• Call blocking and outage probability in energy-efficient LTE networks

      Kanwal, Kapil; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Rehman, Masood Ur; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2018-04-19)
      Mobile operators are continuously expanding network infrastructure through the deployment of additional base stations to satisfy ever growing user demands. In parallel, number of users is also increasing due to advancement in mobile applications. Enlarged number of users and base stations introduce major problems, such as call blocking and outage probability, due to limited resources and interference caused by frequency reuse, respectively. Both these parameters play a key role in estimation of overall system performance. Alongside, energy efficiency (EE) is a vital parameter to enable portability and longevity of mobile user equipment. This paper investigates call blocking and channel outage probability in reduced early handover (REHO) deployed Long‐Term Evolution networks. System level simulations are performed in MATLAB to analyze the performance of REHO before it is compared with Long‐Term Evolution standard and other state of the art for key performance‐related parameters including EE, outage probability, and call blocking probability. Besides increased EE, REHO is also found to be competitive enough in terms of call blocking probability in the presence of Poisson process call arrivals.
    • Can sustainable water monitoring be a reality?

      Ajmal, Tahmina; Guimares, Laura; Genthe, Bettina; Rivett, Ulrike; University of Bedfordshire; University of Porto; Water Resources - CSIR; University of Cape Town (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2020-05-13)
      In this paper, authors discuss the current methods used for surface water monitoring and the gaps left in monitoring in context of a low resourced area. Water quality monitoring [1] is a complex problem that can only be tackled through a systemic application of a transdisciplinary approach. This paper suggests use of a variety of innovative solutions adapted to the local conditions encouraging the prospect of sustainability. The approach relies on an emphasis on environmental and water quality for human life that will contribute to: 1) improved capacity building of local actors, including the role of women; 2) increased economic and social well-being at local and regional levels; and 3) protect natural capital in the region. This article reviews the state of water monitoring in low resourced area, example is taken here from Southern Arica and attempts to establish a sustainable water quality monitoring plan for application to cross-boundary water resources in the region. These are essential to diagnose and raise understanding on water quality problems in resources shared by countries with contrasting development levels. The innovative vision presented here proposes to resolve this multidimensional water quality problem by considering the broader system ranging from aquatic ecosystems providing this service to supply systems serving final consumers.
    • Cardiomyocyte contractile force changes in response to AGRWE detected by AFM

      Qu, Yingmin; Zhao, Feihu; Wang, Xinyue; Liu, Jinyun; Li, Jingmei; Song, Zhengxun; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; University of Bedfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2019-05-01)
      The cardiac contractile force is an important predictor of healthy and cardiovascular diseases. The changes of cardiomyocyte contractile force in response to American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE) detected by atomic force microscope have not been investigated yet. This study examined the effects of AGRWE on single beating cardiomyocytes extracted from a newborn rat. The same cardiomyocytes were incubated with AGRWE at a concentration of 50 μg/ml for about 30 min, and the cardiomyocytes’ contractile force increased from 1.74 ± 1.01 to 3.49 ± 1.53 nN. The mean value of the contractile strain calculated was 3.32 ± 1.55% for the cardiomyocyte before the treatment with AGRWE, while for the cardiomyocyte treated with AGRWE it increased to 4.60 ± 1.35%. The results also showed that the beating rate of the same single beating cardiomyocytes was decreased from 34 ± 11 beats/min (control, n = 10) to 20 ± 9 beats/min. In conclusion, the experimental results have shown clearly that the contractile forces and strain of single beating cardiomyocytes treated with AGRWE are significantly higher than the control group, while the heart rate was decreased. It suggests that ginseng agents are promising candidates in improving cardiac functions for treating heart failure.
    • A cell range expansion framework for closed access Femtocell networks

      Tariq, Faisal; Dooley, Laurence S.; Allen, Ben; Poulton, Adrian S.; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire; Open University (Springer New York LLC, 2014-12-17)
      While femtocell networks represent a promising solution for extending high data-rate wireless services in indoor environments, despite their many benefits the short coverage distances involved can lead to frequent handovers being triggered resulting in overloading the macrocells. This handover problem is further exacerbated for users operating at the cell boundary. One solution is to keep the mobile station (MS) connected to the femtocell access points (FAP) by applying a handover bias to expand the femtocells coverage, though arbitrarily increasing the cell range can have a detrimental effect on system performance as the received interference will increase and may exceed tolerable levels. Many disparate factors including: FAP deployment density; resource constraints; and cell range expansion (CRE) influence the crucial interference-system performance nexus, and this was the motivation to analyse this relationship in order to facilitate successful FAP deployment. This paper critically analyses the impact of femtocell range expansion with a system-level simulation being undertaken for cooperative and non-cooperative resource allocation strategies. A new CRE framework for femtocell networks is then proposed, which takes cognisance of the interplay between key system parameters, with results confirming the cooperative model consistently outperforms the non-cooperative approach so affording enhanced system flexibility in terms of FAP range expansion.
    • Challenges in ROS forensics

      Abeykoon, Iroshan; Feng, Xiaohua; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020-04-09)
      The usage of robot is rapidly growth in our society. The communication link and applications connect the robots to their clients or users. This communication link and applications are normally connected through some kind of network connections. This network system is amenable of being attached and vulnerable to the security threats. It is a critical part for ensuring security and privacy for robotic platforms. The paper, also discusses about several cyber-physical security threats that are only for robotic platforms. The peer to peer applications use in the robotic platforms for threats target integrity, availability and confidential security purposes. A Remote Administration Tool (RAT) was introduced for specific security attacks. An impact oriented process was performed for analyzing the assessment outcomes of the attacks. Tests and experiments of attacks were performed in simulation environment which was based on Gazbo Turtlebot simulator and physically on the robot. A software tool was used for simulating, debugging and experimenting on ROS platform. Integrity attacks performed for modifying commands and manipulated the robot behavior. Availability attacks were affected for Denial-of-Service (DoS) and the robot was not listened to Turtlebot commands. Integrity and availability attacks resulted sensitive information on the robot.
    • Characteristics of turbulent premixed oxy-fuel combustion - a DNS study

      Peng, Zhijun; Zhong, Shenghui; Zhang, F,; University of Bedfordshire; Tianjin University (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2018-08-31)
      A 3D DNS numerical study with detail chemistry mechanism has been carried out to investigate turbulent premixed combustion with oxyfuel mixtures under similar operating conditions as happened in spark ignition Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). H2O and CO2 are adopted as the dilution in oxy-fuel combustion. The temperature profiles of oxy-H2O and oxy-CO2 combustion are consistent with those of air-fired conditions in laminar premixed flame when the molar fraction of H2O and CO2 are 73% and 66% in oxidizer, respectively. 79%, 67% molar fraction of H2O and 79%, 56% molar fraction of CO2 are also conducted to learn the effects of the dilution molar fraction on the process of flame propagation. With the molar fraction of dilution increases, the mass of C2H2 increases the flame propagation speed and the mass of CO does an opposite influence. With the investigation for effects of turbulent intensity under conditions of 73% H2O and 66% CO2 with the initial u′ of 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 m/s, respectively, results show that the turbulent intensity has little effect on the formation of CO. It is also demonstrated that for oxy-fuel combustion, due to the disparity in laminar flame speed, an appropriate u′ is necessary to keep consistent with the flame propagation speed meanwhile to maintain suitable temperature profiles.
    • A circular patch frequency reconfigurable antenna for wearable applications

      Farooq, Waqas; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbasi, Qammer Hussain; Qaraqe, Khalid; University of Bedfordshire; Texas A & M University at Qatar (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-07)
      A novel frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna has been presented for 3.6 GHz and 5 GHz. Compared to the traditional, complicated and high cost frequency reconfigurable antennas, our work is featured by a simple and concise design. The frequency reconfiguration is obtained by using layers of mercury and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) on conventional patch antenna. The proposed structure was modelled and simulated using CST Microwave Studio. The antenna was first simulated in free space to check the antenna parameters such as return loss, gain, radiation pattern and efficiency. After obtaining the results, the antenna was simulated for analysing the on-body performance by using numerical model of human body. The simulated return loss for both the configurations is less than -10 dB at the radiating frequencies. The free space simulated results show the close agreement with the on-body test results.
    • Classification of colloquial Arabic tweets in real-time to detect high-risk floods

      Alabbas, Waleed; al-Khateeb, Haider; Mansour, Ali; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-06)
      Twitter has eased real-time information flow for decision makers, it is also one of the key enablers for Open-source Intelligence (OSINT). Tweets mining has recently been used in the context of incident response to estimate the location and damage caused by hurricanes and earthquakes. We aim to research the detection of a specific type of high-risk natural disasters frequently occurring and causing casualties in the Arabian Peninsula, namely 'floods'. Researching how we could achieve accurate classification suitable for short informal (colloquial) Arabic text (usually used on Twitter), which is highly inconsistent and received very little attention in this field. First, we provide a thorough technical demonstration consisting of the following stages: data collection (Twitter REST API), labelling, text pre-processing, data division and representation, and training models. This has been deployed using 'R' in our experiment. We then evaluate classifiers' performance via four experiments conducted to measure the impact of different stemming techniques on the following classifiers SVM, J48, C5.0, NNET, NB and k-NN. The dataset used consisted of 1434 tweets in total. Our findings show that Support Vector Machine (SVM) was prominent in terms of accuracy (F1=0.933). Furthermore, applying McNemar's test shows that using SVM without stemming on Colloquial Arabic is significantly better than using stemming techniques.
    • Cleaning of contaminated MFM probes using a BOPP film and external magnetic field

      Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jinyun; Meng, Qing-Ling; Zhang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ying; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2017-02-22)
      When magnetic samples are tested with a magnetic force microscope (MFM), the probe tip can inevitably be contaminated and magnetic particles are often adhered to the tip surface. The probe with magnetic contamination will seriously affect the quality of morphological and magnetic imaging. In the work, a method for the cleaning of contaminated magnetic probe tips was developed by the use of a biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film together with an external magnet field in an MFM system. In the experiments, an MFM system was used for manipulating the tip to push into the BOPP film with a depth of 50-100nm under a magnetic field and hold for 5s, and the relationships between loading forces and separating forces were studied. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images have shown that the use of the BOPP film together with an external magnet field is effective for the cleaning of contaminated MFM probes. This method can greatly improve the quality of magnetic imaging, prolong the service life of magnetic probes and reduce the experimental costs in many MFM applications.
    • Co-presence in the real and the virtual space: interactions through orientation

      Christopoulos, Athanasios; Conrad, Marc; Shukla, Mitul; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2017-08-03)
      The global aim of this research is to identify, map, and form a taxonomy of the ways, the elements, and the factors that affect learner engagement with virtual worlds when Hybrid Virtual Learning models are used. Thereafter, the more specific objective of the research is to provide clear guidance to educators who are already utilising or are planning to embed this learning model in their educational agenda. For the examination of this topic, a quanti-qualitative research approach is used, as this allows to investigate the subject both from the students’ and the instructional designer’s point of view. The sample of this study consists of both undergraduate and postgraduate university students. Participants are requested to fill in two different questionnaires, one before using the virtual world and one after completing their assignment. That way it is possible not only to fully mirror their thoughts, preconceptions, and opinions towards the use of virtual worlds in Higher Education, but also the impact that the instructional designer’s choices have on enhancing the opportunities for interactions. In addition, a focus group is being observed – both in the physical classroom and in the virtual world – during the course of the assignment. The focus of this experiment was on the impact that the orientation/induction process has on learner engagement. The findings suggest that students’ interactions with the content of the virtual world, and the in-class student-to-student interactions, have stronger impact on student engagement. This is because students’ simultaneous co-exis-tence in both environments eliminated the drawbacks of each educational approach, and broadened the network of interactions.
    • Cognitive radio aided internet of vehicles (IoVs) for improved spectrum resource allocation

      Yu H; Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Elias Chinedum; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-12-28)
      The highly anticipated era of Internet of Things (IoTs) expected to empower all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will undeniably improve transport safety and significantly reduce road accidents. To promote the communication of mobile vehicles (or IoVs), US FCC officially allocated a merger 75 MHz spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band to enable vehicular communication. In this paper, we studied the application of CR technology to IoVs in order to increase the spectrum resource opportunities especially when the officially allocated 75 MHz spectrum in 5.9 GHz band is not enough due to high demands as a result of increasing number of connected devices as already foreseen in the near era of IoTs. We proposed a novel CRAVNET framework which empowers CR assisted vehicles to make opportunistic usage of licensed spectrum bands on the highways, and developed a novel co-operative three-state spectrum sensing and allocation solution which makes CR vehicular SUs aware of additional spectrum resources opportunities on their current and future positions. Both the simulation and theoretical analysis have demonstrated that our solution can significantly improve the performance of a cooperative spectrum sensing and sharing schemes, and provide vehicles with additional spectrum opportunities with zero interference with the PUs activities.
    • Cognitive radio aided Vehicular ad-hoc networks with efficient spectrum allocation and QoS guarantee

      Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Theresa, Efor E.; Eze, Elias Chinedum; University of Bedfordshire; Ebonyi State University (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-10-24)
      The increasing demand of diverse vehicular network oriented applications (both safety and non-safety related services would undoubtedly lead to shortage of spectral resource challenge for V2V communication networks. In order to resolve this issue, a novel Adaptive CR Enabled Vehicular NETwork (ACREVNET) framework is proposed in this paper. To avoid heavy overhead usually incurred during spectrum sensing, we developed a novel CR adaptive spectrum sensing (CRASS) scheme that can reduce the spectrum sensing cost and improve sensing performance effectively. We also applied the concept of Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) to guarantee fairness in spectral resources allocation and proposed a generalized non-symmetric NBS (GNNBS) to perform a non-symmetric cognitive inter-cell spectrum allocation in the proposed ACREVNET framework. Simulation results clearly show that the proposed schemes can acquire additional spectral resource for vehicular communication by applying CR technology, and reduce the message transmission delay and blocking probability significantly.
    • Cognitive radio technology assisted vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs): current status, challenges, and research trends

      Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Elias Chinedum; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-26)
      VANET and cognitive radio network (CRN) are both new emerging technologies in wireless networking. The application of CR concept in wireless communication systems for intelligent vehicles has been envisioned as a promising idea towards solving the problem of scarce spectrum. This paper discusses CR technologies for VANETs aimed at opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) for improved vehicular communication efficiency. This survey explored novel approaches and current research challenges associated with the use of CR technologies in VANETs. Our study is different from previous works in that it presents recent advances, open issues, and future research directions on how to effectively design and deploy CR enabled vehicular networks emphasizing on architecture, CR-VANETs and WAVE Standards, MAC schemes for CR-VANETs, spectrum sensing, minimized interference impact through coordination between PUs and SUs, spectrum management, efficient message routing, security and privacy, as well as CR enabled vehicular networks test-beds and simulation platforms. Furthermore, the paper also identified several challenges facing the design and development of CR-VANTs and the required approaches to tackle them.
    • Cognitive radio-enabled Internet of Vehicles: a cooperative spectrum sensing and allocation for vehicular communication

      Eze, Joy C.; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Elias Chinedum; University of Bedfordshire; Ebonyi State University (IET, 2018-02-07)
      Internet of Things (IoTs) era is expected to empower all aspects of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to improve transport safety and reduce road accidents. US Federal Communication Commission (FCC) officially allocated 75MHz spectrum in the 5.9GHz band to support vehicular communication which many studies have found insufficient. In this paper, we studied the application of Cognitive Radio (CR) technology to IoVs in order to increase the spectrum resource opportunities available for vehicular communication, especially when the officially allocated 75MHz spectrum in 5.9GHz band is not enough due to high demands as a result of increasing number of connected vehicles as already foreseen in the near era of IoTs. We proposed a novel CR Assisted Vehicular NETwork (CRAVNET) framework which empowers CR enabled vehicles to make opportunistic usage of licensed spectrum bands on the highways. We also developed a novel co-operative three-state spectrum sensing and allocation model which makes CR vehicular secondary units (SUs) aware of additional spectrum resources opportunities on their current and future positions and applies optimal sensing node allocation algorithm to guarantee timely acquisition of the available channels within a limited sensing time. The results of the theoretical analyses and simulation experiments have demonstrated that the proposed model can significantly improve the performance of a cooperative spectrum sensing and provide vehicles with additional spectrum opportunities without harmful interference against the Primary Users (PUs) activities.
    • Comparative analysis of long-haul system based on SSB modulation utilising dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators

      Paloi, Fadil; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire; Royal Holloway, University of London (Springer New York LLC, 2018-02-08)
      In this paper, we have proposed a long-haul optical transmission system, based on a single sideband (SSB) modulation scheme. Analytical and simulation models have been developed, optimised and demonstrated for the proposed SSB system configurations. The SSB modulation scheme was proposed to overcome dispersion in the fibre. We have shown that the related link losses can be minimized by increasing the quality of the optical signal at the modulation. We have optimised the radio over fibre configuration scheme based on dual parallel dual drive Mach–Zehnder Modulator, thereby increasing transmission length of the fibre. With the proposed SSB, by suppressing some of the harmonics and cancelling one of the sidebands, we have halved the RF power fading and interference. The developed analytical (theoretical/mathematical) model agrees very well with the simulation results using two (both) different commercial simulation tools. The optical signal is boosted while minimizing the number of repeaters. We report a SSB configuration, compensation and amplification with individual spans of 150 km, by extending the length of the link up to 3250 km. The proposed system configuration exhibits high performance with less complexity and lower cost.
    • Comparative analysis of scheduling algorithms for radio resource allocation in future communication networks

      Ashfaq, Khuram; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Ur-Rehman, Masood; ; University of Bedfordshire; University of Glasgow (PeerJ, 2021-05-18)
      Wireless links are fast becoming the key communication mode. However, as compared to the wired link, their characteristics make the traffic prone to time- and location-dependent signal attenuation, noise, fading, and interference that result in time varying channel capacities and link error rate. Scheduling algorithms play an important role in wireless links to guarantee quality of service (QoS) parameters such as throughput, delay, jitter, fairness and packet loss rate. The scheduler has vital importance in current as well as future cellular communications since it assigns resource block (RB) to different users for transmission. Scheduling algorithm makes a decision based on the information of link state, number of sessions, reserved rates and status of the session queues. The information required by a scheduler implemented in the base station can easily be collected from the downlink transmission. This paper reflects on the importance of schedulers for future wireless communications taking LTE-A networks as a case study. It compares the performance of four well-known scheduling algorithms including round robin (RR), best channel quality indicator (BCQI), proportional fair (PF), and fractional frequency reuse (FFR). The performance of these four algorithms is evaluated in terms of throughput, fairness index, spectral efficiency and overall effectiveness. System level simulations have been performed using a MATLAB based LTE-A Vienna downlink simulator. The results show that the FFR scheduler is the best performer among the four tested algorithms. It also exhibits flexibility and adaptability for radio resource assignment.
    • Comparative study of one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure doped with a high and low-transition temperature superconducting for a low-temperature sensor

      Soltani, A.; Ouerghi, F.; AbdelMalek, Fathi; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Tunis-El Manar; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2019-04-20)
      In this work, we present a theoretical study dealing with the sensitivity to physical parameters such as defect nature and thickness, and temperature. Indeed, the sensitivity considerably enhanced via the use of one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure (1D-PCH) which is composed of a few layers of ordinary materials, and superconducting defects. The aim of this paper is to compare the sensitivity of two proposed models consisting of (a) 1D-PCH doped with a high-transition temperature superconductor (Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO)), and (b) 1D-PCH doped with a low-transition temperature superconductor (niobium nitrure (NbN)). By using the transfer-matrix method (TMM), it has been demonstrated that model (b) is very sensitive compared to model (a). Therefore, the superconducting defect nature on 1D-PCH, using a few layers can play a fundamental role in a very low-temperature sensor.
    • Comparing contextual and non-contextual features in ANNs for movie rating prediction

      Mustafa, Ghulam; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (CEUR-WS, 2016-12-31)
      Contextual recommendation goes beyond traditional models by incorporating additional information. Context aware recommender systems (CARs) correspond to not only the user's preference profile but also consider the given situation and context. However, the selection and incorporation of optimal contextual features in context aware recommender systems is always challenging. In this paper we evaluate different representations (feature sets) from the given dataset (LDOS-CoMoDa) for contextual recommendations, in particular looking into movie rating prediction as a subproblem of recommendation. We further crosscompare these representations to select useful and relevant features and their combination. We also compare the performance of standard matrix factorization to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in CARs. Our evaluation shows that dynamic, contextual features are dominant compared to non-contextual ones for the given task in the given data set.We also show that ANNs slightly outperform matrix factorization approaches typically used in CARs.
    • A comparison of reinforcement learning algorithms in fairness-oriented OFDMA schedulers

      Comșa, Ioan-Sorin; Zhang, Sijing; Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Kuonen, Pierre; Trestian, Ramona; Ghinea, Gheorghiţă; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire; University of the West of England; HEIA-FR, Switzerland; et al. (MDPI, 2019-10-14)
      Due to large-scale control problems in 5G access networks, the complexity of radio resource management is expected to increase significantly. Reinforcement learning is seen as a promising solution that can enable intelligent decision-making and reduce the complexity of different optimization problems for radio resource management. The packet scheduler is an important entity of radio resource management that allocates users’ data packets in the frequency domain according to the implemented scheduling rule. In this context, by making use of reinforcement learning, we could actually determine, in each state, the most suitable scheduling rule to be employed that could improve the quality of service provisioning. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based framework to solve scheduling problems with the main focus on meeting the user fairness requirements. This framework makes use of feed forward neural networks to map momentary states to proper parameterization decisions for the proportional fair scheduler. The simulation results show that our reinforcement learning framework outperforms the conventional adaptive schedulers oriented on fairness objective. Discussions are also raised to determine the best reinforcement learning algorithm to be implemented in the proposed framework based on various scheduler settings. View Full-Text
    • Compensation of the magnetic force imaging by scanning directions

      Liu, Jinyun; Yu, Miao; Qu, Yingmin; Zhang, Wenxiao; Fan, Yinxue; Song, Zhengxun; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-08-26)
      It was found that the results of magnetic force microscope (MFM) imaging were different with the probe scanning directions. This paper studied the effect of scanning directions on the MFM imaging, and a method for the distortion compensation was proposed to reduce the errors. In the study, three different scanning directions with the angles of 0°, 45° and 90° were used to measure the magnetic domain structures distributions of magnetic sample. The experimental results have shown that the scanning direction parallel to the magnetic domain structure will cause a minimum phase shift difference and lead to a structure distortion. A method for compensating the distortions was proposed. With this method, the distorted structures were corrected and the effect of scanning directions on the MFM imaging was significantly reduced. This work provides a way for the acquisition of the correct images of magnetic structures using an MFM and the improvement of imaging quality in a wide range of MFM applications.