• Combatting child sexual exploitation with young people and parents: contributions to a twenty-first century family support agenda

      Thomas, Roma; D'Arcy, Kate (Oxford University Press, 2017-10-14)
      This article discusses family work with young people, parents and carers affected by child sexual exploitation (CSE). It seeks to address a key gap in child protection responses to CSE, namely family support which addresses the needs both of young people and of parents and carers. The paper presents learning from the evaluation of an early-intervention project with young people at risk of or affected by CSE and their families (D’Arcy et al., 2015). It links this empirical evidence to existing research and recent debates in the social work literature about what constitutes effective practice with families and young people. While acknowledging the need for CSE specialist services, it argues that separation between mainstream social work and CSE prevention work with families and young people is not always helpful. The research presented, based on interviews, roundtable discussions and a literature review, highlights the ways of working needed in this field. By connecting family support, work with young people and CSE prevention, we seek to contribute to a broader agenda for social work. This agenda calls for a twenty-first-century reconfiguration of social work using holistic family support practices that work with families’ strengths and apply a participatory approach, providing services which emphasise ‘relationships’ and ‘support’.
    • Contexts that discriminate: international perspectives on the education of Roma students

      Brüggemann, Christian; D'Arcy, Kate; Humboldt University; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2016-07-10)
      Theoretical assumptions about educational disadvantages of minority students can be broadly distinguished between approaches assuming that inequality is triggered by characteristics of the minority students (their parents and communities) and approaches assuming that inequality is triggered by characteristics of institutional schooling and its surrounding dominant discourses (Diefenbach 2010 Diefenbach, H. 2010. Kinder und Jugendliche aus Migrantenfamilien im deutschen Bildungssystem: Erklärungen und empirische Befunde [Children and Youth from Migrant Families in the German Education System: Explanations Empirical Results]. 3rd ed. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. 10.1007/978-3-531-92186-0[CrossRef], 90). Several articles published in this journal have emphasised the latter approach and explored the complex dynamics of racial and ethnic discrimination in education (e.g. Araújo 2016 Araújo, M. 2016. “A Very ‘Prudent Integration’: White Flight, School Segregation and the Depoliticization of (Anti-)Racism.” Race Ethnicity and Education 19 (2): 300–323. doi:10.1080/13613324.2014.969225.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]; Beratan 2008 Beratan, G. D. 2008. “The Song Remains the Same: Transposition and the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education.” Race Ethnicity and Education 11 (4): 337–354. doi:10.1080/13613320802478820.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]; Gafford Muhammad 2009 Gafford Muhammad, C. 2009. “Mississippi Higher Education Desegregation and the Interest Convergence Principle: A Crt Analysis of the ‘Ayers Settlement’.” Race Ethnicity and Education 12 (3): 319–336. doi:10.1080/13613320903178279.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]; Gillies and Robinson 2012 Gillies, V., and Y. Robinson. 2012. “Including While Excluding: Race, Class and Behaviour Support Units.” Race Ethnicity and Education 15 (2): 157–174. doi:10.1080/13613324.2011.578126.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]; Hamilton, Bloomer, and Potter 2012 Hamilton, J., F. Bloomer, and M.Potter. 2012. “The Adequacy of Traveller Education in Northern Ireland.” Race Ethnicity and Education 15 (4): 501–524. doi:10.1080/13613324.2011.645574.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]; Johnson 2007 Johnson, E. 2007. “Schooling, Blackness and National Identity in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.” Race Ethnicity and Education 10 (1): 47–70. doi:10.1080/13613320601100377.[Taylor & Francis Online]; Kruss 2001 Kruss, G. 2001. “Towards Human Rights in South African Schools: An agenda for research and practice.” Race Ethnicity and Education 4 (1): 45–62. doi:10.1080/713693047.[Taylor & Francis Online], [CSA]; Webb 2015 Webb, A. 2015. “Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy Among Mapuche Pupils.” Race Ethnicity and Education 18 (3): 419–441. doi:10.1080/13613324.2014.918944.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]). This special issue follows this tradition by concentrating on the ways in which education systems and prevailing discourses disadvantage minority learners.
    • Evaluation of independent child trafficking advocates trial: final report

      Kohli, Ravi K.S.; Hynes, Patricia; Connolly, Helen; Thurnham, Angela; Westlake, David; D'Arcy, Kate (Home Office, 2015-12-17)
      This report presents the findings from an evaluation of a 1 year trial of the independent child trafficking advocates.
    • Evaluation of the Alexi Project ‘Hub and Spoke’ programme of CSE service development. Final report.

      Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2017-11-01)
      This report details the evaluation of a programme of service development as it was rolled out through 16 new services, which were designed to extend the coverage and reach of child sexual exploitation (CSE) services in England. They were funded by the Child Sexual Exploitation Funders’ Alliance (CSEFA). The 16 services were all established by voluntary sector organisations, and specialised in working with young people affected by CSE. Each service adopted a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of service development, which involved an established voluntary sector CSE service (known as the ‘hub’), locating experienced project workers (known as ‘spokes’) in new service delivery areas. These spoke workers undertook a range of activities to improve CSE work locally, including individual casework and awareness-raising with children and young people, and consultancy, training and awareness-raising with professionals locally. The evaluation adopted a realist approach. This focusses not just on whether programmes or interventions work, but on how or why they might do so (Pawson and Tilley, 1997 ). It takes a theory-driven approach to evaluation rather than concentrating on particular types of evidence or focussing on ‘before’ and ‘after’ type data. It starts from the principle that interventions in themselves do not either ‘work’ or ‘not work’ – rather it is the people involved in them and the skills, attitudes, knowledge and approach they bring, together with the influence of context and resources, that determine the outcomes generated. The evaluation was undertaken between September 2013 and January 2017, exploring how the 16 services developed during a phased roll out. The evaluation team undertook extensive fieldwork at each site on two occasions (one visit for the final eight sites), including 276 interviews with Hub and Spoke staff, professionals locally from children’s services, police, and health, and with children and young people and parents/carers. In addition, quantitative data were collected (about numbers of young people and professionals reached), and spoke workers produced case studies about their work with young people.
    • Families and Communities Against Child Sexual Exploitation (FCASE) : final evaluation report

      D'Arcy, Kate; Dhaliwal, Sukhwant; Thomas, Roma; Brodie, Isabelle; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (Barnardo’s and University of Bedfordshire, 2015-01-01)
      This is the final evaluation report for the Barnardo’s Families and Communities Against Sexual Exploitation project (FCASE), produced by the International Centre, researching Child Sexual Exploitation, Violence and Trafficking at the University of Bedfordshire. The programme was launched in April 2013, funded by the Department for Education (DfE) and concluded in March 2015. The evaluation was undertaken during the same period. The FCASE model has been piloted in three sites, which for the purposes of this report have been anonymised and will be referred to using pseudonyms. It consists of the following elements: a structured programme of six to eight weeks direct work with young people and families where a risk of child sexual exploitation (CSE) has been identified; delivery of CSE training with professionals; and undertaking community awareness raising. The evaluation has been informed by a range of qualitative data. The report identifies the elements that work well and some of the challenges in its implementation. This had been done in order to determine good practice in supporting families and communities and embed more effective practice on protecting children and young people, including those in foster care, from sexual exploitation, harnessing the protective factors within a child’s family and/or foster home. The learning from the project is intended to help other agencies to implement the FCASE model. An on-line learning resource is to be produced in order to facilitate this process1
    • From a whisper to a shout: a call to end violence against children in alternative care

      Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; University of Bedfordshire; SOS Children's Villages International (University of Bedfordshire, SOS Children's Villages International, 2014-01-01)
      In 2009, the UN endorsed the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (the Guidelines). These set out “desirable orientations for policy and practice” to “enhance” the implementation of the UNCRC for children in alternative care. The Guidelines reiterate the right of “Every child and young person [to] live in a supportive, protective and caring environment that promotes his/her full potential”. This report draws on evidence from an extensive global literature review, and assessments of the implementation of the Guidelines in 21 countries around the world. It makes bold claims about high levels of vulnerability and risk of violence facing children in alternative care, but concludes that violence is not inevitable, and with an emphasis on providing quality care it is possible to mitigate the risks of harm for all children.
    • Home education, racism and Traveller communities

      D'Arcy, Kate (UCL IOE Press, 2014-09-01)
      The subject of home education, racism and Travellers is under-researched. Interestingly, Traveller communities are rarely considered as home educators, yet they represent an evergrowing element of the wider home-education population in the UK. In this article I discuss home education, racism and Traveller communities and consider the situation in which they are brought together. I draw on empirical data collected for my doctoral research and my professional experiences of working with Traveller communities in a Traveller Education service.
    • Home education, school, Travellers and educational inclusion

      D'Arcy, Kate (Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-21)
      The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller families. Although existing literature suggests this is a consequence of Traveller culture and mobility patterns, this article argues that problems in school drive uptake. Issues of race and ethnicity continue to drive educational inequality and there is an urgent need to redress this is in educational policy and practice.
    • Involving young people affected by sexual violence in efforts to prevent sexual violence in Europe: what is required?

      Cody, Claire; D'Arcy, Kate; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor and Francis, 2017-11-29)
      This article draws attention to international evidence that highlights the value and challenges of promoting youth participation among and for young people affected by, or at risk of, sexual violence. The article draws on evidence from two pan-European projects that took place between 2013 and 2017 and aimed to give young people a voice in order to prevent sexual violence. The central argument of the article is that young people, particularly those directly affected by sexual violence, including those affected by child sexual exploitation, have an important role to play in shaping practice and policy which addresses sexual violence. However, participation work is complex and requires training, resources and support to enable practitioners to undertake this work with the necessary confidence and skills to safely, ethically and meaningfully engage young people. Involving young people affected by sexual violence is significant and goes beyond generic discourse regarding participation as there are specific risk factors associated with working with “marginalised” or “hard to engage” young people . We suggest that this evidence can inform international policy and practice. Organisations, and in turn State parties, need to properly resource such work and meet their obligations, which are outlined in European conventions.
    • Nightwatch : CSE in plain sight : final evaluation report

      D'Arcy, Kate; Thomas, Roma; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-12-01)
      This is the final evaluation report for the Barnardo’s Nightwatch: CSE in Plain Sight project produced by The International Centre: researching child sexual exploitation, violence and trafficking at the University of Bedfordshire. The Nightwatch project was launched in April 2015 and concluded at the end of March 2016. The evaluation was undertaken during the same period. The aims of Nightwatch were described by the DfE (2015:7-8): ‘To safeguard children and young people from child sexual exploitation (CSE) by increasing awareness of CSE among businesses and services working in the night-time economy (NTE), and by developing strategies, in co-production with these businesses and others, to identify and protect children at risk at night, and intervene early by providing advice, support, training and guidance’.
    • The participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services: a scoping review of the literature

      Brodie, Isabelle; D'Arcy, Kate; Harris, Julie Philippa; Roker, Debi; Shuker, Lucie; Pearce, Jenny J.; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01-10)
      This is a scoping review of the literature which focuses on the participation of young people in child sexual exploitation services.  The review is part of the Alexi Project, which involves an evaluation of the CSEFA Hub and Spoke services in England. The review aims to develop understanding of the concept of participation and the nature of effective participatory practice in the context of child sexual exploitation services. It has taken place between September 2015 and April 2016. The review focuses on the following questions: • How is ‘participation’ of young people in CSE services conceptualised in the research, policy and professional literature? • How explicit is the policy requirement for children and young people’s participation in the processes associated with assessment, planning and review and what evidence exists regarding the implementation and/or effectiveness of these processes? • What evidence exists regarding the nature of the experience of participation, and its impact, from the perspectives of young people, parents and carers, and professionals? • What evidence exists regarding the conditions that need to be in place to make participative working possible and effective for different groups of CSE affected young people? • What evidence exists regarding the replicability of participative models?
    • Using counter-stories to challenge stock stories about Traveller families

      D'Arcy, Kate; University of Bedfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2016-06-20)
      Critical Race Theory (CRT) is formed from a series of different methodological tools to expose and address racism and discrimination. Counter-stories are one of these tools. This article considers the potential of counter-stories as a methodological, theoretical and practical tool to analyse existing educational inequalities for Traveller communities. Although discrimination towards Traveller communities is well documented, there has been limited use of CRT to examine this position and challenge the social injustice they experience. In this article ‘stock stories’, or commonly held assumptions and stereotypes about Traveller communities are highlighted and refuted with Travellers’ own accounts. It is hoped this article will dispel stock stories, raise awareness of the real inequalities Travellers face and inform methodological debate.
    • Youth and community approaches to preventing child sexual exploitation: South African and UK project experiences

      D'Arcy, Kate; Thomas, Roma; Wallace, Candace T. (Sage, 2018-06-14)
      This chapter brings together case studies from two pieces of research – an evaluative study in the UK (D’Arcy et al., 2015) and a participatory action research project in South Africa (Wallace, 2015). The chapter aims to provide international perspectives on youth and community approaches to empowering children, young people and their families in preventing and raising awareness of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) and Child SexualAbuse (CSA). It highlights the potential relevance and significance of central tenets of youth and community approaches to prevention work in CSE and CSA by drawing upon the concepts of education, voluntary engagement,participation, strengths-based approaches and rights-based models of working with children and young people.