• Survey on security and privacy issues in cyber physical systems

      Nazarenko, Artem A.; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Nova University of Lisbon; University of Bedfordshire (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2019-04-16)
      The notion of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is proposed by the National Scientific Foundation to describe a type of systems which combine hardware and software components and being the next step in development of embedded systems. CPS includes a wide range of research topics ranging from signal processing to data analysis. This paper contains a brief review of the basic infrastructure for CPS including smart objects and network aspects in relation to TCP/IP stack. As CPS reflect the processes of the physical environment onto the cyber space, virtualisation as an important tool for abstraction plays crucial role in CPS. In this context paper presents the challenges associated with mobility and vritualisation; accordingly three main types of virtualisation, namely network, devices and applications virtualisation are presented in the paper. These aspects are tightly coupled with security and safety issues. Therefore, different threats, attack types with corresponding subtypes and possible consequences are discussed as well as analysis of various approaches to cope with existing threats is introduced. In addition threat modelling approaches were also in scope of this work. Furthermore, needs and requirements for safety-critical CPS are reviewed. Thus the main efforts of this paper are directed on introducing various aspects of the CPS with regard to security and safety issues.