• An active‐radio‐frequency‐identification system capable of identifying co‐locations and social‐structure: validation with a wild free‐ranging animal

      Ellwood, Stephen A.; Newman, Chris; Montgomery, Robert A.; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Buesching, Christina D.; Markham, Andrew; Mascolo, Cecilia; Trigoni, Niki; Pasztor, Bence; Dyo, Vladimir; et al. (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-07-17)
      Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly resolves these limitations would be advantageous. European badgers (Meles meles L.), present a challenging test-bed, with extra-group paternity (apparent from genotyping) contradicting established views on rigid group territoriality with little social-group mixing. In a proof of concept study we assess the utility of a fully automated Active-Radio-Frequency-Identification (aRFID) system combining badger-borne aRFID-tags with static, wirelessly-networked, aRFID-detector base-stations to record badger co-locations at setts (burrows) and near notional border latrines. We summarise the time badgers spent co-locating within and between social-groups, applying network analysis to provide evidence of co-location based community structure, at both these scales. The aRFID system co-located animals within 31.5 m (adjustable) of base-stations. Efficient radio transmission between aRFIDs and base-stations enables a 20 g tag to last for 2-5 years (depending on transmission interval). Data security was high (data stored off tag), with remote access capability. Badgers spent most co-location time with members of their own social-groups at setts; remaining co-location time was divided evenly between intra- and inter-social-group co-locations near latrines and inter-social-group co-locations at setts.Network analysis showed that 20-100% of tracked badgers engaged in inter-social-group mixing per week, with evidence of trans-border super-groups, i.e., badgers frequently transgressed notional territorial borders. aRFID occupies a distinct niche amongst established tracking technologies. We validated the utility of aRFID to identify co-locations, social-structure and inter- group mixing within a wild badger population, leading us to refute the conventional view that badgers (social-groups) are territorial and to question management strategies, for controlling bovine TB, based on this model. Ultimately aRFID proved a versatile system capable of identifying social-structure at the landscape scale, operating for years and suitable for use with a range of species.
    • The added value of the hybrid virtual learning approach: using virtual environments in the real classroom

      Christopoulos, Athanasios; Conrad, Marc; Shukla, Mitul; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2018-01-01)
      This chapter maps the types of interactions that relate to the use of virtual worlds in hybrid virtual learning scenarios. Students were asked to state their opinions regarding their experiences and were also observed along the way. The results highlight that the learning activities and students' attitudes and experiences greatly affect learner engagement. It is vital, though, that instructional designers plan the learning activities thoughtfully and provide learners with enough time and support. Offering content with examples of the expectations of the teaching team can be invaluably helpful. Furthermore, a game-like content can be considered a great source of motivation. Moreover, the vividness of the virtual world makes the learning process more stimulating and less tedious. Additionally, avatars enable users to interact with the content and increase the opportunities for interactions with others. Nevertheless, learners' simultaneous co-presence in the physical classroom is a more immediate and preferred option, since it offers increased opportunities for collaboration.
    • Advanced internet of things for personalised healthcare systems: a survey

      Qi, Jun; Yang, Po; Min, Geyong; Amft, Oliver; Dong, Feng; Xu, Lida; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Exeter; University of Passau; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-07-21)
      As a new revolution of the Internet, Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly gaining ground as a new research topic in many academic and industrial disciplines, especially in healthcare. Remarkably, due to the rapid proliferation of wearable devices and smartphone, the Internet of Things enabled technology is evolving healthcare from conventional hub based system to more personalised healthcare systems (PHS). However, empowering the utility of advanced IoT technology in PHS is still significantly challenging in the area considering many issues, like shortage of cost-effective and accurate smart medical sensors, unstandardised IoT system architectures, heterogeneity of connected wearable devices, multi-dimensionality of data generated and high demand for interoperability. In an effect to understand advance of IoT technologies in PHS, this paper will give a systematic review on advanced IoT enabled PHS. It will review the current research of IoT enabled PHS, and key enabling technologies, major IoT enabled applications and successful case studies in healthcare, and finally point out future research trends and challenges.
    • Advances in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs): challenges and road-map for future development

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2016-01-11)
      Recent advances in wireless communication technologies and auto-mobile industry have triggered a significant research interest in the field of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) over the past few years. A vehicular network consists of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications supported by wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.11p. This innovation in wireless communication has been envisaged to improve road safety and motor traffic efficiency in near future through the development of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Hence, governments, auto-mobile industries and academia are heavily partnering through several ongoing research projects to establish standards for VANETs. The typical set of VANET application areas, such as vehicle collision warning and traffic information dissemination have made VANET an interesting field of mobile wireless communication. This paper provides an overview on current research state, challenges, potentials of VANETs as well as the ways forward to achieving the long awaited ITS.
    • AFM-detected apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by American ginseng root water extract

      Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Zuobin; Zhao, Feihu; Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-12)
      American ginseng as a common and traditional herbal medicine has been used in cancer treatment for many years. However, the effect of American ginseng on the cancer cell response (i.e. apoptosis) has not been fully understood yet. Previous studies demonstrated that cellular apoptosis was associated with the changes of mechanical and morphological properties. Therefore, in this study, mechanical and morphological characterizations were carried out by both atomic force microscope (AFM) and inverted optical microscope to investigate the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721) cells affected by American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE). The results showed that the cells treated with AGRWE exhibited significantly larger surface roughness, height and elastic modulus values than control group. Moreover, those parameters were upregulated under the higher concentration of AGRWE and longer culture time. Consequently, it indicates that the mechanical and morphological properties can be used as the apoptotic characteristics of SMMC-7721 cells. Also, the increased surface roughness and elastic modulus of cells under the AGRWE treatment have shown that the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells can be enhanced by AGRWE. This will provide an important implication for hepatocelluar carcinoma treatment and drug development.
    • Analyse lifestyle related prostate cancer risk factors retrieved from literacy

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Risk factors for prostate cancer were identified through extensive research of literature and data was retrieved from both literatures and repositories. The research applies data mining techniques to the medical literatures and evidences on prostate cancer, with the aim to unravel the relationships between the presence of having multiple lifestyle factors and prostate cancer effective of occurrence of multiple factors. The research is to establish a possible predictive model based on theorized and proven risk factors and associations used in prostate cancer research. This paper describes the use of data mining algorithms on the risk factors to identify hidden knowledge. Firstly, an association rule mining algorithm is employed to identify the significant risk factors for the predictive modeling, based on the support level in terms of research materials used and confidence values. Secondly, the chosen factors were combined, modelled and visually represented to show their probability risks in relation to each other and the disease.
    • Analysis disease progression using data visualization

      Liu, Enjie; Zhao, Youbing; Wei, Hui; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; University of Bedfordshire; University of Thrace (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Patients with chronic diseases are required to self-manage their conditions. Patients are normally advised to adapt to healthier life-style, and in the meantime to continuously monitor the relevant biomarkers. Recent technology advances in monitoring devices, such as activities waist bands and glucose sensors, made it much easier for the patients to monitor the level of activities and biomarkers in home environment. The aim is to assist patients in making informed decisions and the key feature to achieve will be based on thoroughly understand the meaning of the collected data with the help of known facts (knowledge). However, interpreting the meaning of the monitored data is a challenging task for an ordinary patient. Data visualization techniques play an important role in helping users to understand and interpret data via exploration. In this paper, we present data visualization diagrams that are used in CARRE project to help both medical professional and patients to understand the disease progressions.
    • Analysis of colchicine-induced effects on hepatoma and hepatpcyte cells by atomic force microscopy

      Liu, Lanjiao; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Wenxiao; Zhu, Xinyao; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick (American Scientific Publishers, 2018-06-01)
      Biomechanical properties of cells are altered by many diseases. Cancer cell metastasis is related to the properties such as the cell stiffness that influences cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this paper, we used an atomic force microscope to analyze the colchicine-induced effects on the mechanical properties of hepatocyte (HL-7702 cells) and hepatoma cells (SMCC-7721 cells) in culture at the nanoscale. The cells were exposed to a solution with a normal dose of colchicine for two, four and six hours. Surface topographic images showed that colchicine decreased the stability of the cytoskeleton. After the same six-hour treatment in a solution with a normal dose of colchicine, the biomechanical properties of HL-7702 cells were almost unchanged. However, the stiffness and the adhesion force of the SMCC-7721 cells were clearly increased (more than twofold of the normal values), especially after four hours. The deformability of SMCC-7721 cancer cells was significantly decreased within the six-hour treatment in the solution with a normal dose of colchicine. Analysis of the biomechanical properties of post-treatment hepatoma cells provided a complementary explanation for the mechanism of action of colchicine on cells at the nanoscale. This method is expected to allow the monitoring of potential metastatic cancer cell changes, thus preventing the emergence and the transmission of disease, and improving the diagnosis of cancer.
    • Analysis of the carrier suppressed single sideband modulation for long distance optical communication systems

      Paloi, Fadil; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire; Royal Holloway, University of London (Elsevier GmbH, 2018-02-12)
      In this research paper, we report on a simulation study of the Radio over Fibre (RoF) Carrier Suppressed Single Sideband (CS-SSB) modulation scheme. This scheme is based on a Dual Parallel Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-DDMZM), for a long-distance transmission. The proposed system consists of the combination of a carrier and a message signal at two parallel modulators, where the laser and link power is varied for the two different dispersion compensation techniques. We found that by suppressing the optical carrier and cancelling one sideband, we can limit the nonlinear effects that are caused by power fading and interference. We demonstrate that by varying the launched laser and link power up to optimised threshold levels, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) increases and the Q-Factor improves significantly. Our proposed RoF optic communication architecture can support an extended reach transmission of up to 200 km without dispersion compensation. Moreover, for the bitrate of 10 Gbit/s and span length of 25 km, we achieved a span ratio of 520, alternatively viewed as the system link signal transmission distance of 13,000 km. Therefore, this method is cost-effective and less complex.
    • Analysis of the relationship between Saudi twitter posts and the Saudi stock market

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad; Qiu, Renxi; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-02-04)
      Sentiment analysis has become the heart of social media research and many studies have been applied to obtain users' opinion in fields such as electronic commerce and trade, management and also regarding political figures. Social media has recently become a rich resource in mining user sentiments. Social opinion has been analysed using sentiment analysis and some studies show that sentiment analysis of news, documents, quarterly reports, and blogs can be used as part of trading strategies. In this paper, Twitter has been chosen as a platform for opinion mining in trading strategy with the Saudi stock market in order to carry out and illustrate the relationship between Saudi tweets (that is standard and Arabian Gulf dialects) and the Saudi market index. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed on Saudi tweets and the Saudi stock market.
    • Antenna and propagation considerations for amateur UAV monitoring

      Abolhasan M; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Aifeng; Zhang, Zhiya; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Fangming; Ur-Rehman, Masood; Abbas, Haider; Xidian University; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-05-18)
      The broad application spectrum of unmanned aerial vehicles is making them one of the most promising technologies of Internet of Things era. Proactive prevention for public safety threats is one of the key areas with vast potential of surveillance and monitoring drones. Antennas play a vital role in such applications to establish reliable communication in these scenarios. This paper considers line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight threat scenarios with the perspective of antennas and electromagnetic wave propagation.
    • Anti-degranulation response of herbal formula in RBL-2H3 cells

      Hu, Jing; Chen, Yujuan; Zhu, Jiajing; Gao, Mingyan; Li, Jiani; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-12-28)
      Allergic diseases not only bring serious economic burden to the patients, but also consume a lot of substantial resources of social medical systems. Thus, the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases are imperative. In this study, the anti-degranulation activity of herbal formula was evaluated using the rat basophil leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) as in vitro model. The morphological and biophysical properties of RBL-2H3 cells before and after treatment with herbal formula were also determined. Notably, the herbal formula exhibits clearly inhibited degranulation by RBL-2H3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Therefore, this herbal formula can be used as an alternative and promising therapeutic agent to ameliorate allergic diseases.
    • Application of Error-Correcting Codes (ECCs) for efficient message transmission in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

      Muhammad, Shehu Jabaka; Zhang, Sijing; Dyo, Vladimir; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2018-09-29)
      In this paper, we presented an adaptive application of forward error code (FEC) for efficient message transmission in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our solution is a combination of automatic retransmission request (ARQ) with FEC at the MAC layer. The proposed scheme used the existing channel condition, an estimate of the maximum number of transmissions before the message deadline elapses and message type as an index in code lookup ensemble (CLE) to get an optimum code (optCode) for the current transmission. Furthermore, the system also set the transmission timeout delay RTT , encode the message with the optCode and transmit. However, if the transmission timeout delay elapses before receiving an ACK/NAK, the scheme will return to the initial stage for feasible retransmission of the message. We evaluated the scheme and compared it with the static FEC for reliable and timely safety message transmission; our system outperformed the static FEC in all cases that we have considered.
    • An approach to locating delayed activities in software processes

      Jin, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Hong-Ji; Zhang, Sijing; Ge, Ji-Dong; Yunnan University; Key Laboratory for Software Engineering of Yunnan Province; Research Center of Cloud Computing of Yunnan Province; Bath Spa University; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2017-09-21)
      Activity is now playing a vital role in software processes. To ensure the high-level efficiency of software processes, a key point is to locate those activities that own bigger resource occupation probabilities with respect to average execution time, called delayed activities, and then improve them. To this end, we firstly propose an approach to locating delayed activities in software processes. Furthermore, we present a case study, which exhibits the high-level efficiency of the approach, to concretely illustrate this new solution. Some beneficial analysis and reasonable modification are developed in the end.
    • Atomic force acoustic microscopy reveals the influence of substrate stiffness and topography on cell behavior

      Liu, Yan; Li, Li; Chen, Xing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Mengnan; Yan, Jin; Cao, Liang; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zuobin; Changchun University of Science and Technology; et al. (Beilstein-Institut, 2019-11-26)
      The stiffness and the topography of the substrate at the cell-substrate interface are two key properties influencing cell behavior. In this paper, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is used to investigate the influence of substrate stiffness and substrate topography on the responses of L929 fibroblasts. This combined nondestructive technique is able to characterize materials at high lateral resolution. To produce substrates of tunable stiffness and topography, we imprint nanostripe patterns on undeveloped and developed SU-8 photoresist films using electron-beam lithography (EBL). Elastic deformations of the substrate surfaces and the cells are revealed by AFAM. Our results show that AFAM is capable of imaging surface elastic deformations. By immunofluorescence experiments, we find that the L929 cells significantly elongate on the patterned stiffness substrate, whereas the elasticity of the pattern has only little effect on the spreading of the L929 cells. The influence of the topography pattern on the cell alignment and morphology is even more pronounced leading to an arrangement of the cells along the nanostripe pattern. Our method is useful for the quantitative characterization of cell-substrate interactions and provides guidance for the tissue regeneration therapy in biomedicine.
    • Autonomous arial vehicles in smart cities: potential cyber-physical threats

      Dawam, Edward Swarlat; Feng, Xiaohua; Li, Dayou; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-01-24)
      Autonomous aerial vehicles (AAV) are aircraft systems whose aircrew is replaced by autonomous computer systems and a radio link, thereby managed remotely from a ground station. This mode of transportation has recently been adopted as a means of transportation in a pioneering initiative by Dubai with more smart cities expected to adopt this mode of transportation shortly as it is believed to show potentials to transform urban transportation and future mobility in smart cities. The concern, however, is, the security of these systems and the smart city infrastructure they depend on for their operations. Certainly, the introduction of AAVs into smart cities raises many new cybersecurity questions that are in need of investigation and answers. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to explore potential cyber-physical security threats and the challenges that need to be confronted before this mode of transportation is fully integrated into the smart cities. A methodology to investigate on a large scale the cybersecurity attack vectors of such systems is presented based on four categories of systems that are critical to AAV operations, as well as their impacts and how to counter such attacks. What follows is a summary of the countermeasures that should be implemented to guarantee the safety of those systems.
    • Battery-assisted electric vehicle charging: data driven performance analysis

      Ali, Junade; Dyo, Vladimir (2020-07-03)
      As the number of electric vehicles rapidly increases, their peak demand on the grid becomes one of the major challenges. A battery-assisted charging concept has emerged recently, which allows to accumulate energy during off-peak hours and in-between charging sessions to boost-charge the vehicle at a higher rate than available from the grid. While prior research focused on the design and implementation aspects of battery- assisted charging, its impact at large geographical scales remains largely unexplored. In this paper we analyse to which extent the battery-assisted charging can replace high-speed chargers using a dataset of over 3 million EV charging sessions in both domestic and public setting in the UK. We first develop a discrete-event EV charge model that takes into account battery capacity, grid supply capacity and power output among other parameters. We then run simulations to evaluate the battery-assisted charging performance in terms of delivered energy, charging time and parity with conventional high-speed chargers. The results indicate that in domestic settings battery-assisted charging provides 98% performance parity of high-speed chargers from a standard 3 kW grid connection with a single battery pack. For non-domestic settings, the battery-assisted chargers can provide 92% and 99% performance parity of high-speed chargers with 10 battery packs using 3kW and 7kW grid supply respectively.
    • Bayesian averaging over Decision Tree models for trauma severity scoring

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Krzanowski, Wojtek (Elsevier, 2018-01-11)
      Health care practitioners analyse possible risks of misleading decisions and need to estimate and quantify uncertainty in predictions. We have examined the “gold” standard of screening a patient's conditions for predicting survival probability, based on logistic regression modelling, which is used in trauma care for clinical purposes and quality audit. This methodology is based on theoretical assumptions about data and uncertainties. Models induced within such an approach have exposed a number of problems, providing unexplained fluctuation of predicted survival and low accuracy of estimating uncertainty intervals within which predictions are made. Bayesian method, which in theory is capable of providing accurate predictions and uncertainty estimates, has been adopted in our study using Decision Tree models. Our approach has been tested on a large set of patients registered in the US National Trauma Data Bank and has outperformed the standard method in terms of prediction accuracy, thereby providing practitioners with accurate estimates of the predictive posterior densities of interest that are required for making risk-aware decisions.
    • Bayesian averaging over decision tree models: an application for estimating uncertainty in trauma severity scoring

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Krzanowski, Wojtek; University of Bedfordshire; University of Exeter (Elsevier, 2018-01-11)
      Introduction For making reliable decisions, practitioners need to estimate uncertainties that exist in data and decision models. In this paper we analyse uncertainties of predicting survival probability for patients in trauma care. The existing prediction methodology employs logistic regression modelling of Trauma and Injury Severity Score(external) (TRISS), which is based on theoretical assumptions. These assumptions limit the capability of TRISS methodology to provide accurate and reliable predictions. Methods We adopt the methodology of Bayesian model averaging and show how this methodology can be applied to decision trees in order to provide practitioners with new insights into the uncertainty. The proposed method has been validated on a large set of 447,176 cases registered in the US National Trauma Data Bank in terms of discrimination ability evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision–recall (PRC) curves. Results Areas under curves were improved for ROC from 0.951 to 0.956 (p = 3.89 × 10−18) and for PRC from 0.564 to 0.605 (p = 3.89 × 10−18). The new model has significantly better calibration in terms of the Hosmer–Lemeshow Hˆ" role="presentation"> statistic, showing an improvement from 223.14 (the standard method) to 11.59 (p = 2.31 × 10−18). Conclusion The proposed Bayesian method is capable of improving the accuracy and reliability of survival prediction. The new method has been made available for evaluation purposes as a web application.
    • Bayesian learning of models for estimating uncertainty in alert systems: application to air traffic conflict avoidance

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Krzanowski, Wojtek; University of Bedfordshire; University of Exeter (IOS Press, 2018-02-09)
      Alert systems detect critical events which can happen in the short term. Uncertainties in data and in the models used for detection cause alert errors. In the case of air traffic control systems such as Short-Term Conflict Alert (STCA), uncertainty increases errors in alerts of separation loss. Statistical methods that are based on analytical assumptions can provide biased estimates of uncertainties. More accurate analysis can be achieved by using Bayesian Model Averaging, which provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of a prediction. We propose a new approach to estimate the prediction uncertainty, which is based on observations that the uncertainty can be quantified by variance of predicted outcomes. In our approach, predictions for which variances of posterior probabilities are above a given threshold are assigned to be uncertain. To verify our approach we calculate a probability of alert based on the extrapolation of closest point of approach. Using Heathrow airport flight data we found that alerts are often generated under different conditions, variations in which lead to alert detection errors. Achieving 82.1% accuracy of modelling the STCA system, which is a necessary condition for evaluating the uncertainty in prediction, we found that the proposed method is capable of reducing the uncertain component. Comparison with a bootstrap aggregation method has demonstrated a significant reduction of uncertainty in predictions. Realistic estimates of uncertainties will open up new approaches to improving the performance of alert systems.