarah; Au-Yeung, Sheena K.; Robertson, Ashley E.; Cogger-Ward, Heather; Richards, Gareth; Allison, Carrie; Bradley, Louise; Kenny, Rebecca; O'Connor, Rory; Mosse, David; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2022-02-15)
      Autism and autistic traits are risk factors for suicidal behaviour. To explore the prevalence of autism (diagnosed and undiagnosed) in those who died by suicide, and identify risk factors for suicide in this group. Stage 1: 372 coroners' inquest records, covering the period 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017 from two regions of England, were analysed for evidence that the person who died had diagnosed autism or undiagnosed possible autism (elevated autistic traits), and identified risk markers. Stage 2: 29 follow-up interviews with the next of kin of those who died gathered further evidence of autism and autistic traits using validated autism screening and diagnostic tools. Stage 1: evidence of autism (10.8%) was significantly higher in those who died by suicide than the 1.1% prevalence expected in the UK general alive population (odds ratio (OR) = 11.08, 95% CI 3.92-31.31). Stage 2: 5 (17.2%) of the follow-up sample had evidence of autism identified from the coroners' records in stage 1. We identified evidence of undiagnosed possible autism in an additional 7 (24.1%) individuals, giving a total of 12 (41.4%); significantly higher than expected in the general alive population (1.1%) (OR = 19.76, 95% CI 2.36-165.84). Characteristics of those who died were largely similar regardless of evidence of autism, with groups experiencing a comparably high number of multiple risk markers before they died. Elevated autistic traits are significantly over-represented in those who die by suicide.
    • Being ‘good enough’: perfectionism and well-being in social workers

      Kinman, Gail; Grant, Louise Jane; Birkbeck, University of London; University of Bedfordshire (Oxford University Press, 2022-02-03)
      Perfectionism refers to a tendency to set unrealistically high standards for oneself and others. Although often seen positively, perfectionism can threaten health, relationships and performance. This study examined the effects of three types of maladaptive perfectionism on burnout in 294 UK social workers: self-oriented (having excessively high standards for oneself), other-oriented (having excessively high expectations of others) and socially prescribed (perceiving external pressure to excel). In line with previous research, we predicted that socially prescribed perfectionism would have particularly powerful effects on well-being, but significant relationships with self and other-oriented perfectionism were also expected. We also examined whether maladaptive perfectionism intensified the negative impact of work-related emotional demands on burnout. Significant positive relationships were found between socially prescribed and other-oriented perfectionism and burnout. A higher level of socially prescribed perfectionism was found than self and other-oriented and its relationship with burnout was particularly strong. We found no evidence, however, that perfectionism was an additional risk factor for burnout when emotional demands were high. Early career social workers were found to be at greater risk of dysfunctional perfectionism and burnout. The implications of the findings for the well-being of social workers are considered and potential interventions outlined to reduce maladaptive perfectionism.
    • Growing sideways: re-articulating ontologies of childhood within/through relationships and sexuality education (RSE)

      Atkinson, Catherine; Coll, Leanne; McBride, Ruari-Santiago; Whittington, Elsie; Zanatta, Francesca; University of Manchester; Dublin City University; University of Limerick; University of Bedfordshire; University of East London (Wiley, 2022-02-01)
      This article presents a collaborative reflective-thinking-writing project that draws from the authors’ experiences of co-productive and critical inquiry with children in the field of gender, sexualities and education. Integrating our collective concerns regarding how childhood can be negatively framed and policed within/through RSE, we explore how these ontological boundaries might be queered through a collective engagement with the possibilities for/of RSE that is affirmative, playful and co-produced with, rather than for, children.
    • Sustaining Post-16 destinations from Alternative Provision: a review of the data and the perspectives of heads from low, mid and high performing schools

      Malcolm, Andrew David; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2022-01-11)
      This study set out to explore which practices in alternative provision (AP) settings in England made a difference to post-16 transition success into further education, training or employment. APs provide education for pupils who have been permanently excluded from mainstream schools and those directed there to improve their behaviour. In 2016 56% of young people transitioning from alternative provision maintained a stable placement in the following year. This study took an approach which combined the analysis of official statistics, freedom of information requests and targeted semi-structured interviews. Findings suggest that practices which increased sustained transitions included; effective and ongoing tracking of ex-students; a high quality, core academic offer; and opportunities for students to increase their independence by taking well measured steps outside of their main placement. Additionally, the views of staff and their involvement in, or awareness of, the broader context within which they worked were found to be important. This study evidences the value of comparing outcomes across similar types of setting to improve our understanding of effective practice.
    • Youth crime and youth justice

      Bateman, Tim (Sage, 2021-12-20)
    • Conceptualising and measuring levels of risk by immigration status for children in the UK

      Feinstein, Leon; Aleghfeli, Yousef Khalifa; Buckley, Charlotte; Gilhooly, Rebecca; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; University of Oxford; Just for Kids Law; Children’s Commissioner for England; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-09)
      Extensive evidence exists on how characteristics and circumstances of children shape their lifepaths and outcomes, and on the scale of resulting need. However, little research exists assessing the numbers of children who may be at risk of harm or disadvantage due to their immigration status. In this paper, we sought to establish the degree to which it is possible to monitor the aggregate vulnerability to risk of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. First, we developed an observable set of immigration risk and vulnerability factors through workshop consultations that were analysed to produce a core set of variables that might be measured to assess aggregate need by virtue of immigration status. Second, we assessed through an administrative data review what is known statistically about the numbers of children at risk by virtue of immigration status in the UK. This research indicates a considerable gap in statistical knowledge of the level of vulnerability of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. The approach we have developed provides a framework for future statistical work that might address this gap.
    • A systematic review of parenting interventions used by social workers to support vulnerable children

      Vseteckova, Jitka; Boyle, Sally; Higgins, Martyn; Open University; University of Bedfordshire; London South Bank University (SAGE, 2021-11-09)
      This paper reports on the findings from a systematic review of parenting interventions used by social workers to support vulnerable children in the United Kingdom. The study focused on children from birth to 11 years and 11 months based on Munro's rationale for early intervention. From the 423 papers initially identified, twelve met the inclusion criteria for this review. Four common themes were identified: developing relationships, the effectiveness of parenting interventions, societal impact on families and health and psychological concerns. The importance of effective relationships between parents and social workers was identified as key to effective parental interventions but there was limited evidence of improved outcomes for children despite this. A common factor in the studies was the level of parental deprivation which in many cases was associated with a range of mental health issues frequently seen in association with drug and alcohol abuse and domestic violence. The review identified a number of successful outcomes across a range of parenting interventions. However, what was surprising was the limited input from the children themselves within this review. Applying our findings to practice, the authors recommend a number of ways to contribute to the development of parenting interventions.
    • Bridging the care-crime gap: reforming the youth court?

      Bateman, Tim; National Association for Youth Justice; University of Bedfordshire (National Association for Youth Justice, 2021-10-26)
    • Beveridge or Bismarck? choosing the Nordic model in British healthcare policy 1997-2015

      Hoctor, Tom (Routledge, 2021-10-20)
      Historical and social science literature has a long tradition of interest in the Nordic model and its permutations and developments. This chapter will make two straightforward and related claims. First, that ideas about the Nordic model circulated in British political circles in the period 1997 to 2010 in the field of healthcare, and second, that this Nordic model was a departure from the ‘traditional’ social democratic conception of Norden, instead of relying heavily on New Public Management ideas. It will substantiate this claim using a policy diffusion model to analyse think-tank reports, political speeches, and articles from the popular and business press. I will claim that a dual process of policy learning was taking place in the 2000s with a group of broadly social democratic think tanks and media figures engaging with Nordic countries on the one hand and a group of free-market think tanks, journalists and the Conservative Party looking to Central European examples, especially Germany, on the other hand. Labour’s use of the Nordic model should, therefore, be seen as a means to defend taxation-funded healthcare against policymakers arguing for the adoption of a social insurance system. What Labour policymakers created was, in historical terms, a distinctive and quite British conception of the Nordic model which emphasised marketising and privatising aspects of Nordic reform trajectories that were consistent with Labour’s policy platform for the NHS.
    • Relational learning and teaching with BME students in social work education

      Dillon, Jean; Pritchard, Diana J.; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2021-10-07)
      Given the imperative to redress the education inequalities between Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) and White students, this contribution explores advances and challenges from within Social Work education (SWE) in relation to the experiences of Black social work students. Drawing on critical race theories and the concept of racial battle fatigue, it explores the impacts of race and racism on students' academic experience and wellbeing. It proposes the significance of relational wellbeing which has been a constant strand within Social Work education and comprises a valuable approach to the decolonisation process within higher education (HE). Linking this to critical pedagogy, it highlights the role of staff to build safety, confidence and trust to support students to overcome prior education experiences of under-attainment, disadvantage and social marginalisation. Despite the pervasiveness of managerialism within HE, which compromises the teacher-student relationship and emphasises measured changes in student 'outcomes', Social Work educators are invited to nurture safe and transformational learning environments.
    • Memories, mementos, and memorialization of young unaccompanied Afghans navigating within Europe

      Lønning, Moa Nyamwathi; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-28)
      This article considers memories, mementos, and memorialization in stories by unaccompanied young people and their journeys within Europe. It looks at their ‘navigation’ of remembering and forgetting and how this intertwines with movement and stillness. It is based on a study about Afghan males aged 15–24 years in Norway and Greece. Participants differed in terms of their backgrounds, migration projects, and their legal status. In their various circumstances, their narratives point to how memories unfold, are shared, must be negotiated, and sometimes, forgotten as they navigate towards a sense of safety and a sustainable future. They also point to how mementos may take different forms while on the move, as traces along the migration trail that have the potential to become part of the memories of others who come across them. Finally, their narratives point to practices of memorialization, and how they too are intimately connected to remembering and forgetting
    • Guest editorial: Innovation in children’s social care: from conceptualisation to improved outcomes?

      Munro, Emily; Skouteris, Helen; Newlands, Fiona; Walker, Steve; University of Bedfordshire; Monash University; Children’s Services, Leeds City Council (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-09-14)