• Book review: Children, young people and the press in a transitioning society: representations, reactions and criminalisation

      Bateman, Tim (Wiley, 2018-08-25)
      Review of Children, Young People and the Press in a Transitioning Society: Representations, Reactions and Criminalisation By Faith Gordon, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018 ISBN 9781137606822, 293 pp, £88 (hb)
    • “Catching them young” – some reflections on the meaning of the age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales

      Bateman, Tim (Emerald, 2014-06-30)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the tension between government protestations that youth justice policy is evidence-led and what the evidence implies in the context of the age of criminal responsibility. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of a conceptual analysis of government policy and the evidence base. Findings – The paper concludes that the current low age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales can be understood as a manifestation of the influence of underclass theory on successive governments. Research limitations/implications – The paper is not based on primary research. Practical implications – The arguments adduced help to explain the reluctance of government to countenance any increase in the age of criminal responsibility. Social implications – The analysis might help inform approaches adopted by youth justice policy makers, practitioners and academics with an interest in seeking a rise in the age of criminal responsibility. Originality/value – The paper offers an original analysis of government intransigence on an important social issue.
    • Custody to community: how young people cope with release

      Bateman, Tim; Hazel, Neal; Beyond Youth Custody (Beyond Youth Custody, 2015-02-17)
      This report begins to address a gap in the knowledge about the way that young people experience the transition from custody back into the community. In particular, it highlights the stresses reported during a period of disorientation and reorientation immediately following release. The research team reanalysed thematically 59 transcripts that we have conducted with young people aged between 12 and 17 for studies on broader issues related to youth custody. Recommendations are produced in order to stimulate national and local debate on considering responses to the disorientation and reorientation during this period in order to allow for longer-term success in resettlement.
    • England and Wales

      Bateman, Tim (Springer, 2016-12-21)
    • Exploring recent trends in youth justice reconvictions: a challenge to the complexity thesis

      Bateman, Tim; Wigzell, Alexandra (Sage, 2019-10-03)
      Abstract In recent years it has become accepted wisdom that children subject to youth justice intervention, in England and Wales, are more complex than previously, as a consequence of a substantial rise in diversion from the system that filters out children with lower levels of need and less entrenched offending. This ‘complexity’ thesis has been used to explain rises in rates of reoffending. This article demonstrates that the patterns shown in the reoffending data are not those that would be predicted by the complexity thesis. Indeed the data suggests that some groups of children may be less entrenched in offending than hitherto.
    • Looked after children and custody: a brief review of the relationship between care status and child incarceration and the implications for service provision

      Bateman, Tim; Day, Anne-Marie; Pitts, John; University of Bedfordshire; Nuffield Foundation (University of Bedfordshire, Nuffield Foundation, 2018-01-01)
      Although there are some important limitations with the data, the available evidence demonstrates conclusively that children who are in the care of the local authority are consistently over-represented among those who come to the attention of the youth justice system. A similar disproportionality is also evident within the children’s custodial estate. While it appears that the relationship is long-standing, it has only recently become the focus of policy attention which has begun to explore some of the reasons for the patterns discernible in the figures (see, for example, Schofield et al, 2012: Laming, 2016). In particular, an independent review of the relationship between the care system and the criminal justice system, led by Lord Laming, commissioned an extensive exploration of the available literature that provides a useful baseline for future research (Staines, 2016). The current review aims to provide a context for research, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, that aims to identity the particular pathways of looked after children into, through and leaving custody and to establish in what ways, and to what extent, these might differ from those of children who do not have care experience. It does not accordingly aim to replicate the earlier work identified in the previous paragraph; instead the intention is to draw on previous reviews, and relevant additional material, through a lens that focuses on the existing evidence base as it relates specifically to the likelihood of children being incarcerated, to their subsequent custodial experience and to the provision of effective resettlement once they have been released.
    • ‘Nothing’s really that hard, you can do it’. Agency and fatalism: the resettlement needs of girls in custody

      Bateman, Tim; Melrose, Margaret; Brodie, Isabelle; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2013-06-05)
      This report presents the results of a qualitative study, funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust, of the resettlement needs of 17-year-old young women in a single young offender institution in England and Wales. Using in depth qualitative interviews with 16 girls in custody and two follow up interviews in the community, the study aimed to give expression to the girls’ views on what support they thought would be required, both while in prison and in the form of resettlement provision on release, if they were not to reoffend. The sample size, while small, is equivalent to the capacity of the young offender institution where field work was conducted and to around one third of the total female population of the secure estate on any one day. Field work was conducted between December 2011 and November 2012. Girls constitute a small proportion of children below the age of 18 in custody and have consequently tended to be ‘invisible’ from a research perspective. Yet girls in prison are among the most vulnerable young people in society and recent falls in youth imprisonment have tended to amplify that vulnerability, as less serious cases have been diverted to community based interventions. Such developments have posed additional challenges for the already difficult task of providing effective resettlement.
    • Promoting shifts in personal narratives and providing structures of support: transitions of incarcerated children in England and Wales

      Bateman, Tim; Hazel, Neal (Springer, 2018-08-31)
      Recidivism rates for children leaving custody in England and Wales have remained stubbornly high, despite intense policy interest and some promising short-term initiatives. In this chapter, it is argued that the major challenge to improved outcomes has been the widespread failure of service providers to adopt lessons from research. This failure, we maintain, has been due to the lack of a conceptual understanding of how resettlement intervention effects positive change in children, leading to confusion as to service aims and what good practice looks like. Based on the existing knowledge base, from a six-year study titled, Beyond Youth Custody, it was concluded that effective resettlement should be reconceptualized as personal and practical support, that facilitates a shift in the child’s personal narrative from pro-criminal to pro-social. Five characteristics for practice necessary to promote this shift are identified, which are compared to the Taxonomy for Transition Programming 2.0.
    • The punitive transition in youth justice: reconstructing the child as offender

      Case, S; Bateman, Tim (Wiley, 2020-03-30)
      The transition from ‘child’ to ‘offender’ status can be fasttracked when offending is formally recognised through formal disposal, with children treated increasing punitively as they progress through the Youth Justice System. The status and ‘offenderising’ transitions of children who offend is socio-historically contingent, not only on their behaviour, but on political, socio-economic, societal, systemic and demography. We support this perspective through a periodised re-examination of four socio-historical trajectories in the construction of the ‘youth offender’: conflict, ambivalence and bifurcation (1908-1979); depenalising diversion and back to justice (1980-1992), fast-tracking the child to offender transition (1993-2007) and tentative depenalisation (2008 to present).
    • Resettlement of girls and young women: research report

      Bateman, Tim; Hazel, Neal; Beyond Youth Custody (Beyond Youth Custody, 2014-08-04)
      This report addresses a worrying gap in the knowledge about the effective resettlement of girls and young women. Reviewing research literature in a number of relevant areas, it cross-references evidence of what works in the resettlement of young people with what we know about the wider need of girls and young women. This iterative synthesis approach thus provides a gender-sensitive approach to inform policy and practice development in resettlement for this specific group.
    • Responding to youth offending: historical and current developments in practice

      Bateman, Tim (Routledge, 2019-09-17)
      This chapter proceeds from an understanding that youth justice stands at the intersection of two social constructions: crime on the one hand and childhood on the other. As a consequence, the meaning of youth justice is fluid and interpretations of what constitutes an appropriate response to youth offending vary over time and place. Focusing on England and Wales, responses to youth crime since the Second World War are explored over four distinct chronological periods. The analysis demonstrates that policy and practice are subject to periodic sharp reversals that both reflect, and give rise to, changing constructions of youthful lawbreaking. Such shifts, moreover, frequently betray a pragmatic reaction to political imperatives rather than any engagement with evidence, confirming that responding to youth offending is not, and has not been, a neutral endeavour.
    • The state of youth custody - 2016

      Bateman, Tim; National Association for Youth Justice (National Association for Youth Justice, 2016-10-03)
    • The State of youth justice 2017: an overview of trends and developments

      Bateman, Tim; University of Bedfordshire (National Association for Youth Justice, 2017-09-25)
    • The state of youth justice 2020: an overview of trends and developments

      Bateman, Tim; National Association for Youth Justice (National Association for Youth Justice, 2020-09-23)
      The report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in youth justice policy and developments in policy and provides a detailed analysis of what these mean for the treatment of children in trouble.
    • Supporting children’s resettlement (‘reentry’) after custody: beyond the risk paradigm

      Hazel, Neal; Bateman, Tim; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Sage, 2020-06-07)
      In response to policy concerns in England and Wales and internationally, a considerable knowledge base has identified factors statistically associated with reduced recidivism for children leaving custodial institutions. However, despite resulting guidance on how to support resettlement (‘reentry’), practice and outcomes remain disappointing. We argue that this failure reflects weaknesses in the dominant ‘risk paradigm’, which lacks a theory of change and undermines children’s agency. We conceptualise resettlement as a pro-social identity shift. A new practice model reinterprets existing risk-based messages accordingly, and crucially adds principles to guide a child’s desistance journey. However, successful implementation may require the model to inform culture change more broadly across youth justice.