• A machine learning framework to detect and document text-based cyberstalking

      Ghasem, Zinnar; Frommholz, Ingo; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; University of Warwick (CEUR-WS, 2015-12-31)
      Cyberstalking is becoming a social and international problem, where cyberstalkers utilise the Internet to target individuals and disguise themselves without fear of any consequences. Several technologies, methods, and techniques are used by perpetrators to terrorise victims. While spam email filtering systems have been effective by applying various statistical and machine learning algorithms, utilising text categorization and filtering to detect text- and email-based cyberstalking is an interesting new application. There is also the need to gather evidence by the victim. To this end we discuss a framework to detect cyberstalking in messages; short message service, multimedia messaging service, chat, instance messaging and emails, and as well as to support documenting evidence. Our framework consists of five main modules: a detection module which detects cyberstalking using message categorisation; an attacker identification module based on cyberstalkers' previous messages history, personalisation module, aggregator module and messages and evidence collection module. We discuss our ongoing work and how different text categorization and machine learning approaches can be applied to identify cyberstalkers.
    • Management of scientific documents and visualization of citation relationships using weighted key scientific terms

      Wei, Hui; Zhao, Youbing; Liu, Enjie; Wu, Shaopeng; Deng, Zhikun; Parvinzamir, Farzad; Dong, Feng; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (SciTePress, 2016-12-31)
      Effective management and visualization of scientific and research documents can greatly assist researchers by improving understanding of relationships (e.g. citations) between the documents. This paper presents work on the management and visualization of large corpuses of scientific papers in order to help researchers explore their citation relationships. Term selection and weighting are used for mining citation relationships by identifying the most relevant. To this end, we present a variation of the TF-IDF scheme, which uses external domain resources as references to calculate the term weighting in a particular domain; document weighting is taken into account in the calculation of term weighting from a group of citations. A simple hierarchical word weighting method is also presented. The work is supported by an underlying architecture for document management using NoSQL databases and employs a simple visualization interface.
    • Measuring student acceptance of game based learning for game and technology education curriculum development

      Saleh, Nada; Prakash, Edmond C.; Manton, Rob; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-01-12)
      Technological education is the modernized practice of learning through the use of technologies. Edutainment is a kind of education which integrates entertainment for educational purposes and uses video games for education. It is a hybrid learning system that depends basically on narrative, visual materials or game-like formats, with less didactic address styles and on a more informal way. Game based learning or edutainment, just like other technology-based education methods, is being used in western or developed countries. Saudi Arabia is considered a developing country just like other Arab countries; hence, computer education has recently appeared in Saudi Arabian education. Therefore, studying this new development in the Saudi educational systems will effect significantly on the speed of developing the educational systems in Saudi Arabia. However, no edutainment games have been designed for this new curriculum. Therefore this research ultimately aims to design a new edutainment game to be used for the computer technology curriculum. To design an efficient edutainment game system, edutainment game effectiveness and the attitudes of students will be measured to know their technology acceptance level for the new edutainment tool and curriculum. The study is carried out using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), based on four factors; usability, usefulness, ease of use and effectiveness.
    • Mechanical manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetic force microscopy

      Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Yiquan; Zhu, Hanxing; Qiu, Renxi; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-07-21)
      A method has been developed in this work for the mechanical manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). A helical curve was designed as the capture path to pick up and remove the target nanoparticle on a mica surface by a magnetic probe based on the magnetic force microscope (MFM). There were magnetic, tangential and pushing forces acting on the target particle during the approaching process when the tip followed the helical curve as the capture path. The magnetic force was significant when the tip was closer to the particle. The target particle can be attached on the surface of the magnetic probe tip and then be picked up after the tip retracted from the mica surface. Theoretical analysis and experimental results were presented for the pick-up and removal of MNPs. With this method, the precision and flexibility of manipulation of MNPs were improved significantly compared to the pushing or sliding of the target object away from the corresponding original location following a planned path.
    • Medial septum tau accumulation induces spatial memory deficit via disrupting medial septum-hippocampus cholinergic pathway

      Wu, Dongqin; Gao, Di; Yu, Haitao; Pi, Guilin; Xiong, Rui; Lei, Huiyang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Enjie; Ye, Jinwang; Gao, Yang; et al. (Wiley, 2021-05-28)
      Tau accumulation and cholinergic impairment are characteristic pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the causal role of tau accumulation in cholinergic lesion is elusive. Here, we observed an aberrant tau accumulation in the medial septum (MS) of 3xTg and 5xFAD mice, especially in their cholinergic neurons. Overexpressing hTau in mouse MS (MShTau ) for 6 months but not 3 months induced spatial memory impairment without changing object recognition and anxiety-like behavior, indicating a specific and time-dependent effect of MS-hTau accumulation on spatial cognitive functions. With increasing hTau accumulation, the MShTau mice showed a time-dependent cholinergic neuron loss with reduced cholinergic projections to the hippocampus. Intraperitoneal administration of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, for 1 month ameliorated the MS-hTau-induced spatial memory deficits with preservation of MS-hippocampal cholinergic pathway and removal of tau load; and the beneficial effects of donepezil was more prominent at low dose. Proteomics revealed that MS-hTau accumulation deregulated multiple signaling pathways with numerous differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Among them, the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 37D (VP37D), an autophagy-related protein, was significantly reduced in MShTau mice; the reduction of VP37D was restored by donepezil, and the effect was more significant at low dose than high dose. These novel evidences reveal a causal role of tau accumulation in linking MS cholinergic lesion to hippocampus-dependent spatial cognitive damages as seen in the AD patients, and the new tau-removal and autophagy-promoting effects of donepezil may extend its application beyond simple symptom amelioration to potential disease modification.
    • Message dissemination reliability in vehicular networks

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-11-02)
      Prior to wide deployment of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) in public motorways, amongst the key challenges that must be adequately resolved is safety message dissemination reliability in the presence of error-prone wireless channel, propagation delays, extremely dynamic network topology, frequent network fragmentation and high vehicle mobility. In this paper, we investigate the application of network coding concept to achieve improved message dissemination reliability as well as increased bandwidth efficiency for efficient vehicular communication system. In particular, we proposed an efficient error recovery scheme which employs network coding concept to increase safety message broadcast reliability with a minimized number of encoded packet retransmissions. The benefits of the proposed scheme over simple error correction based on retransmission are clearly shown with detailed theoretical analysis and further validated with simulation experiments.
    • Micro and nano dual-scale structures fabricated by amplitude modulation in multi-beam laser interference lithography

      Zhang, Ziang; Dong, Litong; Ding, Yunfeng; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Changchun Observatory (Optical Society of America, 2017-11-08)
      In this work, an effective method was presented to obtain a specific micro and nano dual-structures by amplitude modulation in multi-beam laser interference lithography (LIL). Moiré effect was applied to generate the amplitude modulation. The specific intensity modulation patterns can be obtained by the control of the parameter settings of incident laser beams. Both the incident angle and azimuth angle asymmetric configurations can cause the amplitude modulation in the interference optic field and the modulation period is determined by the angle offset. A four-beam LIL system was set up to fabricate patterns on photoresist and verify the method. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.
    • Microwave photonic downconversion with improved conversion efficiency and SFDR

      Paloi, Fadil; Haxha, Shyqyri; Mirza, Taimur; Alom, Mohammed Shah; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-01-23)
      In this paper, we report a novel approach of microwave frequency downconversion with improved conversion efficiency and high dynamic range, using two different configuration schemes. The first proposed scheme is designed by using a dual-parallel dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator and the second one using dual-parallel dual-phase modulator. The radio frequency (RF) message signal and the local oscillator (LO) signal are feeding these two parallel connected modulators. By using a tight control of the system parameters, we have reported an effective optical carrier suppression, resulting in high conversion efficiency. We show that when the link is amplified, the relation between m{\mathrm {LO}} and m{\mathrm {RF}} plays a vital role and gives a high value of conversion efficiency, where key parameters lead to the LO and RF modulators modulation index. The conversion efficiency is improved by 5.72 dBm, compared with previously published work using DP-MZM, and 28.4 dBm, compared with the cascaded connected modulator. An experimental demonstration of a proof of concept is also carried out where the intermediate frequency to noise ratio of 69.5 dB is reported.
    • Miniature implantable antenna design for blood glucose monitoring

      Ahmed, Ayesha; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (IEEE, 2018-05-24)
      In this paper, a miniaturised implantable antenna with the dimensions of 8×8×1 mm 3 has been studied for continuous monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels (BGL). The antenna performance is analysed numerically for both free space and implanted operation. It has the lowest resonant frequency of 3.58 GHz in free space with a gain 1.18 GHz while operates at 2.58 GHz with a gain of 4.18 dBi when implanted. Good performance and small size make it a good for implantable glucose monitoring devices.
    • Mining symptom and disease web data with NLP and Open Linked Data

      Yu, Hong Qing; University of Bedfordshire (Avestia Publishing, 2019-08-21)
      - Machine Learning (ML) technologies in recent years are widely applied in various areas to assist knowledge gaining and decision-making on healthcare. However, there is no reliable dataset that contains semantic structured knowledge on symptom and disease enable to apply advanced machine learning algorithms such clustering or prediction. In this paper, we propose a framework that can extract data from web with apply Natural Language Processing (NLP) process and semantic annotation to create Open Linked Data (OLD) bas
    • Mobile computing and IoT: radio spectrum requirement for timely and reliable message delivery over Internet of Vehicles (IoVs)

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Sant, Paul; Zhang, Sijing; Feng, Xiaohua; Shukla, Mitul; Eze, Joy C.; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2020-01-01)
      With the envisioned era of internet of things, all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In internet of vehicles, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity and so on, enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualisation of this concept requires the use of channel access protocols that can guarantee reliable and timely broadcast of safety messages. This study investigates the application of network coding concept to increase content of every transmission and achieve improved broadcast reliability with less number of retransmissions. In particular, the authors proposed Code Aided Retransmission-based Error Recovery (CARER) scheme, introduced a request-to-broadcast/clear-to-broadcast (RTB/CTB) handshake to overcome hidden node problem and reduce packets collision rate. In order to avoid broadcast storm problem associated with the use of RTB/ CTB packet in a broadcast transmission, they developed a rebroadcasting metric used to successfully select a vehicle to rebroadcast the encoded message. The performance of CARER protocol is clearly shown with detailed theoretical analysis and further validated with simulation experiments.
    • Mobile phone forensics: an investigative framework based on user impulsivity and secure collaboration errors

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Inc., 2017-01-06)
      This paper uses a scenario-based, role-play experiment based on the usage of QR codes to detect how mobile users respond to social engineering attacks conducted via mobile devices. The results of this experiment outline a guided mobile phone forensics investigation method that could facilitate the work of digital forensics investigators while analyzing the data from mobile devices. The behavioral response of users could be impacted by several aspects, such as impulsivity, smartphone usage and security, or simply awareness that QR codes could contain malware. The findings indicate that the impulsivity of users is one of the key areas that determines the common mistakes of mobile device users. As a result, an investigative framework for mobile phone forensics is proposed based on the impulsivity and common mistakes of mobile device users. It could help the forensics investigators by potentially shortening the time spent on investigation of possible breach scenarios.
    • A model for android and iOS applications risk calculation: CVSS analysis and enhancement using case-control studies

      Petraityte, Milda; Dehghantanha, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; University of Salford; University of Bedfordshire (Springer New York LLC, 2018-04-24)
      Various researchers have shown that the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) has many drawbacks and may not provide a precise view of the risks related to software vulnerabilities. However, many threat intelligence platforms and industry-wide standards are relying on CVSS score to evaluate cyber security compliance. This paper suggests several improvements to the calculation of Impact and Exploitability sub-scores within the CVSS, improve its accuracy and help threat intelligence analysts to focus on the key risks associated with their assets. We will apply our suggested improvements against risks associated with several Android and iOS applications and discuss achieved improvements and advantages of our modelling, such as the importance and the impact of time on the overall CVSS score calculation.
    • Modeling and correction of image pixel hysteresis in atomic force microscopy

      Sun, Baishun; Cao, Liang; Xie, Chenchen; Song, Zhengxun; Lu, Zhengcheng; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Jilin Medical University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier B.V., 2020-04-27)
      In an atomic force microscope (AFM) system, the measurement accuracy in the scan images is determined by the displacement accuracy of piezo scanner. The hysteresis model of piezo scanner displacement is complex and difficult to correct, which is the main reason why the output displacement of the piezo scanner does not have high precision. In this study, an image pixel hysteresis model of the piezo scanner displacement in the AFM system was established. An AFM was used to scan a two-dimensional (2D) grating in the 0 ° and 90 ° directions and a polynomial fitting method was employed to obtain the image pixel hysteresis model parameters of the piezo scanner displacement in the X-direction and Y-direction. The image pixel hysteresis model was applied to correct the AFM scan image of regular octagons. The results showed that the relative measurement error in the X-direction was decreased from 12.47% to 0.52% after the correction and that in the Y-direction decreased from 28.57% to 0.35%. The image pixel hysteresis model can be applied in the post-processing software of a commercial AFM system. The model solves the hysteresis problem of the AFM system and improves the measuring accuracy of AFM in 2 degrees of freedom (2 DOF).
    • Modeling and prediction of surface water contamination using on-line sensor data

      Anyachebelu, Tochukwu Kene; Conrad, Marc; Ajmal, Tahmina (Exeley Inc., 2014-12-31)
      Water contamination is a great disadvantage to humans and aquatic life. Maintaining the aesthetics and quality of water bodies is a priority for environmental stake holders. The water quality sensor data can be analyzed over a period of time to give an indication of pollution incidents and could be a useful forecasting tool. Here we show our initial finding from statistical analysis on such sensor data from one of the lakes of the river Lea, south of Luton. Our initial work shows patterns which will form the basis for our forecasting model.
    • Modes of cyberstalking and cyberharassment: measuring the negative effects in the lives of victims in the UK

      Brown, Antony; Gibson, Marcia; Short, Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Interactive Media Institute (IMI), 2017-08-31)
      Cyberstalking may occur solely in the digital realm, or may form part of a wider campaign targeting individuals on and off-line. The impact cyberstalking has on victims may differ depending on the type. In this paper, we use Sheridan and Grant's (2007) classifications of, "Proximal with offline", "Online only" and "Cross-over" stalking types. These classifications are applied to responses gathered from 278 victims of cyberstalking and cyberharassment through the 2011-2014 ECHO survey. We analyse the responses to first classify the type of stalking experienced and then the reported number and types of effects in the life of the victims on a per-group basis. Using chi-square analysis, we identify that victims in the case of proximal and Cross-over stalking are significantly more likely to report negative changes to their work, relationships and financial lives and to report more negative changes in these areas than those experiencing online only. In addition, in the relationship category Cross-over cases provoke significantly more changes than proximal cases. This indicates that cases where the stalker moves from being an online presence to a proximal presence have an extreme impact and therefore should be treated with the utmost concern, both in terms of support and safeguarding strategies.
    • Monitoring of patients suffering from REM sleep behavior disorder

      Yang, Xiaodong; Shah, Syed Aziz; Ren, Aifeng; Zhao, Nan; Zhao, Jianxun; Hu, Fangming; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Wei; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Alomainy, Akram; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-04-16)
      Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that involves involuntary, unwanted, and random movements of a dreaming patient. Typically, these dreams contain violent activities. There is a high likelihood of the patient being injured or hurting his bed-partner as a result of these enactments. Continuous monitoring of sleeping RBD patients can prevent these harmful events through timely intervention. This paper presents a novel method for continuous observation of RBD patients exploiting fine-grained amplitude and phase information of the wireless channel response. The variations in the wireless channel response as a result of different patient movements are assessed and used to identify RBD episodes. The data obtained are classified using a support vector machine and deliver an accuracy level of more than 90%. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is a first attempt at using radio frequency signals to sense RBD in real time.
    • A multi-cloud approach for secure data storage on smart device

      Alqahtani, Hassan; Sant, Paul; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-08-18)
      Using a mobile device to store sensitive data is not recommended, because of the high possibility of losing or thieving these data; although, neither using single cloud as a storage service is not proper solution for number of reasons; for instance, the data could be captured while uploaded to the cloud, and the data could be stolen from the cloud via using stolen ID. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims to offer a secure data storage for mobile cloud computing users based on multi-clouds scheme. The proposed solution will take the advantages of multi-clouds, data cryptography, and data compression to secure the distributed data; by splitting the data into segments, encrypting the segments, compressing the segments, distributing the segments via multi-clouds while keeping one segment on the mobile device memory; which will prevent extracting the data if the distributed segments have been phished.
    • Multi-layer soft frequency reuse scheme for 5G heterogeneous cellular networks

      Hossain, Md. S.; Tariq, Faisal; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Mahmoud, Nurul H.; Khandaker, Muhammad R. A. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-01-25)
      Heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a promising cell deployment technique where low power access points are deployed overlaid on a macrocell system. It attains high throughput by intelligently reusing spectrum, and brings a trade-off between energy- and spectral-efficiency. An efficient resource allocation strategy is required to significantly improve its throughput in a bid to meet the fifth-generation (5G) high data rate requirements. In this correspondence, a new resource allocation scheme for HetNet, called multi-level soft frequency reuse for HetNet (ML-SFR HetNet), is proposed which increases the throughput several fold. In ML-SFR HetNet, mutually exclusive spectrum is allocated for macro and small cell users and well as for cell edge users among the various cells in the reuse system. We derived spectrum and power allocation expression for a generalized HetNet scenario. In addition, analytical expressions for the throughput and area spectral efficiency (ASE) are also developed. The simulations results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed scheme which improves the throughput by around 3.5 times and outage probability reduces nearly 5 times compared to traditional SFR system.
    • Multiphase interface tracking with fast semi-Lagrangian contouring

      Li, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian J.; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bournemouth University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE Computer Society, 2015-09-03)
      We propose a semi-Lagrangian method for multiphase interface tracking. In contrast to previous methods, our method maintains an explicit polygonal mesh, which is reconstructed from an unsigned distance function and an indicator function, to track the interface of arbitrary number of phases. The surface mesh is reconstructed at each step using an efficient multiphase polygonization procedure with precomputed stencils while the distance and indicator function are updated with an accurate semi-Lagrangian path tracing from the meshes of the last step. Furthermore, we provide an adaptive data structure, multiphase distance tree, to accelerate the updating of both the distance function and the indicator function. In addition, the adaptive structure also enables us to contour the distance tree accurately with simple bisection techniques. The major advantage of our method is that it can easily handle topological changes without ambiguities and preserve both the sharp features and the volume well. We will evaluate its efficiency, accuracy and robustness in the results part with several examples.