• Barnardo’s ReachOut: final evaluation report March 2019

      McNeish, Di; Scott, Sara; Lloyd, Sarah; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire; DMSS Research (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-03-01)
      ReachOut is a preventative child sexual exploitation (CSE) project established in 2016 under a partnership funding agreement between Barnardo’s, the KPMG Foundation, Department for Education, Communities and Local Government and Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council (RMBC). An independent evaluation was commissioned from the University of Bedfordshire with DMSS Research both to evaluate the impact of the project and to provide ongoing learning and feedback. A diverse staff team was recruited from a range of professional backgrounds including criminal justice, social work and youth work. There have been three main strands of work undertaken by ReachOut in order to achieve its aims: •Outreach work to raise awareness and provide support to children and young people in their communities  •Healthy relationship education in schools and other settings •Direct support for children and young people identified as at risk of CSE. These have operated at three levels of prevention: universal, including outreach at community events across Rotherham, helping to convey the message  that CSE is relevant to everyone; primary prevention, including education work in schools reaching over 2000 children and young people; targeted prevention with groups and communities identified as potentially more vulnerable to CSE as well as direct work with around 300 individual children and young people. Over the course of the three years, evaluators have carried out interviews with ReachOut staff and managers and representatives from external agencies; observed sessions of delivery; interviewed samples of young people and parents; analysed feedback questionnaires from school students and staff; reviewed project monitoring and samples of case records.
    • Being heard: promoting children and young people’s involvement in participatory research on sexual violence: findings from an international scoping review

      Bovarnick, Silvie; Peace, Delphine; Warrington, Camille; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (The International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, violence and trafficking, University of Bedfordshire, 2018-08-01)
      This report shares findings from an international scoping review conducted on the engagement of children and young people in participatory research on sexual violence. The report discusses a range of ethical and practical challenges of involving vulnerable children and young people in participatory research on sensitive issues and draws out key considerations for research practice.
    • Child sexual exploitation and consent to sexual activity: a developmental and context-driven approach

      Pearce, Jenny J.; Coy, Maddy; IASR (Cambridge University Press, 2018-08-31)
    • Child sexual exploitation: why theory matters

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2019-11-30)
      This book explores the contribution that different theoretical perspectives make to our understanding of child sexual exploitation (CSE). It addresses the ways that these theories can influence our practice with children and young people affected by CSE and offers scope to identify when and why particular approaches are adopted.  Each chapter identifies a particular theoretical approach, explains its meaning and then offers an understanding of how this can enhance our practice. Covering topics such as how structuration theory offers us  a way to move beyond simplistic binary oppositions such as ‘victim’ and ‘perpetrator’;  how discourse  analysis can illustrate how and why our understanding of CSE as a form of abuse has changed over time; how contextual safeguarding helps us to explore the importance of relationships, places and spaces outside of the home environment; how laisse-faire approaches to internet providers impact on their engagement with managing abuse on line; how lifespan development theories place adolescence in context with emotional maturation and  brain development; how psychodynamic understandings and trauma informed understandings help us to address the impact of abuse; how we can enhance ‘empathy’ through understanding its relationship with ecology and social support structures;  and how our understanding of the impact of racism, gender and disability can help understand situations faced by children affected by CSE  as well as our role in advocating for change. This work aims to ‘bring theory home’ into our everyday practice and encourages individuals, teams and agencies to consider how their work with children affected by CSE is informed and developed.
    • Commercial sexual exploitation of children

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Oxford University Press, 2017-01-05)
      This chapter looks at the different ways that child sexual exploitation is understood and responded to across international settings,. Illustrating the variations in meaning and responses, it argues for a collective, internationally agreed definition, hoping that this might lead to better coordinated responses from police and child welfare agencies to protect children from such abuse. 
    • Community Safety Journal 14(1): special issue on Child sexual exploitation and community safety

      Beckett, Helen; Pearce, Jenny J. (Emerald, 2015-10-22)
      This special edition collected articles from authors whose research and practice activity aims to prevent sexual exploitation of children within community contests. 
    • Could I do something like that? recruiting and training foster carers for teenagers “at risk” of or experiencing child sexual exploitation

      Shuker, Lucie; Pearce, Jenny J. (Wiley, 2019-07-30)
      Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a category of child abuse that was historically created to recognize the victimhood of children and young people, illuminating the ways that their evolving capacity to consent to sex is manipulated and undermined. Using evidence from the evaluation of specialist foster care provision and a CSE training course for foster carers, this paper considers how training might be used to widen the pool of potential foster carers for children affected by CSE and identifies qualities displayed by effective carers. It argues that improving the recruitment of foster carers can create safer home environments for teenagers at risk of or experiencing sexual exploitation and reduce the risk of further harm and that informed and effective foster care provision is crucial to prevent both the sexual exploitation of looked‐after teenagers and placement breakdowns that can ultimately increase risk.
    • Direct work with sexually exploited or at risk children and young people : a rapid evidence assessment

      Bovarnick, Silvie; Scott, Sara; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire; DSMS; Barnardo's (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-01-01)
      This review is intended to provide Barnardo’s with an overview of what ‘direct work’ with young people entails in the context of CSE. Part one explores the nature, types and contexts of direct work and gives an overview of the range of risks and vulnerabilities that direct work typically addresses. Part two focuses on the journey of direct work with young people in greater detail and outlines six core elements of direct interventions: 1. Engagement and relationship building 2. Support and stability 3. Providing advocacy 4. Reducing risks and building resilience 5. Addressing underlying issues 6. Enabling growth and moving on The discussion of each component is informed by what we know from research evidence to work in direct interventions with young people. We also give some practice examples to illustrate effective models of direct work. Part three provides a brief summary of the key features that underpin effective direct work with young people.
    • Evaluation of the Alexi Project ‘Hub and Spoke’ programme of CSE service development. Final report.

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-11-01)
      This report details the evaluation of a programme of service development as it was rolled out through 16 new services, which were designed to extend the coverage and reach of child sexual exploitation (CSE) services in England. They were funded by the Child Sexual Exploitation Funders’ Alliance (CSEFA). The 16 services were all established by voluntary sector organisations, and specialised in working with young people affected by CSE. Each service adopted a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of service development, which involved an established voluntary sector CSE service (known as the ‘hub’), locating experienced project workers (known as ‘spokes’) in new service delivery areas. These spoke workers undertook a range of activities to improve CSE work locally, including individual casework and awareness-raising with children and young people, and consultancy, training and awareness-raising with professionals locally. The evaluation adopted a realist approach. This focusses not just on whether programmes or interventions work, but on how or why they might do so (Pawson and Tilley, 1997 ). It takes a theory-driven approach to evaluation rather than concentrating on particular types of evidence or focussing on ‘before’ and ‘after’ type data. It starts from the principle that interventions in themselves do not either ‘work’ or ‘not work’ – rather it is the people involved in them and the skills, attitudes, knowledge and approach they bring, together with the influence of context and resources, that determine the outcomes generated. The evaluation was undertaken between September 2013 and January 2017, exploring how the 16 services developed during a phased roll out. The evaluation team undertook extensive fieldwork at each site on two occasions (one visit for the final eight sites), including 276 interviews with Hub and Spoke staff, professionals locally from children’s services, police, and health, and with children and young people and parents/carers. In addition, quantitative data were collected (about numbers of young people and professionals reached), and spoke workers produced case studies about their work with young people.
    • Evaluation of the Alexi Project ‘Hub and Spoke’ programme of CSE service development: key messages

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Brodie, Isabelle; D’Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-11-30)
      The Alexi Hub and Spoke programme was an £8m service development programme, funded by the Child Sexual Exploitation Funders’ Alliance (CSEFA). It was designed to rapidly increase the capacity and coverage of specialist, voluntary sector child sexual exploitation (CSE) services within England. Sixteen CSE services were funded for three years each,1 over a five year period,2 with the aims of: 1. Making specialist support available to children and young people in a series of new locations. 2. Improving the co-ordination, delivery and practice of local services responding to CSE – including the police, children’s services and other partner agencies. The model known as ‘Hub and Spoke’ was used to achieve this, whereby a voluntary sector organisation (the ‘hub’) placed experienced CSE workers (‘spokes’) either within its own or into new neighbouring local authority areas, in order to extend its coverage and reach. These spoke workers undertook a variety of activities, including individual casework with children and young people, consultancy, and training and awareness-raising with children and young people and practitioners. In total, 53 spoke workers were placed out in 35 new local authority areas and supported by the 16 hub services.
    • Evidence-based models of policing to protect children from sexual exploitation

      Allnock, Debra; Lloyd, Jenny; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-12-01)
      This research, carried out between 2015 and 2017 was undertaken by a team at the International Centre: Researching child sexual exploitation, trafficking and violence at the University of Bedfordshire. The International Centre has an established reputation for child-centred research and recently completed an initiative joint funded by the Home Office, Higher Education Funding Council for England and College of Policing to improve and share learning on policing child sexual exploitation (CSE) (see website https://www.uobcsepolicinghub.org.uk/). The original overarching aim of this research project was “to improve multi-agency work with police to prevent child sexual exploitation”. It was funded by KPMG Foundation and Norfolk Constabulary, supported by The National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC) Lead for Child Protection and Abuse Investigation. This research is the first study of its kind. It is the first to document examples of current operating models of police responses to CSE in England and Wales; the first to attempt to draw out summaries of how features of policing improve disruption and prosecution of offenders; and the first study to assess the features of CSE policing responses in relation to the outcomes for victims. The research involved interviewing police officers and civilian staff including researchers and analysts from CSE teams across eight selected study forces in England.
    • Families and Communities Against Child Sexual Exploitation (FCASE) : final evaluation report

      D'Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Thomas, Roma; Brodie, Isabelle; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (Barnardo’s and University of Bedfordshire, 2015-01-01)
      This is the final evaluation report for the Barnardo’s Families and Communities Against Sexual Exploitation project (FCASE), produced by the International Centre, researching Child Sexual Exploitation, Violence and Trafficking at the University of Bedfordshire. The programme was launched in April 2013, funded by the Department for Education (DfE) and concluded in March 2015. The evaluation was undertaken during the same period. The FCASE model has been piloted in three sites, which for the purposes of this report have been anonymised and will be referred to using pseudonyms. It consists of the following elements: a structured programme of six to eight weeks direct work with young people and families where a risk of child sexual exploitation (CSE) has been identified; delivery of CSE training with professionals; and undertaking community awareness raising. The evaluation has been informed by a range of qualitative data. The report identifies the elements that work well and some of the challenges in its implementation. This had been done in order to determine good practice in supporting families and communities and embed more effective practice on protecting children and young people, including those in foster care, from sexual exploitation, harnessing the protective factors within a child’s family and/or foster home. The learning from the project is intended to help other agencies to implement the FCASE model. An on-line learning resource is to be produced in order to facilitate this process1
    • Gathering evidence of the sexual exploitation of children and young people: a scoping exercise

      Jago, Sue; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2008-06-01)
      The government commissioned this scoping exercise to provide insight into the progress being made to challenge the perpetrators of child sexual exploitation, to report on emerging good practice and to identify the barriers and challenges that local partnerships are facing. The government’s coordinated prostitution strategy responded to the evidence submitted in response to the consultation document, Paying the Price, and recognised that abusers seek out vulnerable children and young people, offering what appears to be affection and friendship. The reality can be that they are manipulated to become so dependent on their abusers that they can be coerced into sexual activity. Research also shows that young people often become sexually exploited as a result of long term social exclusion, poverty and deprivation and that there are complex relationships between sexual exploitation and ‘risk factors’ such as problem drug and alcohol use, poor mental and physical health and previous experiences of abuse. It also shows that boys and young men can be affected as well as girls and young women. Many local partnerships have built up considerable experience in safeguarding victims and developing strategies to help them to move on from exploitative relationships in safety and security.
    • Living in gang affected neighbourhoods

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Pearce, Jenny J. (Jessica Kingsley, 2016-01-01)
    • Living in gang-affected neighbourhoods

      Firmin, Carlene Emma; Pearce, Jenny J.; Bernard, Claudia; Harris, Perlita; University of Bedfordshire; Goldsmiths (Jessica Kingsley, 2016-05-05)
      This chapter addresses the problems facing black children living in gang affected neighborhoods. It argues for a 'social model' for understanding and responding to children's capacity to consent to sexual activity when forced and coerced within gang affected neighborhoods and for a contextual framework to child protection issues facing these young people, their neighborhood and environment. 
    • Moving on with Munro: sexual exploitation within a child protection framework’

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Policy Press, 2014-04-02)
      Looking at the impact of the Munro review of child protection, this chapter addresses the changes that have occurred in understanding of child sexual exploitation. It looks at questions of the impact of government guidance on child protection work with CSE affected children and argues for a stronger understanding of consent and children's agency. 
    • Outreach work : child sexual exploitation : a rapid evidence assessment

      Bovarnick, Silvie; McNeish, Di; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire; DSMS; Barnardo's (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-09-01)
      This briefing is based on a rapid review of the available literature on outreach work with children and young people. It is intended to provide the ReachOut project with an overview of different approaches to outreach; what it generally aims to achieve; what distinguishes it from centre--‐based work and how it is applicable to children and young people involved in, or at risk of, child sexual exploitation. We highlight what is known about ‘detached’ and other approaches that aim to reach vulnerable populations who are not accessing mainstream services. We hope it will be useful in informing ReachOut’s thinking about the role and value of its own outreach activities.
    • The participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services: a scoping review of the literature

      Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01-10)
      This is a scoping review of the literature which focuses on the participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services.  The review is part of the Alexi Project, which involves an evaluation of the CSEFA Hub and Spoke services in England. The review aims to develop understanding of the concept of participation and the nature of effective participatory practice in the context of child sexual exploitation services. It has taken place between September 2015 and April 2016. The review focuses on the following questions: • How is ‘participation’ of young people in CSE services conceptualised in the research, policy and professional literature? • How explicit is the policy requirement for children and young people’s participation in the processes associated with assessment, planning and review and what evidence exists regarding the implementation and/or effectiveness of these processes? • What evidence exists regarding the nature of the experience of participation, and its impact, from the perspectives of young people, parents and carers, and professionals? • What evidence exists regarding the conditions that need to be in place to make participative working possible and effective for different groups of CSE affected young people? • What evidence exists regarding the replicability of participative models?
    • Preventing child sexual exploitation: would an international age of consent to sexual activity help secure the welfare of children?

      Pearce, Jenny J. (Routledge, 2017-02-20)
      This chapter explores variation in international definitions and interpretations of children's consent to sexual activity. Addressing questions of child sexual exploitation and child sexual abuse, it argues that the protection of children from abuse would be advanced if there was international agreement of the age of consent to sexual activity and the meaning associated with 'consent' overall.