• Modes of cyberstalking and cyberharassment: measuring the negative effects in the lives of victims in the UK

      Brown, Antony; Gibson, Marcia; Short, Emma; University of Bedfordshire (Interactive Media Institute (IMI), 2017-08-31)
      Cyberstalking may occur solely in the digital realm, or may form part of a wider campaign targeting individuals on and off-line. The impact cyberstalking has on victims may differ depending on the type. In this paper, we use Sheridan and Grant's (2007) classifications of, "Proximal with offline", "Online only" and "Cross-over" stalking types. These classifications are applied to responses gathered from 278 victims of cyberstalking and cyberharassment through the 2011-2014 ECHO survey. We analyse the responses to first classify the type of stalking experienced and then the reported number and types of effects in the life of the victims on a per-group basis. Using chi-square analysis, we identify that victims in the case of proximal and Cross-over stalking are significantly more likely to report negative changes to their work, relationships and financial lives and to report more negative changes in these areas than those experiencing online only. In addition, in the relationship category Cross-over cases provoke significantly more changes than proximal cases. This indicates that cases where the stalker moves from being an online presence to a proximal presence have an extreme impact and therefore should be treated with the utmost concern, both in terms of support and safeguarding strategies.