• Youth crime and youth justice

      Bateman, Tim (Sage, 2021-12-20)
    • Conceptualising and measuring levels of risk by immigration status for children in the UK

      Feinstein, Leon; Aleghfeli, Yousef Khalifa; Buckley, Charlotte; Gilhooly, Rebecca; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; University of Oxford; Just for Kids Law; Children’s Commissioner for England; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-09)
      Extensive evidence exists on how characteristics and circumstances of children shape their lifepaths and outcomes, and on the scale of resulting need. However, little research exists assessing the numbers of children who may be at risk of harm or disadvantage due to their immigration status. In this paper, we sought to establish the degree to which it is possible to monitor the aggregate vulnerability to risk of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. First, we developed an observable set of immigration risk and vulnerability factors through workshop consultations that were analysed to produce a core set of variables that might be measured to assess aggregate need by virtue of immigration status. Second, we assessed through an administrative data review what is known statistically about the numbers of children at risk by virtue of immigration status in the UK. This research indicates a considerable gap in statistical knowledge of the level of vulnerability of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. The approach we have developed provides a framework for future statistical work that might address this gap.
    • A systematic review of parenting interventions used by social workers to support vulnerable children

      Vseteckova, Jitka; Boyle, Sally; Higgins, Martyn; Open University; University of Bedfordshire; London South Bank University (SAGE, 2021-11-09)
      This paper reports on the findings from a systematic review of parenting interventions used by social workers to support vulnerable children in the United Kingdom. The study focused on children from birth to 11 years and 11 months based on Munro's rationale for early intervention. From the 423 papers initially identified, twelve met the inclusion criteria for this review. Four common themes were identified: developing relationships, the effectiveness of parenting interventions, societal impact on families and health and psychological concerns. The importance of effective relationships between parents and social workers was identified as key to effective parental interventions but there was limited evidence of improved outcomes for children despite this. A common factor in the studies was the level of parental deprivation which in many cases was associated with a range of mental health issues frequently seen in association with drug and alcohol abuse and domestic violence. The review identified a number of successful outcomes across a range of parenting interventions. However, what was surprising was the limited input from the children themselves within this review. Applying our findings to practice, the authors recommend a number of ways to contribute to the development of parenting interventions.
    • Bridging the care-crime gap: reforming the youth court?

      Bateman, Tim; National Association for Youth Justice; University of Bedfordshire (National Association for Youth Justice, 2021-10-26)
    • Relational learning and teaching with BME students in social work education

      Dillon, Jean; Pritchard, Diana J.; University of Bedfordshire (Cambridge University Press, 2021-10-07)
      Given the imperative to redress the education inequalities between Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) and White students, this contribution explores advances and challenges from within Social Work education (SWE) in relation to the experiences of Black social work students. Drawing on critical race theories and the concept of racial battle fatigue, it explores the impacts of race and racism on students' academic experience and wellbeing. It proposes the significance of relational wellbeing which has been a constant strand within Social Work education and comprises a valuable approach to the decolonisation process within higher education (HE). Linking this to critical pedagogy, it highlights the role of staff to build safety, confidence and trust to support students to overcome prior education experiences of under-attainment, disadvantage and social marginalisation. Despite the pervasiveness of managerialism within HE, which compromises the teacher-student relationship and emphasises measured changes in student 'outcomes', Social Work educators are invited to nurture safe and transformational learning environments.
    • Memories, mementos, and memorialization of young unaccompanied Afghans navigating within Europe

      Lønning, Moa Nyamwathi; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-28)
      This article considers memories, mementos, and memorialization in stories by unaccompanied young people and their journeys within Europe. It looks at their ‘navigation’ of remembering and forgetting and how this intertwines with movement and stillness. It is based on a study about Afghan males aged 15–24 years in Norway and Greece. Participants differed in terms of their backgrounds, migration projects, and their legal status. In their various circumstances, their narratives point to how memories unfold, are shared, must be negotiated, and sometimes, forgotten as they navigate towards a sense of safety and a sustainable future. They also point to how mementos may take different forms while on the move, as traces along the migration trail that have the potential to become part of the memories of others who come across them. Finally, their narratives point to practices of memorialization, and how they too are intimately connected to remembering and forgetting
    • Guest editorial: Innovation in children’s social care: from conceptualisation to improved outcomes?

      Munro, Emily; Skouteris, Helen; Newlands, Fiona; Walker, Steve; University of Bedfordshire; Monash University; Children’s Services, Leeds City Council (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-09-14)
    • An inter-disciplinary perspective on evaluation of innovation to support care leavers' transition

      Lynch, Amy; Alderson, Hayley; Kerridge, Gary; Johnson, Rebecca; McGovern, Ruth; Newlands, Fiona; Smart, Deborah; Harrop, Carrie; Currie, Graeme; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Emerald, 2021-09-14)
      Purpose Young people who are looked after by the state face challenges as they make the transition from care to adulthood, with variation in support available. In the past decade, funding has been directed towards organisations to pilot innovations to support transition, with accompanying evaluations often conducted with a single disciplinary focus, in a context of short timescales and small budgets. Recognising the value and weight of the challenge involved in evaluation of innovations that aim to support the transitions of young people leaving care, this paper aims to provide a review of evaluation approaches and suggestions regarding how these might be developed. Design/methodology/approach As part of a wider research programme to improve understanding of the innovation process for young people leaving care, the authors conducted a scoping review of grey literature (publications which are not peer reviewed) focusing on evaluation of innovations in the UK over the past 10 years. The authors critiqued the evaluation approaches in each of the 22 reports they identified with an inter-disciplinary perspective, representing social care, public health and organisation science. Findings The authors identified challenges and opportunities for the development of evaluation approaches in three areas. Firstly, informed by social care, the authors suggest increased priority should be granted to participatory approaches to evaluation, within which involvement of young people leaving care should be central. Secondly, drawing on public health, there is potential for developing a common outcomes’ framework, including methods of data collection, analysis and reporting, which aid comparative analysis. Thirdly, application of theoretical frameworks from organisation science regarding the process of innovation can drive transferable lessons from local innovations to aid its spread. Originality/value By adopting the unique perspective of their multiple positions, the authors’ goal is to contribute to the development of evaluation approaches. Further, the authors hope to help identify innovations that work, enhance their spread, leverage resources and influence policy to support care leavers in their transitions to adulthood.
    • A decade on from the summer riots

      Bateman, Tim (2021-07-27)
    • The neoconservative party, or conservatism without tradition?

      Hoctor, Tom (Wiley, 2021-07-15)
      This article argues that the Conservative Party finds itself in a period of ideological crisis. The last significant period of intellectual realignment in the party led to the dominance of Hayekian market theory as a structuring logic for government. Under Boris Johnson, this economic logic is challenged by the political logic of neoconservatism, which restores the political through appeals to authority, hierarchy and quite particular articulations of the nature of the (national) community. To demonstrate this tension, the article examines how Brexit and the ‘levelling-up’ agenda can be understood as structured by this division between the economic and the political. Both of these logics are incompatible with older, traditional forms of conservatism and whichever is ultimately successful, this signals a major shift in the character of British conservatism and potentially ushers in a new era of conservatism without tradition.
    • On (not) learning from self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews

      Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., 2021-07-09)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to update the core data set of self-neglect safeguarding adult reviews (SARs) and accompanying thematic analysis. It also explores whether lessons are being learned from the findings and recommendations of an increasing number of reviews on self-neglect cases. Design/methodology/approach: Further published reviews are added to the core data set, mainly drawn from the websites of safeguarding adults boards (SABs). Thematic analysis is updated using the domains used previously. The domains and the thematic analysis are grounded in the evidence-based model of good practice, reported in this journal previously. Findings: Familiar findings emerge from the thematic analysis and reinforce the evidence-base of good practice with individuals who self-neglect and for policies and procedures with which to support those practitioners working with such cases. Multiple exclusion homelessness and alcohol misuse are prominent. Some SABs are having to return to further cases of self-neglect to review, inviting scrutiny of what is (not) being learned from earlier findings and recommendations. Research limitations/implications: The national database of reviews commissioned by SABs remains incomplete. The Care Act 2014 does not require publication of reports but only a summary of findings and recommendations in SAB annual reports. National Health Service Digital annual data sets do not enable the identification of reviews by types of abuse and neglect. However, the first national analysis of SARs has found self-neglect to be the most prominent type of abuse and/or neglect reviewed. Drawing together the findings builds on what is known about the components of effective practice, and effective policy and organisational arrangements for practice. Practical implications: Answering the question “why” remains a significant challenge for SARs. The findings confirm the relevance of the evidence-base for effective practice but SARs are limited in their analysis of what enables and what obstructs the components of best practice. Greater explicit use of research and other published SARs might assist with answering the “why” question. Greater scrutiny is needed of the impact of the national legal, policy and financial context within which adult safeguarding is situated. Originality/value: The paper extends the thematic analysis of available reviews that focus on study with adults who self-neglect, further reinforcing the evidence base for practice. Propositions are explored, concerned with whether learning is being maximised from the process of case review.
    • Life in a lanyard: developing an ethics of embedded research methods in children’s social care

      Lloyd, Jenny; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald, 2021-07-05)
      Purpose: To consider the opportunities for embedded methodologies for research into children’s social care and the ethics of this method. Design: The study draws upon embedded research from a two year study into developing children’s social work approaches to extra-familial risk. Findings draw upon personal reflections from field notes, case reviews, practice observations and reflections. Findings: Two findings are presented. Firstly, that Embedded Research provides numerous opportunities to develop child protection systems and practice. Secondly, a number of ethical questions and challenges of the methodology are presented. Limitations: the article draws upon personal reflections from one study and is not intended to be representative of all approaches to embedded research methods. Practical implications: Two practical recommendations are presented. Firstly I outline a number of recommendations to university researchers and host organisations on the facilitative attributes for embedded researchers. Secondly, questions are raised to support university ethics boards to assist ethical frameworks for embedded research. Originality: the article contributes original empirical data to the limited literature on embedded research in children’s services.
    • Development and validation of the suicidal behaviours questionnaire - autism spectrum conditions in a community sample of autistic, possibly autistic and non-autistic adults

      Cassidy, Sarah; Bradley, Louise; Cogger-Ward, Heather; Rodgers, Jacqui; University of Nottingham; University of Bedfordshire; University of Lincoln; Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; Newcastle University (Biomed Central, 2021-06-21)
      Autistic people and those with high autistic traits are at high risk of experiencing suicidality. Yet, there are no suicidality assessment tools developed or validated for these groups. A widely used and validated suicidality assessment tool developed for the general population (SBQ-R), was adapted using feedback from autistic adults, to create the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Conditions (SBQ-ASC). The adapted tool was refined through nine interviews, and an online survey with 251 autistic adults, to establish clarity and relevance of the items. Subsequently, 308 autistic, 113 possibly autistic, and 268 non-autistic adults completed the adapted tool online, alongside self-report measures of autistic traits (AQ), camouflaging autistic traits (CAT-Q), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (ASA-A), thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (INQ-15), lifetime non-suicidal self-injury, and the original version of the suicidality assessment tool (SBQ-R). Analyses explored the appropriateness and measurement properties of the adapted tool between the groups. There was evidence in support of content validity, structural validity, internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, test-retest validity, sensitivity and specificity (for distinguishing those with or without lifetime experience of suicide attempt), and hypothesis testing of the adapted tool (SBQ-ASC) in each group. The structure of the SBQ-ASC was equivalent between autistic and possibly autistic adults, regardless of gender, or use of visual aids to help quantify abstract rating scales. The samples involved in the development and validation of the adapted tool were largely female, and largely diagnosed as autistic in adulthood, which limits the generalisability of results to the wider autistic population. The SBQ-ASC has been developed for use in research and is not recommended to assess risk of future suicide attempts and/or self-harm. The SBQ-ASC has been designed with and for autistic and possibly autistic adults, and is not appropriate to compare to non-autistic adults given measurement differences between these groups. The SBQ-ASC is a brief self-report suicidality assessment tool, developed and validated with and for autistic adults, without co-occurring intellectual disability. The SBQ-ASC is appropriate for use in research to identify suicidal thoughts and behaviours in autistic and possibly autistic people, and model associations with risk and protective factors.
    • Considerations in the use of local and national data for evaluating innovation in children’s social care

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Preston, Oli; Godar, Rebecca; Lefevre, Michelle; Boddy, Janet; University of Sussex; University of Bedfordshire; Research in Practice (Emerald, 2021-05-06)
      Design/methodology/approach This paper examines the use of data routinely collected by local authorities as part of the evaluation of innovation. Issues entailed are discussed and illustrated through two case studies of evaluations conducted by the research team within the context of children’s social care in England. Purpose We explore the possibilities in using such national, statutory datasets for evaluating change and the challenges of understanding service patterns and outcomes in complex cases when only a limited view can be gained using existing data. Our discussion also explores how methodologies can adapt to evaluation in these circumstances. Findings The quantitative analysis of local authority data can play an important role in evaluating innovation but researchers will need to address challenges related to: selection of a suitable methodology; identifying appropriate comparator data; accessing data and assessing its quality; and sustaining and increasing the value of analytic work beyond the end of the research. Examples are provided of how the two case studies experienced and addressed these challenges. Originality/value The paper discusses some common issues experienced in quasi-experimental approaches to the quantitative evaluation of children’s services which have, until recently, been rarely used in the sector. There are important considerations which are of relevance to researchers, service leads in children’s social care, data and performance leads, and funders of innovation. Implications of the research for policy and practice * Quasi-experimental methods can be beneficial tools for understanding the impact of innovation in children’s services, but researchers should also consider the complexity of children’s social care and the use of mixed and appropriate methods. * Those funding innovative practice should consider the additional burden on those working with data and the related data infrastructure if wishing to document and analyse innovation in a robust way. * Data which may be assumed to be uniform may in fact not be when considered at a multi-area or national level, and further study of the data recording practice of social care professionals is required.
    • Last resort or best interest? exploring risk and safety factors that inform rates of relocation for young people abused in extra-familial settings

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Wroe, Lauren; Bernard, D.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-05-06)
      When young people are harmed in extra-familial settings children’s services may place them into care at a distance from their home authority to remove them from contexts in which they are considered ‘at risk’. Guidance and regulation suggest such intervention be used as a last resort and only in a child’s best interests. Using survey and interview data, this paper examines how relocations are used in response to extra-familial harm in 13 children’s services departments in England and Wales – exploring the extent to which they are intended to mitigate risk, or build safety, for young people. Findings demonstrate that rates at which relocations were used varied across participating services. Interview data suggests that variation may be informed by the strategic position a service takes on the use of relocation, the goal(s) of interventions used in cases of extra-familial harm, and the target of these interventions. In considering each of these factors the authors recommend further study into the national (varying) rates of relocation and the role of those who review care-plans for relocated young people; both intending to create conditions in which young people can safely return to their communities should they choose to do so
    • Youth Justice News [April 2021]

      Bateman, Tim (Sage, 2021-04-25)
    • Precarity, mobility and the city: introduction to the special issue

      Bakonyi, Jutta; Kappler, Stefanie; Nag, Eva-Maria; Opfermann, Lena S.; ; Durham University; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2021-04-23)
      Drawing on empirically rich and theoretically grounded case studies, the articles in this issue explore ways in which global governmental processes affect mobility and, similarly, how seemingly local movements impact upon global processes.
    • Improving responses to the sexual abuse of Black, Asian and minority ethnic children

      Ali, Nasreen; Butt, Jabeer; Phillips, Melanie; Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse; University of Bedfordshire; Race Equality Foundation (Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse, 2021-03-31)
      This research study was commissioned by the Centre of expertise on child sexual abuse (CSA Centre) to address knowledge gaps around professional practice in supporting children from Black, Asian and minority ethnic backgrounds who are at risk of, or experiencing, child sexual abuse (CSA).
    • Introducing forced migration

      Hynes, Patricia (Routledge, 2021-03-31)
      At a time when global debates about the movement of people have never been more heated, this book provides readers with an accessible, student-friendly guide to the subject of forced migration. Readers of this book will learn who forced migrants are, where they are and why international protection is critical in a world of increasingly restrictive legislation and policy. The book outlines key definitions, ideas, concepts, points for discussion, theories and case studies of the various forms of forced migration. In addition to this technical grounding, the book also signposts further reading and provides handy Key Thinker boxes to summarise the work of the field’s most influential academics. Drawing on decades of experience both in the classroom and in the field, this book invites readers to question how labels and definitions are used in legal, policy and practice responses, and to engage in a richer understanding of the lives and realities of forced migrants on the ground. Perfect for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in courses related to migration and diaspora studies, Introducing Forced Migration will also be valuable to policy-makers, practitioners, journalists, volunteers and aid workers working with refugees, the internally displaced and those who have experienced trafficking.
    • Evidence based approaches to violence reduction: a discussion paper

      Davey, Peter; Bath, Rachel; Staniforth, Rachel; Firmin, Carlene Emma; MacFarlane, Colin; Sebire, Jackie; Cestaro, David; Contextual Safeguarding Network (Contextual Safeguarding Network, 2021-03-30)
      This document helps practitioners to understand Public Health, Problem-solving and Contextual Safeguarding approaches as three complementary evidence-based approaches to violence reduction.