• Conceptualising and measuring levels of risk by immigration status for children in the UK

      Feinstein, Leon; Aleghfeli, Yousef Khalifa; Buckley, Charlotte; Gilhooly, Rebecca; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; University of Oxford; Just for Kids Law; Children’s Commissioner for England; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-09)
      Extensive evidence exists on how characteristics and circumstances of children shape their lifepaths and outcomes, and on the scale of resulting need. However, little research exists assessing the numbers of children who may be at risk of harm or disadvantage due to their immigration status. In this paper, we sought to establish the degree to which it is possible to monitor the aggregate vulnerability to risk of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. First, we developed an observable set of immigration risk and vulnerability factors through workshop consultations that were analysed to produce a core set of variables that might be measured to assess aggregate need by virtue of immigration status. Second, we assessed through an administrative data review what is known statistically about the numbers of children at risk by virtue of immigration status in the UK. This research indicates a considerable gap in statistical knowledge of the level of vulnerability of children in the UK by virtue of immigration status. The approach we have developed provides a framework for future statistical work that might address this gap.
    • Evaluation of independent child trafficking advocates trial: final report

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Hynes, Patricia; Connolly, Helen; Thurnham, Angela; Westlake, David; D'Arcy, Kate (Home Office, 2015-12-17)
      This report presents the findings from an evaluation of a 1 year trial of the independent child trafficking advocates.
    • An evaluation of Independent Child Trafficking Guardians – early adopter sites

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Connolly, Helen; Stott, Hannah; Roe, Stephen; Prince, Stuart; Long, James; Gordon-Ramsey, Samuel (Home Office, 2019-07-23)
      This evaluation, conducted by the Home Office and the University of Bedfordshire has assessed the ICTG service in the three original early adopter sites (Greater Manchester, Hampshire, and Wales). The evaluation, conducted across a two-year period from February 2017 – January 2019, considers the original model for the ICTG service which provided one-to-one ICTG support for all children. The overall aim of the evaluation is to answer the question: What is the ‘added value’ of the ICTG service, and is this different for different groups of children and in different early adopter sites?
    • The management of time and waiting by unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in Finland

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Kaukko, Mervi (Oxford University Press, 2017-12-07)
      This article considers how asylum-seeking girls in residential care in Finland construct their everyday lives while waiting for asylum outcomes. These girls, from various African countries, are shown to experience waiting as both debilitating and productive. First, our findings confirm the established picture of asylum-seeking young people being in limbo, unable to influence the resolution of their claims. Second, we explore more hopeful ways in which they wait. We emphasize the complex responses and relationships they build in waiting times with each other and their carers. We suggest that waiting is not just ‘dead’ time, but is also lively in periods of uncertainty.
    • Memories, mementos, and memorialization of young unaccompanied Afghans navigating within Europe

      Lønning, Moa Nyamwathi; Kohli, Ravi K.S.; (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-28)
      This article considers memories, mementos, and memorialization in stories by unaccompanied young people and their journeys within Europe. It looks at their ‘navigation’ of remembering and forgetting and how this intertwines with movement and stillness. It is based on a study about Afghan males aged 15–24 years in Norway and Greece. Participants differed in terms of their backgrounds, migration projects, and their legal status. In their various circumstances, their narratives point to how memories unfold, are shared, must be negotiated, and sometimes, forgotten as they navigate towards a sense of safety and a sustainable future. They also point to how mementos may take different forms while on the move, as traces along the migration trail that have the potential to become part of the memories of others who come across them. Finally, their narratives point to practices of memorialization, and how they too are intimately connected to remembering and forgetting
    • Pedagogical love in Finland and Australia: a study of refugee children and their teachers

      Kaukko, Mervi; Wilkinson, Jane; Kohli, Ravi K.S. (Taylor and Francis, 2021-01-05)
      After claiming asylum, refugee children work to re-build their worlds across three dimensions: safety, belonging, and success. This article examines the pedagogical practices that support this work arguing that a key, but under-examined practice draws on what we have termed pedagogical love. Building on a qualitative Finnish-Australian study, we suggest that as refugee students enter schools in their host countries, pedagogical love can be created through teacher-student interactions in a range of ways despite limited shared language. Later, pedagogical practices that foster a nurturing classroom environment and help students to build a sense of belonging become increasingly important. As students settle in their schools and societies, teachers showing a belief both in the child and their contribution to their new society are crucial. We understand that these actions may be described as teachers’ professional duty of care. Yet our findings show that teachers went beyond this duty by opening their minds and hearts to the students’ lived conditions, engaging with their histories, and constantly shaping their pedagogy accordingly. These practices, we argue, are forms of pedagogical love.
    • Protection: migrant children and institutional protection

      Kohli, Ravi K.S. (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-08-31)
      This chapter considers the ways that social workers respond to the needs, talents and stories of unaccompanied asylum seeking children. When such children need institutional protection and care, the chapter outlines how such care can be provided. It does so through looking at social work practice as a form of practical humanitarian assistance, as emotionally attuned responses to deep complexities, and over time, as an expression of a strong and dependable solidarity with children.
    • Put yourself in our shoes: considering children’s best interests in the asylum system

      Cronin, Kathryn; Sandhu, Baljeet; Kohli, Ravi K.S. (Law Centres Network, 2015-01-01)
      Data collection: Throughout 2014, 11 participating Law Centres uploaded anonymised data on 60 cases which met these selection criteria: 1. The child’s claimed age was under 18 years old at the point they claimed asylum 2. The Home Office treated the child as under 18 years old, even if local authority disputed this 3. The child was unaccompanied or separated  4. The child was seeking asylum alone, i.e. they were not a dependent on any adult’s asylum claim 5. The child’s substantive asylum interview took place between 1 December 2013 and 31 December 2014. For each case over 600 questions were asked. In addition to this, the Project ran two focus groups to obtain the views of young people who had recent experience of the asylum process in the UK.  Data analysis: This focused on ascertaining a clear picture of the related experiences of children and their legal representatives as they work together through the complex process of claiming international protection. This was set against existing national and international law and custom, highlighted throughout the report, which provides a frame of reference for lawyers seeking to promote their child clients’ best interests. Along with identifying areas of good practice by lawyers, immigration officials, statutory and voluntary care givers and other advocates, the analysis also suggested areas for improvement for those seeking to offer these children fair processes which will ensure their safety and long term security. Recommendations: The authors are aware of discussions of the limitations of the current system in the UK for deciding the future of children who arrive here on their own, and have deliberately restricted their recommendations to issues arising from information collected by lawyers working within the current systems and that are evidenced by the data collected.
    • Working in complex, short-term relationships

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Dutton, J. (Jessica Kingsley, 2018-02-21)