• 3D reconstruction in surgery of hydatid cyst of the liver

      Minaev, Sergey; Gerasimenko, Igor; Shchetinin, Evgeny; Schetinin, Vitaly; Mishvelov, Artem Evgenevich; Nuzhnaya, Kristina Vladimirovna; Grigorova, Alina Nikolaevna; Rubanova, Maria Fedorovna (Stavropol State Medical University, 2019-12-31)
      Preoperative evaluation of the liver with hydatid cyst and surrounding tissue structures is extremely important for planning the course of surgery. The first experience of treating a patient with a parasitic cyst using a 3D reconstruction of the liver with hydatid cyst at the preoperative stage was presented. Thus, this approach allowed us to avoid the development of intraoperative complications and to obtain a good result of treatment.
    • 5G Internet of radio light services for Musée de la Carte à Jouer

      Cosmas, John; Meunier, Ben; Ali, Kareem; Jawad, Nawar; Meng, Hong-Ying; Goutagneux, Florian; Legale, Eric; Satta, Matteo; Jay, Pascaline; Zhang, Xun; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-03-19)
      In this paper we present a 5G Internet Radio-Light (IoRL) architecture and services for museums that can be readily deployed because it utilizes unlicensed visible light and millimeter wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum and which is used to provide museums' visitors with accurate location, interaction, access to Internet and high resolution video on a Tablet PC. The paper describes the museum, its related use case scenarios, the user and functional requirements and the IoRL architecture.
    • 5G Internet of radio light services for supermarkets

      Cosmas, John; Meunier, Ben; Ali, Kareem; Jawad, Nawar; Salih, Mukhald; Meng, Hong-Ying; Song, Jian; Wang, Jintao; Tong, Min; Cao, Xiaohong; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-01-04)
      In this paper we present a 5G Internet Radio-Light (IoRL) architecture for supermarkets that can be readily deployed because it utilizes unlicensed visible light and millimeter wave part of the spectrum and which is used to provide shoppers with accurate location, interaction, access to Internet and Cloud based services such as high resolution video on a Tablet PC. The paper describes the supermarket use cases, the user and functional requirements and the IoRL architecture.
    • Achieving reliable communication in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs): A survey

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Muhammad, Shehu; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017-10-26)
      With the envisioned era of Internet of Vehicles (IoVs), all aspects of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) will be connected to improve transport safety, relieve traffic congestion, reduce air pollution, enhance the comfort of transportation and significantly reduce road accidents. In IoVs, regular exchange of current position, direction, velocity, etc., enables mobile vehicles to predict an upcoming accident and alert the human drivers in time or proactively take precautionary actions to avoid the accident. The actualization of this concept requires the use of robust error recovery approaches that can guarantee optimum reliability in terms of message delivery in vehicular networks. This paper surveys the error recovery potentials of different classical error control approaches such as automatic repeat request, forward error correction, and hybrid ARQ mechanism. The paper also explored new error recovery methods like network coding (NC) concept which consists of error recovery through NC with reception status information (RSI), and without RSI. Additionally, other error recovery techniques like repetition based approach for vehicular networks is discussed.
    • An active‐radio‐frequency‐identification system capable of identifying co‐locations and social‐structure: validation with a wild free‐ranging animal

      Ellwood, Stephen A.; Newman, Chris; Montgomery, Robert A.; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Buesching, Christina D.; Markham, Andrew; Mascolo, Cecilia; Trigoni, Niki; Pasztor, Bence; Dyo, Vladimir; et al. (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-07-17)
      Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly resolves these limitations would be advantageous. European badgers (Meles meles L.), present a challenging test-bed, with extra-group paternity (apparent from genotyping) contradicting established views on rigid group territoriality with little social-group mixing. In a proof of concept study we assess the utility of a fully automated Active-Radio-Frequency-Identification (aRFID) system combining badger-borne aRFID-tags with static, wirelessly-networked, aRFID-detector base-stations to record badger co-locations at setts (burrows) and near notional border latrines. We summarise the time badgers spent co-locating within and between social-groups, applying network analysis to provide evidence of co-location based community structure, at both these scales. The aRFID system co-located animals within 31.5 m (adjustable) of base-stations. Efficient radio transmission between aRFIDs and base-stations enables a 20 g tag to last for 2-5 years (depending on transmission interval). Data security was high (data stored off tag), with remote access capability. Badgers spent most co-location time with members of their own social-groups at setts; remaining co-location time was divided evenly between intra- and inter-social-group co-locations near latrines and inter-social-group co-locations at setts.Network analysis showed that 20-100% of tracked badgers engaged in inter-social-group mixing per week, with evidence of trans-border super-groups, i.e., badgers frequently transgressed notional territorial borders. aRFID occupies a distinct niche amongst established tracking technologies. We validated the utility of aRFID to identify co-locations, social-structure and inter- group mixing within a wild badger population, leading us to refute the conventional view that badgers (social-groups) are territorial and to question management strategies, for controlling bovine TB, based on this model. Ultimately aRFID proved a versatile system capable of identifying social-structure at the landscape scale, operating for years and suitable for use with a range of species.
    • An adaptive and reliable communication method for road safety applications of VANET

      Aredla, Jyothi; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019-11-11)
      Recent technological developments have resulted in the extensive usage of VANET for intelligent transportation and road safety applications. With a road safety application, reliable delivery of altering messages to avoid road accidents is one of the key and highly challenging requirements. This paper proposes an adaptive and reliable communication method called Adaptive Byte Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (AB-HARQ) to improve reliability of safety messages transmitted over VANET. To ensure recoverability of the errors in transmitted packets over VANET, error recovery probability of AB-HARQ method is calculated as Precovery. The effectiveness of the proposed AB-HARQ method in assuring reliable data transmission for VANET is evaluated using simulation studies with results of the simulations given in this paper. This evaluation has identified the effectiveness of AB-HARQ in having higher success probability and error recovery probability when compared with HARQ method.
    • An adaptive error control approach for reliable industrial automation networks

      Karimireddy, Thanmayee; Zhang, Sijing; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-10-24)
      The need of developing reliable industrial automation networks has increased to a great extent due to the transmission of hard real time control packets over error prone wireless channels. This paper focuses on error control approaches to satisfy strict reliability requirements of industrial automation control applications. In this paper, some of the state of art error control approaches are critically analysed and a novel adaptive error control approach ASM-HARQ is proposed. ASM-HARQ is an adaptive HARQ approach that uses both FEC and ARQ to recover the errors present in each encoding unit which is sub-MSDU. Simulation results show that ASM-HARQ outperforms other MAC layer error control approaches through its ability to satisfy reliability requirements even for time critical applications.
    • Adaptive proportional fair parameterization based LTE scheduling using continuous actor-critic reinforcement learning

      Comşa, Ioan-Sorin; Zhang, Sijing; Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Chen, Jianping; Kuonen, Pierre; Wagen, Jean–Frédéric; University of Bedfordshire; University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-02-12)
      Maintaining a desired trade-off performance between system throughput maximization and user fairness satisfaction constitutes a problem that is still far from being solved. In LTE systems, different tradeoff levels can be obtained by using a proper parameterization of the Generalized Proportional Fair (GPF) scheduling rule. Our approach is able to find the best parameterization policy that maximizes the system throughput under different fairness constraints imposed by the scheduler state. The proposed method adapts and refines the policy at each Transmission Time Interval (TTI) by using the Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) as a non-linear function approximation between the continuous scheduler state and the optimal GPF parameter(s). The MLPNN function generalization is trained based on Continuous Actor-Critic Learning Automata Reinforcement Learning (CACLA RL). The double GPF parameterization optimization problem is addressed by using CACLA RL with two continuous actions (CACLA-2). Five reinforcement learning algorithms as simple parameterization techniques are compared against the novel technology. Simulation results indicate that CACLA-2 performs much better than any of other candidates that adjust only one scheduling parameter such as CACLA-1. CACLA-2 outperforms CACLA-1 by reducing the percentage of TTIs when the system is considered unfair. Being able to attenuate the fluctuations of the obtained policy, CACLA-2 achieves enhanced throughput gain when severe changes in the scheduling environment occur, maintaining in the same time the fairness optimality condition.
    • Adaptive traffic fingerprinting for darknet threat intelligence

      Haughey, Hamish; Epiphaniou, Gregory; al-Khateeb, Haider; Dehghantanha, Ali (Springer New York LLC, 2018-04-24)
      Darknet technology such as Tor has been used by various threat actors for organising illegal activities and data exfiltration. As such there is a case for organisations to block such traffic, or to try and identify when it is used and for what purposes. However, anonymity in cyberspace has always been a domain of conflicting interests. While it gives enough power to nefarious actors to masquerade their illegal activities, it is also the corner stone to facilitate freedom of speech and privacy. We present a proof of concept for a novel algorithm that could form the fundamental pillar of a darknet-capable Cyber Threat Intelligence platform. The solution can reduce anonymity of users of Tor, and considers the existing visibility of network traffic before optionally initiating targeted or widespread BGP interception. In combination with server HTTP response manipulation, the algorithm attempts to reduce the candidate data set to eliminate client-side traffic that is most unlikely to be responsible for server-side connections of interest. Our test results show that MITM manipulated server responses lead to expected changes received by the Tor client. Using simulation data generated by shadow, we show that the detection scheme is effective with false positive rate of 0.001, while sensitivity detecting non-targets was 0.016±0.127. Our algorithm could assist collaborating organisations willing to share their threat intelligence or cooperate during investigations.
    • The added value of the hybrid virtual learning approach: using virtual environments in the real classroom

      Christopoulos, Athanasios; Conrad, Marc; Shukla, Mitul; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2018-01-01)
      This chapter maps the types of interactions that relate to the use of virtual worlds in hybrid virtual learning scenarios. Students were asked to state their opinions regarding their experiences and were also observed along the way. The results highlight that the learning activities and students' attitudes and experiences greatly affect learner engagement. It is vital, though, that instructional designers plan the learning activities thoughtfully and provide learners with enough time and support. Offering content with examples of the expectations of the teaching team can be invaluably helpful. Furthermore, a game-like content can be considered a great source of motivation. Moreover, the vividness of the virtual world makes the learning process more stimulating and less tedious. Additionally, avatars enable users to interact with the content and increase the opportunities for interactions with others. Nevertheless, learners' simultaneous co-presence in the physical classroom is a more immediate and preferred option, since it offers increased opportunities for collaboration.
    • Advanced internet of things for personalised healthcare systems: a survey

      Qi, Jun; Yang, Po; Min, Geyong; Amft, Oliver; Dong, Feng; Xu, Lida; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Exeter; University of Passau; University of Bedfordshire; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-07-21)
      As a new revolution of the Internet, Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly gaining ground as a new research topic in many academic and industrial disciplines, especially in healthcare. Remarkably, due to the rapid proliferation of wearable devices and smartphone, the Internet of Things enabled technology is evolving healthcare from conventional hub based system to more personalised healthcare systems (PHS). However, empowering the utility of advanced IoT technology in PHS is still significantly challenging in the area considering many issues, like shortage of cost-effective and accurate smart medical sensors, unstandardised IoT system architectures, heterogeneity of connected wearable devices, multi-dimensionality of data generated and high demand for interoperability. In an effect to understand advance of IoT technologies in PHS, this paper will give a systematic review on advanced IoT enabled PHS. It will review the current research of IoT enabled PHS, and key enabling technologies, major IoT enabled applications and successful case studies in healthcare, and finally point out future research trends and challenges.
    • Advances in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs): challenges and road-map for future development

      Eze, Elias Chinedum; Zhang, Sijing; Liu, Enjie; Eze, Joy C.; University of Bedfordshire (Springer, 2016-01-11)
      Recent advances in wireless communication technologies and auto-mobile industry have triggered a significant research interest in the field of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) over the past few years. A vehicular network consists of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications supported by wireless access technologies such as IEEE 802.11p. This innovation in wireless communication has been envisaged to improve road safety and motor traffic efficiency in near future through the development of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Hence, governments, auto-mobile industries and academia are heavily partnering through several ongoing research projects to establish standards for VANETs. The typical set of VANET application areas, such as vehicle collision warning and traffic information dissemination have made VANET an interesting field of mobile wireless communication. This paper provides an overview on current research state, challenges, potentials of VANETs as well as the ways forward to achieving the long awaited ITS.
    • Affective interaction in smart environments

      Caon, Maurizio; Angelini, Leonardo; Khaled, Omar Abou; Lalanne, Denis; Yue, Yong; Mugellini, Elena; University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland; University of Fribourg; University of Bedfordshire; Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (Elsevier B.V., 2014-06-05)
      We present a concept where the smart environments of the future will be able to provide ubiquitous affective communication. All the surfaces will become interactive and the furniture will display emotions. In particular, we present a first prototype that allows people to share their emotional states in a natural way. The input will be given through facial expressions and the output will be displayed in a context-aware multimodal way. Two novel output modalities are presented: a robotic painting that applies the concept of affective communication to the informative art and an RGB lamp that represents the emotions remaining in the user's peripheral attention. An observation study has been conducted during an interactive event and we report our preliminary findings in this paper.
    • AFM-based study of fullerenol (C60(OH)24)-induced changes of elasticity in living SMCC-7721 cells

      Liu, Yang; Wang, Zuobin; Wang, Xinyue; ; Changchun University of Science and Technology (Elsevier, 2014-12-18)
      In this study, the alterations of the morphology and biomechanical properties of living SMCC-7721 cancer cells treated with fullerenol (C60(OH)24) for 24, 48, and 72h were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Comparative analyses show that the elastic moduli of the SMCC-7721 cells exposed to fullerenol decrease significantly with the increase of the treatment periods. Furthermore, in different phases of the treatment, a global decrease in elasticity is accompanied by cellular morphological changes, and the time-dependent effect of the fullerenol can be observed using AFM and optical microscope. In addition, as the treatment duration increases, the indentation force and depth penetrated into the cell membrane by the AFM tip are in a declining trend. The reduction in the stiffness of the cells exposed to fullerenol could be associated with the disruption of the cellular cytoskeleton network. The investigation indicates that the elastic modulus of single living cells can be a useful biomarker to evaluate the effects of fullerenol or other anticancer agents on the cells and reveal instructive information for cellular dynamic behaviors.
    • AFM-detected apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by American ginseng root water extract

      Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Zuobin; Zhao, Feihu; Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Song, Zhengxun; Xu, Hongmei; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Eindhoven University of Technology; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-12)
      American ginseng as a common and traditional herbal medicine has been used in cancer treatment for many years. However, the effect of American ginseng on the cancer cell response (i.e. apoptosis) has not been fully understood yet. Previous studies demonstrated that cellular apoptosis was associated with the changes of mechanical and morphological properties. Therefore, in this study, mechanical and morphological characterizations were carried out by both atomic force microscope (AFM) and inverted optical microscope to investigate the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721) cells affected by American ginseng root water extract (AGRWE). The results showed that the cells treated with AGRWE exhibited significantly larger surface roughness, height and elastic modulus values than control group. Moreover, those parameters were upregulated under the higher concentration of AGRWE and longer culture time. Consequently, it indicates that the mechanical and morphological properties can be used as the apoptotic characteristics of SMMC-7721 cells. Also, the increased surface roughness and elastic modulus of cells under the AGRWE treatment have shown that the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells can be enhanced by AGRWE. This will provide an important implication for hepatocelluar carcinoma treatment and drug development.
    • Analyse lifestyle related prostate cancer risk factors retrieved from literacy

      Effiok, Emmanuel; Liu, Enjie; Hitchcock, Jonathan James; University of Bedfordshire (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Risk factors for prostate cancer were identified through extensive research of literature and data was retrieved from both literatures and repositories. The research applies data mining techniques to the medical literatures and evidences on prostate cancer, with the aim to unravel the relationships between the presence of having multiple lifestyle factors and prostate cancer effective of occurrence of multiple factors. The research is to establish a possible predictive model based on theorized and proven risk factors and associations used in prostate cancer research. This paper describes the use of data mining algorithms on the risk factors to identify hidden knowledge. Firstly, an association rule mining algorithm is employed to identify the significant risk factors for the predictive modeling, based on the support level in terms of research materials used and confidence values. Secondly, the chosen factors were combined, modelled and visually represented to show their probability risks in relation to each other and the disease.
    • Analysis disease progression using data visualization

      Liu, Enjie; Zhao, Youbing; Wei, Hui; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; University of Bedfordshire; University of Thrace (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018-02-01)
      Patients with chronic diseases are required to self-manage their conditions. Patients are normally advised to adapt to healthier life-style, and in the meantime to continuously monitor the relevant biomarkers. Recent technology advances in monitoring devices, such as activities waist bands and glucose sensors, made it much easier for the patients to monitor the level of activities and biomarkers in home environment. The aim is to assist patients in making informed decisions and the key feature to achieve will be based on thoroughly understand the meaning of the collected data with the help of known facts (knowledge). However, interpreting the meaning of the monitored data is a challenging task for an ordinary patient. Data visualization techniques play an important role in helping users to understand and interpret data via exploration. In this paper, we present data visualization diagrams that are used in CARRE project to help both medical professional and patients to understand the disease progressions.
    • Analysis of colchicine-induced effects on hepatoma and hepatpcyte cells by atomic force microscopy

      Liu, Lanjiao; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Wenxiao; Zhu, Xinyao; Li, Li; Weng, Zhankun; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Warwick (American Scientific Publishers, 2018-06-01)
      Biomechanical properties of cells are altered by many diseases. Cancer cell metastasis is related to the properties such as the cell stiffness that influences cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this paper, we used an atomic force microscope to analyze the colchicine-induced effects on the mechanical properties of hepatocyte (HL-7702 cells) and hepatoma cells (SMCC-7721 cells) in culture at the nanoscale. The cells were exposed to a solution with a normal dose of colchicine for two, four and six hours. Surface topographic images showed that colchicine decreased the stability of the cytoskeleton. After the same six-hour treatment in a solution with a normal dose of colchicine, the biomechanical properties of HL-7702 cells were almost unchanged. However, the stiffness and the adhesion force of the SMCC-7721 cells were clearly increased (more than twofold of the normal values), especially after four hours. The deformability of SMCC-7721 cancer cells was significantly decreased within the six-hour treatment in the solution with a normal dose of colchicine. Analysis of the biomechanical properties of post-treatment hepatoma cells provided a complementary explanation for the mechanism of action of colchicine on cells at the nanoscale. This method is expected to allow the monitoring of potential metastatic cancer cell changes, thus preventing the emergence and the transmission of disease, and improving the diagnosis of cancer.
    • Analysis of cybercrime in Nigeria

      Hamisu, Muhammad; Idris, Abubakar Muhammad; Mansour, Ali; Olalere, Morufu; University of Bedfordshire; Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021-05-25)
      Nigeria has both the largest economy and population in Africa, and this contribute to the growth and fast expansion of ICT and the use of Internet in Nigeria. Like other technologies, Internet has been used by both good and bad actors. The use of internet and computer to commit crime is costing global economy the loss of billions of dollars. In Nigeria, the majority of the population use the Internet for good but some few are using it to commit criminal activities such as Fraud. Cybercriminals in Nigeria, widely called Yahoo Boys in the country specialize in Internet fraud that target mostly International victims. The Nigeria government is stepping efforts to bring an end the activities of these criminals as their actions tarnishes the image of the country. While the efforts of the government had yielded some positive results, the threat of Cybercrime in Nigeria is still high, as criminals continue to take advantage of flaws in the law enforcement tactical approach in addressing the crime. This paper discusses an overview of Cybercrime in Nigeria, the common types of Cybercrime that is perpetuated from the country and the reason of doing so. It also discusses the government's success and areas of strength in its fight against Cybercrime and highlight the areas of weaknesses. Recommendations and suggestions are made on how law enforcement and the government at large can improve to tackle Cybercrime better in Nigeria.
    • Analysis of the carrier suppressed single sideband modulation for long distance optical communication systems

      Paloi, Fadil; Haxha, Shyqyri; University of Bedfordshire; Royal Holloway, University of London (Elsevier GmbH, 2018-02-12)
      In this research paper, we report on a simulation study of the Radio over Fibre (RoF) Carrier Suppressed Single Sideband (CS-SSB) modulation scheme. This scheme is based on a Dual Parallel Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-DDMZM), for a long-distance transmission. The proposed system consists of the combination of a carrier and a message signal at two parallel modulators, where the laser and link power is varied for the two different dispersion compensation techniques. We found that by suppressing the optical carrier and cancelling one sideband, we can limit the nonlinear effects that are caused by power fading and interference. We demonstrate that by varying the launched laser and link power up to optimised threshold levels, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) increases and the Q-Factor improves significantly. Our proposed RoF optic communication architecture can support an extended reach transmission of up to 200 km without dispersion compensation. Moreover, for the bitrate of 10 Gbit/s and span length of 25 km, we achieved a span ratio of 520, alternatively viewed as the system link signal transmission distance of 13,000 km. Therefore, this method is cost-effective and less complex.