• AFM-based study of fullerenol (C60(OH)24)-induced changes of elasticity in living SMCC-7721 cells

      Liu, Yang; Wang, Zuobin; Wang, Xinyue; ; Changchun University of Science and Technology (Elsevier, 2014-12-18)
      In this study, the alterations of the morphology and biomechanical properties of living SMCC-7721 cancer cells treated with fullerenol (C60(OH)24) for 24, 48, and 72h were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Comparative analyses show that the elastic moduli of the SMCC-7721 cells exposed to fullerenol decrease significantly with the increase of the treatment periods. Furthermore, in different phases of the treatment, a global decrease in elasticity is accompanied by cellular morphological changes, and the time-dependent effect of the fullerenol can be observed using AFM and optical microscope. In addition, as the treatment duration increases, the indentation force and depth penetrated into the cell membrane by the AFM tip are in a declining trend. The reduction in the stiffness of the cells exposed to fullerenol could be associated with the disruption of the cellular cytoskeleton network. The investigation indicates that the elastic modulus of single living cells can be a useful biomarker to evaluate the effects of fullerenol or other anticancer agents on the cells and reveal instructive information for cellular dynamic behaviors.
    • AFM-detected apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by American ginseng root water extract

      Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Zuobin; Zhao, Feihu; Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-12)
      American ginseng as a common and traditional herbal medicine has been used in cancer treatment for many years. However, the effect of American ginseng on the cancer cell response (i.e. apoptosis) has not been fully understood yet. Previous studies demonstrated that cellular apoptosis was associated with the changes of mechanical and morphological properties. Therefore, in this study, mechanical and morphological characterizations were carried out by both atomic force microscope (AFM) and inverted optical microscope to investigate the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721) cells affected by American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE). The results showed that the cells treated with AGRWE exhibited significantly larger surface roughness, height and elastic modulus values than control group. Moreover, those parameters were upregulated under the higher concentration of AGRWE and longer culture time. Consequently, it indicates that the mechanical and morphological properties can be used as the apoptotic characteristics of SMMC-7721 cells. Also, the increased surface roughness and elastic modulus of cells under the AGRWE treatment have shown that the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells can be enhanced by AGRWE. This will provide an important implication for hepatocelluar carcinoma treatment and drug development.
    • Analyse lifestyle related prostate cancer risk factors retrieved from literacy

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Risk factors for prostate cancer were identified through extensive research of literature and data was retrieved from both literatures and repositories. The research applies data mining techniques to the medical literatures and evidences on prostate cancer, with the aim to unravel the relationships between the presence of having multiple lifestyle factors and prostate cancer effective of occurrence of multiple factors. The research is to establish a possible predictive model based on theorized and proven risk factors and associations used in prostate cancer research. This paper describes the use of data mining algorithms on the risk factors to identify hidden knowledge. Firstly, an association rule mining algorithm is employed to identify the significant risk factors for the predictive modeling, based on the support level in terms of research materials used and confidence values. Secondly, the chosen factors were combined, modelled and visually represented to show their probability risks in relation to each other and the disease.
    • Analysis disease progression using data visualization

      Liu, Enjie; Zhao, Youbing; Wei, Hui; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; University of Bedfordshire; University of Thrace (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Patients with chronic diseases are required to self-manage their conditions. Patients are normally advised to adapt to healthier life-style, and in the meantime to continuously monitor the relevant biomarkers. Recent technology advances in monitoring devices, such as activities waist bands and glucose sensors, made it much easier for the patients to monitor the level of activities and biomarkers in home environment. The aim is to assist patients in making informed decisions and the key feature to achieve will be based on thoroughly understand the meaning of the collected data with the help of known facts (knowledge). However, interpreting the meaning of the monitored data is a challenging task for an ordinary patient. Data visualization techniques play an important role in helping users to understand and interpret data via exploration. In this paper, we present data visualization diagrams that are used in CARRE project to help both medical professional and patients to understand the disease progressions.
    • Analysis of colchicine-induced effects on hepatoma and hepatpcyte cells by atomic force microscopy

      Liu, Lanjiao; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Wenxiao; Zhu, Xinyao; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick (American Scientific Publishers, 2018-06-01)
      Biomechanical properties of cells are altered by many diseases. Cancer cell metastasis is related to the properties such as the cell stiffness that influences cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this paper, we used an atomic force microscope to analyze the colchicine-induced effects on the mechanical properties of hepatocyte (HL-7702 cells) and hepatoma cells (SMCC-7721 cells) in culture at the nanoscale. The cells were exposed to a solution with a normal dose of colchicine for two, four and six hours. Surface topographic images showed that colchicine decreased the stability of the cytoskeleton. After the same six-hour treatment in a solution with a normal dose of colchicine, the biomechanical properties of HL-7702 cells were almost unchanged. However, the stiffness and the adhesion force of the SMCC-7721 cells were clearly increased (more than twofold of the normal values), especially after four hours. The deformability of SMCC-7721 cancer cells was significantly decreased within the six-hour treatment in the solution with a normal dose of colchicine. Analysis of the biomechanical properties of post-treatment hepatoma cells provided a complementary explanation for the mechanism of action of colchicine on cells at the nanoscale. This method is expected to allow the monitoring of potential metastatic cancer cell changes, thus preventing the emergence and the transmission of disease, and improving the diagnosis of cancer.
    • Analysis of cybercrime in Nigeria

      Hamisu, Muhammad; Idris, Abubakar Muhammad; Mansour, Ali; Olalere, Morufu; University of Bedfordshire; Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-05-25)
      Nigeria has both the largest economy and population in Africa, and this contribute to the growth and fast expansion of ICT and the use of Internet in Nigeria. Like other technologies, Internet has been used by both good and bad actors. The use of internet and computer to commit crime is costing global economy the loss of billions of dollars. In Nigeria, the majority of the population use the Internet for good but some few are using it to commit criminal activities such as Fraud. Cybercriminals in Nigeria, widely called Yahoo Boys in the country specialize in Internet fraud that target mostly International victims. The Nigeria government is stepping efforts to bring an end the activities of these criminals as their actions tarnishes the image of the country. While the efforts of the government had yielded some positive results, the threat of Cybercrime in Nigeria is still high, as criminals continue to take advantage of flaws in the law enforcement tactical approach in addressing the crime. This paper discusses an overview of Cybercrime in Nigeria, the common types of Cybercrime that is perpetuated from the country and the reason of doing so. It also discusses the government's success and areas of strength in its fight against Cybercrime and highlight the areas of weaknesses. Recommendations and suggestions are made on how law enforcement and the government at large can improve to tackle Cybercrime better in Nigeria.
    • Analysis of the carrier suppressed single sideband modulation for long distance optical communication systems

      Paloi, Fadil; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire; Royal Holloway, University of London (Elsevier GmbH, 2018-02-12)
      In this research paper, we report on a simulation study of the Radio over Fibre (RoF) Carrier Suppressed Single Sideband (CS-SSB) modulation scheme. This scheme is based on a Dual Parallel Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-DDMZM), for a long-distance transmission. The proposed system consists of the combination of a carrier and a message signal at two parallel modulators, where the laser and link power is varied for the two different dispersion compensation techniques. We found that by suppressing the optical carrier and cancelling one sideband, we can limit the nonlinear effects that are caused by power fading and interference. We demonstrate that by varying the launched laser and link power up to optimised threshold levels, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) increases and the Q-Factor improves significantly. Our proposed RoF optic communication architecture can support an extended reach transmission of up to 200 km without dispersion compensation. Moreover, for the bitrate of 10 Gbit/s and span length of 25 km, we achieved a span ratio of 520, alternatively viewed as the system link signal transmission distance of 13,000 km. Therefore, this method is cost-effective and less complex.
    • Analysis of the relationship between Saudi twitter posts and the Saudi stock market

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-02-04)
      Sentiment analysis has become the heart of social media research and many studies have been applied to obtain users' opinion in fields such as electronic commerce and trade, management and also regarding political figures. Social media has recently become a rich resource in mining user sentiments. Social opinion has been analysed using sentiment analysis and some studies show that sentiment analysis of news, documents, quarterly reports, and blogs can be used as part of trading strategies. In this paper, Twitter has been chosen as a platform for opinion mining in trading strategy with the Saudi stock market in order to carry out and illustrate the relationship between Saudi tweets (that is standard and Arabian Gulf dialects) and the Saudi market index. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed on Saudi tweets and the Saudi stock market.
    • Antenna and propagation considerations for amateur UAV monitoring

      Abolhasan M; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Aifeng; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Fangming; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbas, Haider; Xidian University; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-05-18)
      The broad application spectrum of unmanned aerial vehicles is making them one of the most promising technologies of Internet of Things era. Proactive prevention for public safety threats is one of the key areas with vast potential of surveillance and monitoring drones. Antennas play a vital role in such applications to establish reliable communication in these scenarios. This paper considers line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight threat scenarios with the perspective of antennas and electromagnetic wave propagation.
    • Anti-degranulation response of herbal formula in RBL-2H3 cells

      Hu, Jing; Chen, Yujuan; Zhu, Jiajing; Gao, Mingyan; Li, Jiani; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-12-28)
      Allergic diseases not only bring serious economic burden to the patients, but also consume a lot of substantial resources of social medical systems. Thus, the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases are imperative. In this study, the anti-degranulation activity of herbal formula was evaluated using the rat basophil leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) as in vitro model. The morphological and biophysical properties of RBL-2H3 cells before and after treatment with herbal formula were also determined. Notably, the herbal formula exhibits clearly inhibited degranulation by RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Therefore, this herbal formula can be used as an alternative and promising therapeutic agent to ameliorate allergic diseases.
    • Application of atomic force microscope in diagnosis of single cancer cells

      Lu, Zhengcheng; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; ; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2020-09-04)
      Changes in mechanical properties of cells are closely related to a variety of diseases. As an advanced technology on the micro/nano scale, atomic force microscopy is the most suitable tool for information acquisition of living cells in human body fluids. AFMs are able to measure and characterize the mechanical properties of cells which can be used as effective markers to distinguish between different cell types and cells in different states (benign or cancerous). Therefore, they can be employed to obtain additional information to that obtained via the traditional biochemistry methods for better identifying and diagnosing cancer cells for humans, proposing better treatment methods and prognosis, and unravelling the pathogenesis of the disease. In this report, we review the use of AFMs in cancerous tissues, organs, and cancer cells cultured in vitro to obtain cellular mechanical properties, demonstrate and summarize the results of AFMs in cancer biology, and look forward to possible future applications and the direction of development.
    • Application of Error-Correcting Codes (ECCs) for efficient message transmission in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

      Muhammad, Shehu Jabaka; Zhang, Sijing; Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2018-09-29)
      In this paper, we presented an adaptive application of forward error code (FEC) for efficient message transmission in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our solution is a combination of automatic retransmission request (ARQ) with FEC at the MAC layer. The proposed scheme used the existing channel condition, an estimate of the maximum number of transmissions before the message deadline elapses and message type as an index in code lookup ensemble (CLE) to get an optimum code (optCode) for the current transmission. Furthermore, the system also set the transmission timeout delay RTT , encode the message with the optCode and transmit. However, if the transmission timeout delay elapses before receiving an ACK/NAK, the scheme will return to the initial stage for feasible retransmission of the message. We evaluated the scheme and compared it with the static FEC for reliable and timely safety message transmission; our system outperformed the static FEC in all cases that we have considered.
    • An approach to locating delayed activities in software processes

      Jin, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Hong-Ji; Zhang, Sijing; Ge, Ji-Dong; Yunnan University; Key Laboratory for Software Engineering of Yunnan Province; Research Center of Cloud Computing of Yunnan Province; Bath Spa University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2017-09-21)
      Activity is now playing a vital role in software processes. To ensure the high-level efficiency of software processes, a key point is to locate those activities that own bigger resource occupation probabilities with respect to average execution time, called delayed activities, and then improve them. To this end, we firstly propose an approach to locating delayed activities in software processes. Furthermore, we present a case study, which exhibits the high-level efficiency of the approach, to concretely illustrate this new solution. Some beneficial analysis and reasonable modification are developed in the end.
    • Aquacold - a crowdsourced query understanding and query construction tool for the linked data web

      Collis, Nick; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (CEUR-WS, 2017-12-31)
      The Linked Data Web promises a disseminated, dynamic, ever expanding knowledge base where relationships between content and entities can be expressed and queried using formal logic rules. The data formats and exchange protocols that comprise the Linked Data Web have existed for over 15 years and grown to incorporate over 149 billion triples but there is no established 'mainstream' system that allows regular non-technical users to query the linked data web using natural language. In this paper we introduce Aquacold (Aggregated Query Understanding And Construction Over Linked Data), a novel Linked Data query tool designed to fill this gap. Aquacold combines a simple browsing interface for exploring, filtering and sorting linked data with query labelling which allows the user to store a natural language representation of the underlying SPARQL query. A search interface allows users to write guided natural language queries, which are converted into SPARQL queries to retrieve results from the linked data source. A set of voting tools are presented for each query and associated result set to surface the most accurate templates and relegate those that are less accurate. This crowdsourced approach for labelling, saving and voting on linked data query templates enables regular, non-technical users to make complex natural language queries over the linked data web without having to use a structured language such as SPARQL. In this paper we provide an overview of the system and discuss an early prototype.
    • Arabic text classification methods: systematic literature review of primary studies

      Alabbas, Waleed; al-Khateeb, Haider; Mansour, Ali; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-01-05)
      Recent research on Big Data proposed and evaluated a number of advanced techniques to gain meaningful information from the complex and large volume of data available on the World Wide Web. To achieve accurate text analysis, a process is usually initiated with a Text Classification (TC) method. Reviewing the very recent literature in this area shows that most studies are focused on English (and other scripts) while attempts on classifying Arabic texts remain relatively very limited. Hence, we intend to contribute the first Systematic Literature Review (SLR) utilizing a search protocol strictly to summarize key characteristics of the different TC techniques and methods used to classify Arabic text, this work also aims to identify and share a scientific evidence of the gap in current literature to help suggesting areas for further research. Our SLR explicitly investigates empirical evidence as a decision factor to include studies, then conclude which classifier produced more accurate results. Further, our findings identify the lack of standardized corpuses for Arabic text; authors compile their own, and most of the work is focused on Modern Arabic with very little done on Colloquial Arabic despite its wide use in Social Media Networks such as Twitter. In total, 1464 papers were surveyed from which 48 primary studies were included and analyzed.
    • Artificial intelligence cyber security strategy

      Feng, Xiaohua; Feng, Yunzhong; Dawam, Edward Swarlat; University of Bedfordshire; Hebei Normal University (IEEE, 2020-11-11)
      Nowadays, STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) have never been treated so seriously before. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has played an important role currently in STEM. Under the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic crisis, coronavirus disease across over the world we are living in. Every government seek advices from scientist before making their strategic plan. Most of countries collect data from hospitals (and care home and so on in the society), carried out data analysis, using formula to make some AI models, to predict the potential development patterns, in order to make their government strategy. AI security become essential. If a security attack make the pattern wrong, the model is not a true prediction, that could result in thousands life loss. The potential consequence of this non-accurate forecast would be even worse. Therefore, take security into account during the forecast AI modelling, step-by-step data governance, will be significant. Cyber security should be applied during this kind of prediction process using AI deep learning technology and so on. Some in-depth discussion will follow.AI security impact is a principle concern in the world. It is also significant for both nature science and social science researchers to consider in the future. In particular, because many services are running on online devices, security defenses are essential. The results should have properly data governance with security. AI security strategy should be up to the top priority to influence governments and their citizens in the world. AI security will help governments’ strategy makers to work reasonably balancing between technologies, socially and politics. In this paper, strategy related challenges of AI and Security will be discussed, along with suggestions AI cyber security and politics trade-off consideration from an initial planning stage to its near future further development.
    • Atomic force acoustic microscopy reveals the influence of substrate stiffness and topography on cell behavior

      Liu, Yan; Li, Li; Chen, Xing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Mengnan; Yan, Jin; Cao, Liang; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Beilstein-Institut, 2019-11-26)
      The stiffness and the topography of the substrate at the cell-substrate interface are two key properties influencing cell behavior. In this paper, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is used to investigate the influence of substrate stiffness and substrate topography on the responses of L929 fibroblasts. This combined nondestructive technique is able to characterize materials at high lateral resolution. To produce substrates of tunable stiffness and topography, we imprint nanostripe patterns on undeveloped and developed SU-8 photoresist films using electron-beam lithography (EBL). Elastic deformations of the substrate surfaces and the cells are revealed by AFAM. Our results show that AFAM is capable of imaging surface elastic deformations. By immunofluorescence experiments, we find that the L929 cells significantly elongate on the patterned stiffness substrate, whereas the elasticity of the pattern has only little effect on the spreading of the L929 cells. The influence of the topography pattern on the cell alignment and morphology is even more pronounced leading to an arrangement of the cells along the nanostripe pattern. Our method is useful for the quantitative characterization of cell-substrate interactions and provides guidance for the tissue regeneration therapy in biomedicine.
    • Atomic force microscopy imaging of the G-banding process of chromosomes

      Wang, Bowei; Li, Jiani; Dong, Jianjun; Yang, Fan; Qu, Kaige; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jingran; Song, Zhengxun; Hu, Hongmei; Wang, Zuobin; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media, 2020-10-24)
      The chromosome is an important genetic material carrier in living individuals and the spatial conformation (mainly referring to the chromosomal structure, quantity, centromere position and other morphological information) may be abnormal or mutated. Thus, it may generate a high possibility to cause diseases. Generally, the karyotype of chromosome G-bands is detected and analyzed using an optical microscope. However, it is difficult to detect the G-band structures for traditional optical microscopes on the nanometer scale. Herein, we have studied the detection method of chromosome G-band samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The structures of chromosome G-banding are studied with different trypsin treatment durations. The experiment result shows that the treatment duration of 20 s is the best time to form G-band structures. The AFM images show the structures of chromosome G-bands which cannot be observed under an optical microscope. This work provides a new way for the detection and diagnosis of chromosome diseases on the nanometer scale.
    • Autonomous arial vehicles in smart cities: potential cyber-physical threats

      Dawam, Edward Swarlat; Feng, Xiaohua; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-01-24)
      Autonomous aerial vehicles (AAV) are aircraft systems whose aircrew is replaced by autonomous computer systems and a radio link, thereby managed remotely from a ground station. This mode of transportation has recently been adopted as a means of transportation in a pioneering initiative by Dubai with more smart cities expected to adopt this mode of transportation shortly as it is believed to show potentials to transform urban transportation and future mobility in smart cities. The concern, however, is, the security of these systems and the smart city infrastructure they depend on for their operations. Certainly, the introduction of AAVs into smart cities raises many new cybersecurity questions that are in need of investigation and answers. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to explore potential cyber-physical security threats and the challenges that need to be confronted before this mode of transportation is fully integrated into the smart cities. A methodology to investigate on a large scale the cybersecurity attack vectors of such systems is presented based on four categories of systems that are critical to AAV operations, as well as their impacts and how to counter such attacks. What follows is a summary of the countermeasures that should be implemented to guarantee the safety of those systems.
    • Autonomous vehicles' forensics in smart cities

      Feng, Xiaohua; Dawam, Edward Swarlat; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-04-02)
      Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without any human inputs. When accidents occur between AVs, road infrastructures, or human subjects, liability is decided based on accident forensics. This accident forensics is carried out by the acquisition of sensor data generated within the AVs and through its communication between vehicles to a vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) with a centralised data hub in smart cities that collects and stores this data thereby aiding the relevant authorities in informed decision making. However, practices mostly employed in extracting this information are unprofessional when compared to other areas of digital forensics. In this paper, we designed and implemented a non-invasive mechanism for the collection and storage of forensic data from AVs within smart cities. This mechanism is efficient, secure, and preserves the privacy of data generated by the AV.