• Cyberharassment Awareness Course (Cybac): influences from domestic abuse perpetrator programmes for its design and function

      Conradie, Liesl; Pitchford, Melanie; Myers, Ellie; Barnes, Jim; Short, Emma; Open University; University of Bedfordshire; Fatima College of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi (International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 2020-06-30)
      Cyberharassment as a crime has increased significantly in recent years and is covered by legislation in the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. Cyberharassment can be targeted towards individuals or groups of people. Perpetrators can be unknown or known to their victims and the methods of harassment are diverse. The use of domestic abuse (DA) programmes for first time or low risk offenders are employed to reduce recidivism and to safeguard victims. A first step in creating a cyberharassment awareness course identified the aspects that appear to contribute to the effectiveness of these DA programmes. Various aspects contributed to the success of domestic abuse programmes and they were influential in the development of the cyberharassment awareness course. The main aspects considered and included or recommended are the need for treatment readiness, excluding some perpetrators, multi-agency working, and the location and intensity of the programme. The programmes that proved successful made use of a group contract and included individual and group work aspects, all of which were mandatory. Cognitive behaviour therapy formed the backbone of programmes and empathy awareness training was considered. The needs of individual perpetrators were to be catered to and victims included where possible.
    • Coming to terms with the market: accounts of neoliberal failure and rehabilitation on the British Right

      Hoctor, Tom (Springer, 2020-06-19)
      Critique of “neoliberalism” is generally thought of as a preoccupation of the political Left. Here it will be argued that the British Right has also been developing a distinctive critique of neoliberalism and its failure, whether they thought about it in these precise terms or not. This represented an attempt by Conservative intellectuals to grapple with the enduring legacy of Thatcherism in the party. The objectives of this paper are threefold. Firstly, it will examine the contours of a distinctively Conservative description of neoliberal society by drawing on the work of Jesse Norman. Secondly, it will explain and contextualise their account of neoliberal economic failure and a possible avenue to its rehabilitation. And, thirdly, it will explain why this rehabilitation was itself a failure through a critique of Norman’s attempts to read Hayek through Burke. It concludes by observing that what civic forms of conservatism fail to offer is a thoroughgoing examination of functions that markets are unable to perform.
    • Supporting children’s resettlement (‘reentry’) after custody: beyond the risk paradigm

      Hazel, Neal; Bateman, Tim; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-06-07)
      In response to policy concerns in England and Wales and internationally, a considerable knowledge base has identified factors statistically associated with reduced recidivism for children leaving custodial institutions. However, despite resulting guidance on how to support resettlement (‘reentry’), practice and outcomes remain disappointing. We argue that this failure reflects weaknesses in the dominant ‘risk paradigm’, which lacks a theory of change and undermines children’s agency. We conceptualise resettlement as a pro-social identity shift. A new practice model reinterprets existing risk-based messages accordingly, and crucially adds principles to guide a child’s desistance journey. However, successful implementation may require the model to inform culture change more broadly across youth justice.
    • Two roads, one destination: community and organisational mechanisms for contextualising child abuse prevention in Australia and the UK

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Rayment-McHugh, S.; (Springer, 2020-05-04)
      Calls for a contextual approach to abuse prevention highlight a need to better understand how contextual frameworks may be operationalized.  Using a dual-case study design, this research compares two contrasting pilot projects underpinned by contextual theories of abuse prevention.  One was implemented in a small remote Indigenous community in Australia, and aimed to reduce the extent of youth-perpetrated sexual abuse.  The other occurred in a densely populated urban area in London (United Kingdom) and involved the co-creation and testing of a contextual child protection response to peer-to-peer abuse.  Despite their divergent approaches to developing contextual practice, a comparison of the two projects identified shared features of implementation. Both involved: context-specific community buy-in and ownership of a response to peer-to-peer abuse; solutions that were co-created between professionals and communities, and; the enhancement of community guardianship, pro-social use of space and changes to the physical design of areas to increase safety. Consequentially both projects demanded a radical transformation in the way health and social care professionals viewed the target of their interventions – the what- and the approach to achieving change – the how. Comparing these two case studies provides a unique opportunity to extend knowledge on the practical application of contextual theoretical approaches to abuse prevention. 
    • Safeguarding adult reviews: informing and enriching policy and practice on self-neglect

      Preston-Shoot, Michael; (Emerald, 2020-04-25)
      Purpose – One purpose is to update the core dataset of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews and accompanying thematic analysis. A second purpose is to explore the degree to which safeguarding adult reviews draw upon available research and learning from other completed reviews. Design/methodology/approach – Further published reviews are added to the core dataset, mainly drawn from the web sites of Safeguarding Adults Boards. Thematic analysis is updated using the four domains employed previously. The four domains and the thematic analysis are rounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent in this sample of reviews. Findings – Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness emerges as a subset within this sample, demonstrating that SABs are engaging in reviews of people who die on the streets or in temporary accommodation.   Research limitations/implications – The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete and does not contain many of the safeguarding adult reviews reported in this evolving dataset. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. NHS Digital annual datasets do not enable identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. It is possible, therefore, that this dataset is also incomplete. Drawing together the findings from the reviews nonetheless builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications – Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for safeguarding adult reviews. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question, drawing attention where appropriate to policies being pursued by central government that undermine any initiative to end rough sleeping. Originality/value – The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on work with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. The evidence-base also supports practice with individuals who experience multiple exclusion homelessness. Policy-makers and practitioners have an approach to follow in this complex, challenging and demanding area of practice.   Keywords: Safeguarding adult reviews, evidence, self-neglect, research, multiple exclusion homelessness, alcohol misuse
    • Is there a shared social work signature pedagogy cross-nationally? Using a case study methodology to explore signature pedagogy in England, Israel, Finland, Spain and Sweden

      Thomas, Roma; Wallengren Lynch, Michael; Chen, Henglien Lisa; Muurinen, Heidi; Segev, Einav; Carrasco, Marta Blanco; Hollertz, Katarina; Bengtsson, Anna Ryan; University of Sussex; Sapir College, Israel; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-24)
      While there is an international definition of social work as a profession, little is known about whether there is also a shared pedagogy in social work cross-nationally. To our knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study which aims to fill this gap by applying the concept of signature pedagogy in social work education to explore the commonality of social work pedagogy across countries. The study uses a multi-site case study (six universities in five European countries) through applying a ‘critical teacher-researcher’ approach in generating the data, followed by a two-phased thematic analysis. The study evidenced a shared principle of social work pedagogy which nurtures social work student to think and perform like a social worker and develop the professional self through developing relationships and dialogue, professional practice, group work, self-reflection and critical thinking. It is argued from, this exploratory study, that even between countries which have different welfare ideology as well as social work history and education systems, there is some common ground in social work pedagogy where one can learn from another through the use of ‘teacher as researcher’ methodologically.
    • Child protection and contexts of recognition

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; (Wiley, 2020-04-06)
      The papers in this edition of Child Abuse Review cover a broad range of topics relevant to the protection of children and the prevention of abuse. From child safety in sporting contexts, the identification of children with early adverse experiences, and supporting young children within foster care settings; through to routes for disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) and the educational experiences of young people living in domestic abuse refuges – the papers selected cover a diverse ground. Yet collectively they tell a shared story about the contexts of child abuse – and importantly the contexts in which child abuse can be recognised, and thereby prevented or disrupted.
    • Black young people and gang involvement in London

      Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire (SAGE, 2020-04-06)
      Drawing upon research undertaken by the present author in East, North West and South London and the work of other UK social scientists, this article considers the evidence concerning the involvement of young people of African-Caribbean origin and Mixed Heritage in street gangs and gang crime in London (For the sake of brevity, I will simply refer to these young people as Black, not least because this is how they usually define themselves). It outlines the sometimes acrimonious debate about the relationship between race, crime and street gangs in the United Kingdom in the past three decades, concluding that while many of the claims made about this relationship may be exaggerated or simply untrue, the evidence for the over-representation of Black young people in street gangs in London is compelling. The article then turns to the changing social and economic predicament of some Black young people in the capital since the 1980s and its relationship with their involvement in gang crime. Finally, it considers the role of drugs business in the proliferation of the gang form and ‘gangsta’ culture and the involvement of growing numbers of younger Black people in County Lines drug dealing.
    • Surviving incarceration: the pathways of looked after and non-looked after children into, through and out of custody

      Day, Anne-Marie; Bateman, Timothy; Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2020-04-03)
      Report describing the findings of a two year study, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, on the relationship between care and child imprisonment 
    • Watching over or working with? understanding social work innovation in response to extra-familial harm

      Wroe, Lauren; Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Social Sciences, 2020-04-01)
      This paper critically reflects on the role of surveillance and trusted relationships in social work in England and Wales. It explores the characteristics of relationships of trust and relationships of surveillance and asks how these approaches apply to emerging policy and practices responses to extra-familial forms of harm (EFH). Five bodies of research that explore safeguarding responses across a range of public bodies are drawn on to present an analytical framework that explores elements of safeguarding responses, constituting relationships of trust or relationships of surveillance and control. This analytic framework is applied to two case studies, each of which detail a recent practice innovation in response to EFH studied by the authors, as part of a larger body of work under the Contextual Safeguarding programme. The application of this framework signals a number of critical issues related to the focus/rationale, methods and impact of interventions into EFH that should be considered in future work to address EFH, to ensure young people’s rights to privacy and participation are upheld.
    • Hapless, helpless, hopeless: an analysis of stepmothers' talk about their (male) partners

      Roper, Sandra; Capdevila, Rose; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (SAGE, 2020-03-31)
      The identity of stepmother is, in many ways, a troubled one – constructed as “other” and often associated with notions of “wickedness” in literature and everyday talk. This paper reports findings from a study on the difficulties faced by stepmothers and how they use talk about their (male) partners, often constructing men as hapless, helpless or hopeless, to repair their “troubled” identities. The data were collected from a web forum for stepmothers based in the UK and 13 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stepmothers. The analysis took a synthetic narrative-discursive methodological approach, underpinned by feminist theory with particular attention to the discourses that were drawn on by participants and the constraints that these imposed. This paper presents these findings in relation to three constructions of their partners through which repair work was attempted: men as in need of rescue; men as flawed fathers; and men as damaged. The paper concludes with some suggestions for supporting stepmothers by challenging dominant narratives around families in talk, in the media and in government and institutional policies.
    • The punitive transition in youth justice: reconstructing the child as offender

      Case, S; Bateman, Tim (Wiley, 2020-03-30)
      The transition from ‘child’ to ‘offender’ status can be fasttracked when offending is formally recognised through formal disposal, with children treated increasing punitively as they progress through the Youth Justice System. The status and ‘offenderising’ transitions of children who offend is socio-historically contingent, not only on their behaviour, but on political, socio-economic, societal, systemic and demography. We support this perspective through a periodised re-examination of four socio-historical trajectories in the construction of the ‘youth offender’: conflict, ambivalence and bifurcation (1908-1979); depenalising diversion and back to justice (1980-1992), fast-tracking the child to offender transition (1993-2007) and tentative depenalisation (2008 to present).
    • What and how: doing good research with young people, digital intimacies, and relationships and sex education

      Scott, Rachel H.; Smith, Clarissa; Formby, Eleanor; Hadley, Alison; Hallgarten, Lisa; Hoyle, Alice; Marston, Cicely; McKee, Alan; Tourountsis, Dimitrios (Taylor & Francis, 2020-03-17)
      As part of a project funded by the Wellcome Trust, we held a one-day symposium, bringing together researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, to discuss priorities for research on relationships and sex education (RSE) in a world where young people increasingly live, experience, and augment their relationships (whether sexual or not) within digital spaces. The introduction of statutory RSE in schools in England highlights the need to focus on improving understandings of young people and digital intimacies for its own sake, and to inform the development of learning resources. We call for more research that puts young people at its centre; foregrounds inclusivity; and allows a nuanced discussion of pleasures, harms, risks, and rewards, which can be used by those working with young people and those developing policy. Generating such research is likely to be facilitated by participation, collaboration, and communication with beneficiaries, between disciplines and across sectors. Taking such an approach, academic researchers, practitioners, and policymakers agree that we need a better understanding of RSE’s place in lifelong learning, which seeks to understand the needs of particular groups, is concerned with non-sexual relationships, and does not see digital intimacies as disconnected from offline everyday ‘reality’.
    • Keeping children safe? Advancing social care assessments to address harmful sexual behaviour in schools

      Lloyd, Jenny; Walker, Joanne; Firmin, Carlene Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2020-03-05)
      International evidence suggests that schools are locations where systems, practices and cultures can enable harmful sexual behaviours. However, in England, welfare assessments primarily used by statutory social services largely target young people and their families, with limited capacity to assess environments beyond the home. Where young people display harmful sexual behaviours within educational settings, social care systems are yet to assess the factors within schools which may accelerate risks associated with harmful sexual behaviours. This exploratory article presents evidence on the opportunities for school assessment using cumulative learning from two studies. The first investigated enablers and barriers to addressing harmful sexual behaviour in schools. The second employed the learning from the first through an action research study to develop school context assessments within a child protection system. Both studies employed a mixed-methods approach including observations, case review, focus groups, surveys and policy reviews to access data. Synthesised findings highlight: the value of exploring school contexts when assessing the nature of extra-familial abuse; the opportunities and challenges of utilising research methods for assessing school environments; and the role new assessment frameworks could play in supporting the inclusion of school contexts, and research methods, into welfare assessments of extra-familial abuse.
    • Measurement properties of the suicidal behaviour questionnaire - revised in autistic adults

      Cassidy, Sarah; Bradley, Louise; Cogger-Ward, Heather; Shaw, Rebecca; Bowen, Erica; Glod, Magdalena; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Rodgers, Jacqui; University of Nottingham; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Springer Verlag (Germany), 2020-03-03)
      We explored the appropriateness and measurement properties of a suicidality assessment tool (SBQ-R) developed for the general population, in autistic adults-a high risk group for suicide. 188 autistic adults and 183 general population adults completed the tool online, and a sub-sample (n = 15) were interviewed while completing the tool. Multi-group factorial invariance analysis of the online survey data found evidence for metric non-invariance of the SBQ-R, particularly for items three (communication of suicidal intent) and four (likelihood of suicide attempt in the future). Cognitive interviews revealed that autistic adults did not interpret these items as intended by the tool designers. Results suggest autistic adults interpret key questions regarding suicide risk differently to the general population. Future research must adapt tools to better capture suicidality in autistic adults.
    • The medicalisation of disabled children and young people in child sexual abuse: impacts on prevention, identification, response and recovery in the United Kingdom

      Franklin, Anita; Brady, Geraldine; Bradley, Louise; University of Portsmouth; Nottingham Trent University; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-02-28)
      Understandings of disability are situated within social, political and economic circumstances. Internationally, medical conceptualisations of disability prevail, influencing policy and practice, creating a discourse which encourages categorisation, diagnosis and prescribed ways of understanding behaviour. This body of knowledge has a profound influence, providing powerful explanatory models of disability. Such discourse excludes other ways of knowing, with little attention paid to competences and the construction of worlds especially from the perspectives of disabled children themselves. This article draws upon a small number of UK qualitative studies which have examined disabled child abuse and included the experiences of disabled children. These studies have highlighted how medicalised notions of disability have led to both medicalised and psychiatrised responses to abuse, which have ill-served disabled children. It could be argued that medicalisation has led to disabled children being labelled as either ‘too disabled’ to be abused or ‘not disabled enough’ to receive an appropriate response which meets their needs; they are also sometimes regarded as showing signs of mental ill health when such signs are more likely to be an understandable manifestation of the trauma of abuse. Evidence collected indicate that much can be learnt from understanding the construction of disabled childhoods and how our current limited exploration of this affects how society prevents, identifies and responds to disabled child abuse and associated trauma. Drawing upon disabled children’s recommendations to ‘see me, hear me and understand me’, this article will argue that in order to protect disabled children and support them to recover from abuse, we need to move away from a tick-box culture of medicalising, categorising, psychiatrising and ‘othering’ to a greater understanding of disabled children’s worlds, and to a rights-based model of disabled child protection whereby we challenge the increased barriers to support faced by disabled children who have experienced abuse.
    • Tough girls: gender performance and safety within schools

      Walker, Joanne; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2020-01-29)
      This paper explores the association between the gender rules operating within schools, harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) between pupils and the ways safety is created in these spaces. The ability and responsibility of school institutions to inform gender rules within schools is of particular focus. The paper draws on data from a mixed-methods study exploring HSB in seven secondary schools in England. Findings indicate that gendered rules not only play a role in explaining HSB in schools, they also inform discourses of safety and influence pupils’ attempts to subvert gendered harm. Drawing on research on local space, it is suggested that school institutions can work to maintain or challenge the gendered rules between pupils, and subsequently, limit or provide effective options to create pupil safety. The paper argues that schools have a responsibility to construct safe spaces for pupils by challenging harmful gender norms and behaviour.
    • Job demands, resources and work-related well-being in UK firefighters

      Payne, N.; Kinman, Gail; (Oxford University Press, 2020-01-11)
      Background: There is evidence that firefighters are at risk of work-related stress and mental health problems, but little is known about the organizational hazards they experience. Insight is needed into the work-related factors that are most likely to threaten or protect their work-related well-being. Aims: To identify levels of job demands and resources (including demands relating to workload, work patterns and the working environment, relationship conflicts, control, support, role clarity and change management) among firefighters, and to use a job demands-resources framework to examine their impacts on work-related well-being. The role played by recovery strategies in predicting work-related well-being was also considered. Methods: Job demands and resources were assessed by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards Indicator Tool. Validated scales measured recovery strategies (detachment, affective rumination and problem-solving pondering) and work-related well-being (anxiety-contentment and depression-enthusiasm). The impact of job demands, resources and recovery strategies was tested by multiple linear regression. Results: The sample comprised 909 firefighters across seven Fire and Rescue Services in the UK (85% male). Levels of job demands and resources did not meet HSE benchmarks. The main risk factors for poor work-related well-being were relationship conflicts and affective rumination, but resources such as role clarity and job control and the use of problem-solving pondering and detachment were beneficial. Conclusions: Interventions that aim to reduce relationship conflicts at work and promote problem-solving rather than affective rumination, and detachment from work when off-duty, are likely to improve work-related well-being. Attention to enhancing job resources may also be beneficial.
    • No further action: contextualising social care decisions for children victimised in extra-familial settings

      Lloyd, Jenny; Firmin, Carlene Emma (SAGE, 2019-12-19)
      England’s child protection system is intended to safeguard young people at risk of significant harm – physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect. When young people are physically assaulted, stabbed or groomed into drugs trafficking they experience significant harm. To this extent they are entitled to support from statutory child protection services. Using findings from one component of a mixed method multi-site study, data from referrals and assessments into children’s social care is examined to identify the extent to which the right support and protection is realised. Such analysis indicates that despite being at risk of significant harm, young people abused in community or peer, rather than familial, settings will most likely receive a ‘no further action’ decision from social workers following referrals for support. This paper suggests that to a certain extent no-further-action decisions are aligned to the legal and cultural parameters of social work and child protection practice, thus raising questions about the sufficiency of such for safeguarding young people abused in extra-familial settings.  
    • ‘Sometimes the whole map is red’: applying geographical assessment methods to safeguard adolescents from harm in communities

      Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2019-12-16)
      Purpose: To explore the opportunities of geographical child protection assessment methods for adolescents victimised in extra-familial contexts. Design: Presenting empirical evidence from an action research study within one child protection service in the UK, the study draws upon qualitative data from practice observations, case review, training and five context assessments. Findings: Safety mapping and neighbourhood observations provide options to assess extra-familial contexts. Findings reveal that these methods support practitioners to build local knowledge of areas supporting interventions into community places rooted in principles of child protection.  Practical implications: The article highlights the need for further testing of contextual safeguarding approaches and policy guidance that outlines whose role it is to protect children in communities. Social implications: Geographical assessment methods provide a route to engage with young people’s lived experience of place. And develop interventions that target contexts and not just individuals affected by extra-familial harm. Originality: The article presents original research into the use of geographical assessment methods to be used within a child protection framework.